Us.2.Caribbean

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Us.2.Caribbean

  1. 1. Caribbean Islands Blair, Carroll, Evon, and Kelsey
  2. 2. Geography <ul><li>British Caribbean Islands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bahamas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jamaica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mosquito Coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virgin Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barbados </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>St. Vincent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grenada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tobago </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Large Mountains, rivers, many different types of rocks, lots of hills, rainforests </li></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical Climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy rainfall nearly all year long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hurricanes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sugar, tobacco, and tropical agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily sold in Europe, Asia, and Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Settlers realized the most profitable crop was sugar can </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not many natural resources </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Areas of Sugar Cultivation 1505-1763 Britain, Spain, Dutch, France , Danish
  4. 4. Founding <ul><li>First, the British colonists were looking gold and land to grow tobacco </li></ul><ul><li>Competing with other Empires for island territory: Spain, Dutch, and France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>England struggle to colonize between 1529-1620 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First developed colonies – all large sugar producers (Seventeenth Century ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windward Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constantly competing with France for the islands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barbados </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obtained by England in 1625 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leeward Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>United islands under British rule during 1671 when the Leeward Caribee Island Government was established </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bahamas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Britain claimed the islands in 1670 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jamaica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In 1625 England seized Jamaica </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Political Structure <ul><li>THE BAHAMAS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1700 ruled by pirates, Edward Teach (Blackbeard) took over Fort Nassau, terrorizing the British Royal Navy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1718: Woodes Rogers conquers the area and it is recognized as a colony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1728: representative assembly established </li></ul></ul><ul><li>JAMAICA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May 1655: English take control from the Spanish under Oliver Cromwell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1661: Stuart Monarchy puts a civil governor into effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1662: the king allows the colonists to have the rights of English citizens (able to make their own laws) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>proclamation given to them by their second governor, Lord Windsor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windsor helps to start a new governing system that ends up lasting for two centuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>led by a crown-appointed governor who is advised by a nominated legislative body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The governor and an the elected House of Assembly was the legislature, unfortunately the House of Assembly wasn’t really representative of its people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>VIRGIN ISLAND </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1773: a civil government is established with constitutional courts, a House of Assembly consisting of twelve elected members, and a Legislative Council that had a mixture of appointed and elected members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>meet for the first time in 1774 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>BARBADOS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1639: House of Assembly established (representative legislature) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Economy <ul><li>Slavery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atlantic Slave Trade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sugar </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Largest sugar producer in the West Indies was Jamaica </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exported </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar and coffee to Europe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Molasses to British Colonies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves to British Colonies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imported </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cloth, glass, and weapons from Europe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves and gold from Africa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Triangular Trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First starts at Britain with manufactured goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then Africa, where guns and cloth from Britain is traded for slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave are brought to the colonies and sell them fro raw goods (sugar) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bring raw goods back to Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sugar Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use to be small farms that produced cash crops such as tobacco and cotton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caribbean tobacco could not compete with mid-Atlantic tobacco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They changed and became large sugar plantations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Religion <ul><li>LEEWARDS (Montserrat, Antigua, Barbuda, St. Christopher, St. Kitts, Nevis, Anguilla, Virgin Islands) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remained Roman Catholic, although English were Protestants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VIRGIN ISLANDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quaker colony came about in the early 1700s, who tried to make their own government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GRENADA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the citizens kept their Roman Catholic religion from earlier French influence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ST. VINCENT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>citizens learned the language and took in the Protestant religion from the English </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Native Indian religions were big factors on the islands because of the Indian natives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native African religions were big factors on the islands because of the African slaves </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Society <ul><li>Sugar Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed the agriculture, demography, society, and culture  Transformed politically and economically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Needed more slaves to work on the plantations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves became the majority of the population </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whites remained in charge, where a Governor was appointed by the King </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minority of the population </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Society based on Slave Labor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 11 million Africans were traded in the Americas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sugar and slavery lead for the African Population to increase in the Caribbean </li></ul><ul><li>Status Ranks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Big Farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merchants, officials, and other professions (doctors and clergy members) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small independent farmer (“poor whites”), servants, day laborers, and all of the service individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biracial Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free Blacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Free Non-Whites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faced Competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competed with jobbing slaves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competed with artisans and commercial service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whites would use their power to limit them </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Primary Source <ul><li>Treaty of Madrid (1670) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>England and Spain were fighting over the islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England possess places in the Caribbean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain lets English ships go wherever they want </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refrain form trading in each other’s territory </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Important Person <ul><li>General Robert Venables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secret Preparations for Cromwells Western Design against the Spanish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expedition sailed in December 1654 and got to Barbados in January 1655 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shared command with William Penn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The expedition was not supplied well </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Successfully direct the capture of Jamaica </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thought to be a failure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Later, Venables and Penn was imprisoned and their commands were removed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helped issues the Treaty of Madrid </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Works Cited “ History of the West Indies.”  History World .  Bamber Gascoigne. Diditon. 2 October 2008. < http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?groupid=235&HistoryID=aa23 >. “ Nation Master – Encyclopedia: Treaty of Madrid (1670).”  NationMaster . 2 October 2008.  < http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Treaty-of-Madrid-(1670) >. “ The Caribbean: 1600s, 1700s, 1800s.”  Made in Atlantis . 2006. Atlantis International.  2 October 2008.  < http://madeinatlantis.com/caribbean_travel/caribbean.htm >. “ Caribbean Islands - History.”  Tropical Rainforest Conservation- mongabay.com . Rhett A. Butler. USPTO.  2 October 2008.  < http://www.mongabay.com/reference/country_studies/caribbeanislands/HISTORY.html >. “ Barbados.”  Country Studies. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. 2 October 2008.  < http://www.country-studies.com/caribbean - islands/barbados.html >. “ British Virgin Islands, Anguilla, and Montserrat.”  Country Studies. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. 2 October 2008.  < http://www.country studies.com/caribbean-islands/british-virgin-islands,-anguilla-and-montserrat.html>. “ History of the Bahamas.”  BahamasGateway.com. 2000.  BahamasGateway.com.  2 October 2008. < http://www.bahamasgateway.com/bahamas_History.htm >. “ History of the Bahamas.” The Islands of the Bahamas.   2008.  Geographia.  2 October 2008. < http://www.geographyia.com/bahamas/bahistory.htm >. “ Jamaica – History.”  Country Studies. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress.  2 October 2008.  <http://www.country- studies.com/caribbean-islands/jamaica        history.html>. “ Political Traditions.”  Country Studies.   Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress.  2 October 2008.  <http://www.country- studies.com/caribbean-islands/political traditions.html>.   “ The European Settlements.” Country Studies. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress.  2 October 2008.  <http://country- studies.com/caribbean-islands/the european-settlements.html>. “ The Leeward Islands.”  Country Studies. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress.  2 October 2008.  < http://www.country- studies.com/caribbean-islands/the-leeward   islands.html>. “ The Windward Islands and Barbados.”  Country Studies. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress.  2 October 2008.  < http://www.country- studies.com/caribbean islands/the-windward-islands-and-barbados.html>. David Plane. “Biography of Robert Venables.” British Civil Wars and Commonwealth . 25 June 2008. Creative Commons License. 6 October 2008. < http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/biog/venables.htm > Lapsansly-Werner, Emma, Peter Levy, Randy Roberts, Alan Taylor. United States History . Boston, MA: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008. Wilkinson, Jerry.  “History of the Bahamas.”  Keys Historeum.   Jerry Wilkinson.  Keys History.  2  October 2008.  < http://www.keyshistory.org/bahamas.html >. The Nystrom Atlas of United States History . Chicago, Illinois: Nystrom Herff Jones Education Division, 2000.  

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