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Us.2.Caribbean Us.2.Caribbean Presentation Transcript

  • Caribbean Islands Blair, Carroll, Evon, and Kelsey
  • Geography
    • British Caribbean Islands
      • Bahamas
      • Jamaica
      • Belize
      • Mosquito Coast
      • Virgin Islands
      • Dominica
      • Barbados
      • St. Vincent
      • Grenada
      • Tobago
    • Large Mountains, rivers, many different types of rocks, lots of hills, rainforests
    • Climate
      • Tropical Climate
      • Heavy rainfall nearly all year long
      • Hurricanes
    • Sugar, tobacco, and tropical agriculture
      • Easily sold in Europe, Asia, and Africa
      • Settlers realized the most profitable crop was sugar can
      • Not many natural resources
  • Areas of Sugar Cultivation 1505-1763 Britain, Spain, Dutch, France , Danish
  • Founding
    • First, the British colonists were looking gold and land to grow tobacco
    • Competing with other Empires for island territory: Spain, Dutch, and France
      • England struggle to colonize between 1529-1620
    • First developed colonies – all large sugar producers (Seventeenth Century )
      • Windward Islands
        • Constantly competing with France for the islands
      • Barbados
        • Obtained by England in 1625
      • Leeward Islands
        • United islands under British rule during 1671 when the Leeward Caribee Island Government was established
      • Bahamas
        • Britain claimed the islands in 1670
      • Jamaica
        • In 1625 England seized Jamaica
  • Political Structure
      • 1700 ruled by pirates, Edward Teach (Blackbeard) took over Fort Nassau, terrorizing the British Royal Navy
      • 1718: Woodes Rogers conquers the area and it is recognized as a colony
      • 1728: representative assembly established
      • May 1655: English take control from the Spanish under Oliver Cromwell
      • 1661: Stuart Monarchy puts a civil governor into effect
      • 1662: the king allows the colonists to have the rights of English citizens (able to make their own laws)
        • proclamation given to them by their second governor, Lord Windsor
      • Windsor helps to start a new governing system that ends up lasting for two centuries
        • led by a crown-appointed governor who is advised by a nominated legislative body
        • The governor and an the elected House of Assembly was the legislature, unfortunately the House of Assembly wasn’t really representative of its people
      • 1773: a civil government is established with constitutional courts, a House of Assembly consisting of twelve elected members, and a Legislative Council that had a mixture of appointed and elected members
        • meet for the first time in 1774
      • 1639: House of Assembly established (representative legislature)
  • Economy
    • Slavery
      • Atlantic Slave Trade
    • Sugar
        • Largest sugar producer in the West Indies was Jamaica
    • Trade
      • Exported
        • Sugar and coffee to Europe
        • Molasses to British Colonies
        • Slaves to British Colonies
      • Imported
        • Cloth, glass, and weapons from Europe
        • Slaves and gold from Africa
    • Triangular Trade
      • First starts at Britain with manufactured goods
      • Then Africa, where guns and cloth from Britain is traded for slaves
      • Slave are brought to the colonies and sell them fro raw goods (sugar)
      • Bring raw goods back to Europe
    • Sugar Revolution
      • Use to be small farms that produced cash crops such as tobacco and cotton
      • Caribbean tobacco could not compete with mid-Atlantic tobacco
        • They changed and became large sugar plantations
  • Religion
    • LEEWARDS (Montserrat, Antigua, Barbuda, St. Christopher, St. Kitts, Nevis, Anguilla, Virgin Islands)
      • Remained Roman Catholic, although English were Protestants
      • Quaker colony came about in the early 1700s, who tried to make their own government
      • the citizens kept their Roman Catholic religion from earlier French influence
      • citizens learned the language and took in the Protestant religion from the English
    • Natives
      • Native Indian religions were big factors on the islands because of the Indian natives
      • Native African religions were big factors on the islands because of the African slaves
  • Society
    • Sugar Revolution
      • Changed the agriculture, demography, society, and culture  Transformed politically and economically
        • Needed more slaves to work on the plantations
          • Slaves became the majority of the population
        • Whites remained in charge, where a Governor was appointed by the King
          • Minority of the population
    • Society based on Slave Labor
      • More than 11 million Africans were traded in the Americas
    • Sugar and slavery lead for the African Population to increase in the Caribbean
    • Status Ranks
      • Big Farmers
      • Merchants, officials, and other professions (doctors and clergy members)
      • Small independent farmer (“poor whites”), servants, day laborers, and all of the service individuals
    • Biracial Society
      • White
      • Free Blacks
      • Slaves
    • Free Non-Whites
      • Faced Competition
        • Competed with jobbing slaves
        • Competed with artisans and commercial service
      • Whites would use their power to limit them
  • Primary Source
    • Treaty of Madrid (1670)
      • England and Spain were fighting over the islands
      • England possess places in the Caribbean
      • Spain lets English ships go wherever they want
      • Refrain form trading in each other’s territory
  • Important Person
    • General Robert Venables
      • Secret Preparations for Cromwells Western Design against the Spanish
        • Expedition sailed in December 1654 and got to Barbados in January 1655
        • Shared command with William Penn
        • The expedition was not supplied well
        • Successfully direct the capture of Jamaica
          • Thought to be a failure
          • Later, Venables and Penn was imprisoned and their commands were removed
        • Helped issues the Treaty of Madrid
  • Works Cited “ History of the West Indies.”  History World .  Bamber Gascoigne. Diditon. 2 October 2008. < >. “ Nation Master – Encyclopedia: Treaty of Madrid (1670).”  NationMaster . 2 October 2008.  < >. “ The Caribbean: 1600s, 1700s, 1800s.”  Made in Atlantis . 2006. Atlantis International.  2 October 2008.  < >. “ Caribbean Islands - History.”  Tropical Rainforest Conservation- . Rhett A. Butler. USPTO.  2 October 2008.  < >. “ Barbados.”  Country Studies. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. 2 October 2008.  < - islands/barbados.html >. “ British Virgin Islands, Anguilla, and Montserrat.”  Country Studies. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. 2 October 2008.  <,-anguilla-and-montserrat.html>. “ History of the Bahamas.” 2000.  2 October 2008. < >. “ History of the Bahamas.” The Islands of the Bahamas.   2008.  Geographia.  2 October 2008. < >. “ Jamaica – History.”  Country Studies. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress.  2 October 2008.  <        history.html>. “ Political Traditions.”  Country Studies.   Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress.  2 October 2008.  < traditions.html>.   “ The European Settlements.” Country Studies. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress.  2 October 2008.  <http://country- european-settlements.html>. “ The Leeward Islands.”  Country Studies. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress.  2 October 2008.  <   islands.html>. “ The Windward Islands and Barbados.”  Country Studies. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress.  2 October 2008.  < islands/the-windward-islands-and-barbados.html>. David Plane. “Biography of Robert Venables.” British Civil Wars and Commonwealth . 25 June 2008. Creative Commons License. 6 October 2008. < > Lapsansly-Werner, Emma, Peter Levy, Randy Roberts, Alan Taylor. United States History . Boston, MA: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008. Wilkinson, Jerry.  “History of the Bahamas.”  Keys Historeum.   Jerry Wilkinson.  Keys History.  2  October 2008.  < >. The Nystrom Atlas of United States History . Chicago, Illinois: Nystrom Herff Jones Education Division, 2000.