Ontology and Ontology Libraries: a critical study

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  • 1. Ontology and Ontology Libraries: a Critical Study
  • 2. Outline • • • • • • Introduction and Overview Languages for expressing Ontologies Tools for building Ontologies Ontology Libraries Evaluation criteria Transitions to the future
  • 3. What is Ontology? • The term "ontology" can be defined as an explicit specification of conceptualization. 1. Ontology is a term in philosophy and its meaning is ``theory of existence''. 2. Ontology is a body of knowledge describing some domain.
  • 4. Ontology-Definition Ontologies to capture human knowledge based on common sense. - Lenat y Guha (1990) Source: http://www.emiliosanfilippo.it/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Ontology-3.jpg
  • 5. How are Ontologies currently being used to Librarians? • Standardize vocabulary. • Provide better routes. • Provide better search. Source: http://gonereading.com/newshop/wpcontent/uploads/2012/01/Librarian-Gift-446x446.png
  • 6. Languages for Expressing Ontologies
  • 7. Tools for Building ontology • The are many Ontology tools are available in the present times such as Protégé, OntoEdit, Ontolingua, OilEd, pOWL etc. Source: http://www.colourbox.com/preview/2456889-245207-three-3d-people-with-the-tools-in-the-hands-of.jpg
  • 8. Protégé • Free, open source • Web client and format • Strong community Source: http://www.racer-systems.com/img//logo/protege.gif
  • 9. Ontology built using Protégé Source: http://protege-ontology-editor-knowledge-acquisition-system.136.n4.nabble.com/attachment/4658809/2/jbddhbbc.png
  • 10. What is Ontology Libraries (OL)?  Ontology libraries are the systems that collect ontologies from different sources and facilitate the tasks of finding, exploring, and using these ontologies. Source: http://semanticweb.com/files/2013/09/9685321345_afc5296f95.jpg
  • 11. Need for ontology libraries • Enables and facilitates interoperability • Well-established and well-tested ontologies • Integrates the data much more easily (Contd.)
  • 12. Need for ontology libraries • Find and determine the domain • Ontology in specific format • Publish their ontology
  • 13. Characteristics of ontology libraries
  • 14. Purpose and Coverage  What is it for? -Domain -Intended scope
  • 15. Library content  What is in it? -Ontology and how they are collected -Gatekeeping -Mappings and other inter-ontology relations -Metadata
  • 16. Main function for users  What does it let you do? -Finding, Search and evaluating ontologies -Browsing -Programmatic access
  • 17. Other features  What else is there? -Versioning -Reasoning -User management -Notifications
  • 18. What OL offers!! Ontology library systems offer functions for managing, adapting and standardizing groups of ontologies, for indexing content with ontologies, and for utilizing ontologies in applications. Source: http://assets.fiercemarkets.com/public/newsletter/fiercehealthit/telehealth4.jpg
  • 19. Structure of Ontology Library Systems Source: http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0169023X02000411-gr4.jpg
  • 20. Lists of Ontology libraries Domain • BioPortal • OBO Foundry • OLS • oeGov General • Cupboard • ODP • OntoSelect • OntoSearch2 • Schema-Cache • TONES • SHOE Mixed • ONKI • COLOR • Ontohub • WebOnto • DAML • IEEE Standard Upper Ontology (SUO) • MMI • SHOE
  • 21. Ontology Libraries-Domain • Biomedical - BioPortal - OBO (Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies ) Foundry - OLS (Ontology Lookup Service). • e-Government - oeGov (Ontologies for e-Government)
  • 22. Ontology Libraries-General - Cupboard - ODP(Ontology Design Pattern) - OntoSelect - OntoSearch2 - TONES(Thinking ONtologiES) - Schema-Cache
  • 23. Ontology Libraries-Mixed • ONKI Ontology Server • COLOR (Common Logic Ontology Repository) • Ontohub • WebOnto • DAML Ontology library system • IEEE-SUO (Standard Upper Ontology) • MMI-ORR (Marine Metadata InteroperabilityOntology Registry and Repository ) • SHOE (Simple HTML Ontology Extensions)
  • 24. BioPortal- Biomedical • • • • • • Browse, search and visualize ontologies. Multiple formats support Add notes Add review NCBO annotator NCBO Resource Index Source: http://ontolog.cim3.net/file/work/OOR/OOR-Logo/OOR-Logo-candidates/BioPortal-1.jpg
  • 25. Where can I access the BioPortal?
  • 26. oeGov- e-Government • • • • • Distributed creation and maintenance of information RDF/OWL formats Semantics and controlled vocabularies Schemas and several datasets Blog system and review Source: http://oegov.org/images/oegov_logo.jpg
  • 27. Where can I access the oeGOV Ontologies?
  • 28. TONES-General • • • • Browsing ontology Empirical studies RDF/XML format Collection of OWL ontologies Source: http://webont.org/owled/2007/TonesLogo.png
  • 29. Where can I access the TONES?
  • 30. SHOE-Mixed • Management - Storage - Versioning • Adaptation - Searching • Standardization - Language - Upper-level ontology Source: http://www.cs.umd.edu/projects/plus/SHOE/SHOEtitle.gif
  • 31. Where can I access the SHOE?
  • 32. Evaluation Criteria 1. Domain 2. Number of ontologies 3. Dynamics 4. Search metadata 5. Search within ontology 6. Browsing ontologies 7. Architecture 8. Components 9. Collection 10. Gatekeeping 11. Search across ontologies 12. Metrics 13. Comments and reviews 14.Ranking 15. Navigation criteria 16. SPARQL endpoint 17. Content available 18. Read or write 19. Intended use 20. Storage 21. Web service access 22. Accepted formats
  • 33. BioPortal Cupboard OBO Foundry oeGov OLS ODP SchemaCache Biomedical General Biomedical e-Govt. Biomedical General General No. of ontologies 270 150 86 31 79 125 157 Dynamics Growing Growing Stable Growing Stable Growing Stable Search metadata Yes Yes Yes Blog-based No Wiki-based No Search within ontology Yes, with autocomple te Advanced search No No Yes, terms and terms IDs No Keywordbased Browsing ontologies Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Compone nts Protégé, LexGrid Watson Sourceforge Wordpress OBO API MediaWiki Talis platform Architectu re Single server REST-based communicat ion CVS-based Single server Single server Single server Cloudbased OL Features Domain
  • 34. Transitions to the future  Challenges and opportunities for an ontology developer -Role of an ontology libraries in massive adoption and reuse. -Community service as provided by ontology libraies through appropriate endorsements. (contd.)
  • 35. Transitions to the future  Challenges and opportunities for an ontology user - Important for ontologies to be validated by a given community - An Ontologies be considered to one particular domain, one particular format
  • 36. References 1. Mathieu, d’Aquin, F. Noy, Natalya (2012). Where to publish and find ontologies? A survey of ontology libraries. Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web, 11, 96–111 2. http://obitko.com/tutorials/ontologies-semantic-web/ontologies.html 3. Curras, E (2010), Ontologies, Taxonomies and Thesauri in system science and systematics. Great Abinton, CB: Woodhead Publishing. 4. King, Brandy . E , Reinold, Kathy (2008). Finding the concept, not just the word: a librarian’s guide to ontologies and semantics. Witney, OX: Chandos Publishing. 5. Bechhofer, S. Goble, C and Horrocks, I (2002). Requirements of Ontology Languages. IST Project IST-2000-29243 OntoWeb. 6. http://www.dur.ac.uk/p.h.shaw/teaching/ais/lectures/patricia/ais13-rdfs.pdf
  • 37. References (Contd.) 7. Heflin, J , an introduction to the owl web ontology language 8. http://protege.stanford.edu/ 9. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ontology_Libraries_(computer_science) 10.http://protege.stanford.edu/publications/ontology_development/ontolog y101-noy-mcguinness.html 11. Y. Ding, D. Fensel, Ontology library systems. The key to successful ontology reuse, in: First Semantic Web Working Symposium, Stanford University, 2001, pp. 93–112. 12. http://rpc295.cs.man.ac.uk:8080/repository/ 13. http://semanticweb.com/oegov-open-government-through-semanticweb-technologies_b13990 14. http://oegov.org/
  • 38. Thank You