Anat gbc pando test 1 study notes

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Anat gbc pando test 1 study notes

  1. 1. GBC PANDO TECH YR 1 ANATOMY TEST 1 NOTES
  2. 2. AXIAL SKELETON • skull • rib cage • vertebral column • pelvis
  3. 3. APPENDICULAR SKELETON Upper Extremity: • clavicle • scapula • humerous • ulna and radius • carpals • phalanges Lower Extremity: • femur • tibia and fibula • tarsels • phalanges
  4. 4. CARDINAL PLANES Median Sagittal Plane: • The vertical plane that divides the body into equal LEFT and RIGHT halves. Sagittal Plane: • Any vertical plane that divides the body into LEFT and RIGHT pieces.
  5. 5. CARDINAL PLANES • Frontal (Coronal) Plane: • The frontal plane that divides the body into FRONT and BACK pieces. • Horizontal Plane: • The horizontal plane that divides the axial skeleton into TOP and BOTTOM pieces.
  6. 6. DIRECTIONAL and COMPARTIVE TERMS (NB: relative to anatomical pos.) Anterior (Ventral): • Nearer to or at the front of the body Medial: • Toward the median, in the frontal plane Posterior (Dorsal): • Nearer to or at back of the body Lateral: • Away from the median, in the frontal plane
  7. 7. DIRECTIONAL and COMPARTIVE TERMS (NB: relative to anatomical pos.) Distal (refers to appendages): • Far or further from the trunk’s centre of mass • Further from the attachment of a limp or structure Inferior (caudel): • Below • Away from the head or toward the lower part of an axial structure Proximal (refers to appendages): • Near or closer to the trunk’s centre of mass • Nearer to the attachment of a limb or structure Superior (cephalic, cranial): • Above • Toward the head or upper part of an axial structure
  8. 8. DIRECTIONAL and COMPARTIVE TERMS (NB: relative to anatomical pos.) Deep: • Away from or beneath the surface of the body Superficial: • Toward or on the surface of the body i.e.: • Volar/Palmar: flexor surface of forearm, wrist, hand • Plantar: sole of foot • Dorsal: back or posterior aspect • Dorsum: back of hand/foot
  9. 9. DIRECTIONAL and COMPARTIVE TERMS (NB: relative to anatomical pos.) Contralateral: • Other side of the body • Usually the sound side Ipsilateral: • Same side of the body • Usually the effected side
  10. 10. MOVEMENT CLASSIFICATION • Describes the movement of one body segment relative to another. • Each will have an axis and a plane of motion.
  11. 11. PLANES AND AXES OF MOTION • Motion of any body part can be described as traveling through or in a plane of motion and about an axis. • A plane of motion is an imaginary, flat surface through which a body part moves. • An axis of motion is an imaginary straight line which is perpendicular to the plane about which the body part moves.
  12. 12. CORONAL [frontal] (M-L) AXIS AND SAGITTAL PLANE OF MOTION • The axis is located in the frontal and horizontal plane. It is directed horizontally and mediolaterally. • The coronal axis has a sagittal plane of motion (remember sagittal plane divides body into left and right). • i.e.: Flexion / Extension of the shoulder. • Pg 18 of textbook
  13. 13. SAGITTAL (A-P) AXIS & FRONTAL PLANE OF MOTION • The axis is located in the sagittal and horizontal plane. It is directed horizontally and anteroposterioly. • The sagittal axis has a frontal plane of motion. • i.e.: aB/aDduction of the shoulder • Pg 19 of textbook
  14. 14. LONGITUDINALAXIS & HORIZONTAL PLANE OF MOTION • The axis is located in the frontal and sagittal plane. It is directed vertically and superioinferiorly. • The longitudinal axis has a transverse plane of motion. • i.e.: Internal / External rotation of the shoulder (not elbow). • Pg 20 textbook
  15. 15. SAGITTAL (A-P) AXIS & FRONTAL PLANE OF MOTION • The axis is located in the sagittal and horizontal plane. It is directed horizontally and anteroposterioly. • The sagittal axis has a frontal plane of motion. • i.e.: Hip aB/aDduction • Pg 21 textbook
  16. 16. LONGITUDINALAXIS & HORIZONTAL PLANE OF MOTION • The axis is located in the frontal and sagittal plane. It is directed vertically and superioinferiorly. • The longitudinal axis has a transverse plane of motion. • i.e.: Hip Int / External rotation • Pg 22 textbook
  17. 17. DEGREES OF FREEDOM vs. UNI/BI/TRI-PLANAR MOTION • One degree of freedom = uniplanar motion, hinge joint (phalanges, ankle), which may or many not be in one of the 3 cardinal planes. • If the motion is in ne of the cardinal planes, then the axis will be parallel to the remaining 2 cardinal planes. • i.e. shoulder flex / extension: sagittal plane of motion, with a coronal (M/L) axis which is parallel to the transverse & frontal plane • i.e. interphalangeal, 2nd, 3rd, 4th rays
  18. 18. DEGREES OF FREEDOM vs. UNI/BI/TRI-PLANAR MOTION • If the motion is present in more than one cardinal plane, then bi- or tri-planar motion will result (2 or 3 planes) • i.e. subtalar pronation / supination: 1 degree of freedom (single axis or hinge joint) with motion in all 3 cardinal planes • i.e. ankle, midtarsal, 1st and 5th rays
  19. 19. DEGREES OF FREEDOM vs. UNI/BI/TRI-PLANAR MOTION • Two degrees of freedom = 2 independent axes of motion, each providing one plane of motion (bi-planar) • i.e. metatarsalphalangeal condyloid joints • Flex / extension • aBd / aDduction • Pg 24 textbook
  20. 20. DEGREES OF FREEDOM vs. UNI/BI/TRI-PLANAR MOTION • Three degrees of freedom = 3 independent axes of motion, each providing one plane of motion (Triplanar) • i.e. hip and shoulder ball / socket joints • Flex / extension • aBd / aDduction • Int / external rotation The more perpendicular an axis becomes to a cardinal plane, the more of that plane of motion it will have. i.e. inversion / eversion and then, secondly, in transverse planar motion (aB / Add) i.e. plantar / dorsiflexion SEE PG 24 TEXTBOOK
  21. 21. MOVEMENT CLASSIFICATION • Flexion: • Is to BEND and make a DECREASED angle between the bones or parts of the body adjacent to a joint • Usually in the sagittal plane and in the anterior direction • Extension: • Is to STRAIGHTEN a bent part or INCREASE angle between the bones or parts of the body adjacent to a joint • Usually in the sagittal plane and in the posterior direction
  22. 22. MOVEMENT CLASSIFICATION • BUT THERE ARE EXCEPTIONS: • Shoulder flexion & extension = sagittal plane • Lateral flexion: • Flexion of the trunk away from the median plane in the coronal plane (left or right) • Results in a decreased angle between the trunk and the corresponding thigh • Plantar flexion: • Bending of the foot about the ankle, such that it moves downward in the sagittal plane • Pg 26 textbook
  23. 23. MOVEMENT CLASSIFICATION • Dorsiflexion: • Flexion of the foot upward, decreasing the angle between the anterior aspect of the leg and the dorsal aspect of the foot • Sagittal plane of motion • Digital flexion (CMC, MCP, IP): • Bending of the phalanges inward, decreasing the angle between the palmar aspect of the fingers and palm of hand • Digital extension (CMC, MCP, IP): • The opposite movement
  24. 24. MOVEMENT CLASSIFICATION • Thumb flexion (CMC, MCP, IP): • Bending of thumb inward, decreasing the angle between the palmar aspect of the thumb and the midline of the hand • Thumb extension (CMC, MCP, IP): • The opposite movement • Hyperextension (recurvatum): • Extension beyond what is physiologically normal (see pg 28 textbook)
  25. 25. MOVEMENT CLASSIFICATION • aBduction: • Movement of a body part away from the median to the coronal plane • There are exceptions • aDduction: • Movement of a body part toward the median in the coronal plane • There are exceptions
  26. 26. MOVEMENT CLASSIFICATION • FINGER aBduction • Coronal planar movement away from a stationary axis through the long axis of the middle finger • FINGER aDduction: • Coronal planar movement toward a stationary axis through the long axis of the middle finger • THUMB aBduction: • Sagittal planar movement anteriorly away from the palm • THUMB aDduction: • Sagittal planar movement posteriorly toward the palm PAGE 30
  27. 27. MOVEMENT CLASSIFICATION • Toe aDduction: • Transverse planar movement toward a stationary axis through the long axis of the third toe • Toe aBduction: • Transverse planar movement away from a stationary axis through the long axis of the third toe • Wrist aDduction (ulnar deviation): • Movement of the hand in the coronal plane such that it moves closer to the ulnar side of forearm • Wrist aBduction (radial deviation): • Movement of the hand in the coronal plane such that it moves closer to the radial side of forearm
  28. 28. MOVEMENT CLASSIFICATION • Forefoot aBduction: • Movement of the foot about a vertical axis in the horizontal plane such that the toes move away from the median • Forefoot aDduction: • Movement of the foot about a vertical axis in the horizontal plane such that the toes move toward the median • Pg 32 text
  29. 29. MOVEMENT CLASSIFICATION • Foot INVERSION: • Movement of the foot about its long axis in the frontal plane so the the sole faces inward medially • i.e. A-P / sagittal plane pg 33 textbook • Foot EVERSION: • Movement of the foot about its long axis in the frontal plane so that the sole faces outward laterally • i.e. moves in frontal plane – pg 33 textbook
  30. 30. MOVEMENT CLASSIFICATION • Foot Open Chain Pronation (lose soup): • Non-weight bearing • Triplanar movement of the foot about the subtalar joint • Calcaneus articulates relative to the talus • Calcaneal: • Eversion • Dorsiflexion • Forefoot aBduction
  31. 31. MOVEMENT CLASSIFICATION • Open Chain Supination (hold soup): • Non-weight bearing • Triplanar movement of the foot about the subtalar joint • Calcaneus articulates relative to the talus • Calcaneal • Inversion • Plantarflexion • Forefoot aDduction • (talus + calcaneous = subtalar joint) • Pg 34 textbook
  32. 32. MOVEMENT CLASSIFICATION • Closed chain pronation (more critical to alignment): • Weight bearing • Ankle-foot complex: • Calcaneal eversion • Forefoot aBduction • Talar Adb & Pflex • Knee: • Flexion & valgus (lateral or distal end) • knocked knee – vs. bow-legged: varus • Also can be ankle or calcanus • Hip: • Internal rotation & flexion Causes: • Knee & hip flex • Angle b/t tibia & talus doesn’t chain
  33. 33. MOVEMENT CLASSIFICATION • Closed Chain Supination: • Weight bearing • Ankle-Foot Complex: • Calcaneal inversion • Forefoot aDduction • Talar aBd & Dflex • Knee: • Extension & varus (bow-legged) • Hip: • External rotation & extension
  34. 34. MOVEMENT CLASSIFICATION • Wrist Circumduction (is 2 degrees): • Movement of a segment so that its free end traces a circle in space, forming a cone with the apex at the base of the segment • Simultaneous flex / ext & aBd / aDd • Other joints capable of circumduction: • Shoulder • Hip • MCP • Pg 37 textbook • Opposition: • Circumduction and flexion of thumb pad as it is brought to touch another finger pad
  35. 35. MOVEMENT CLASSIFICATION • Scapular aBduction: • Upward rotation of glenoid fossa / lateral angle • Scapular aDduction: • Downward rotation of glenoid fossa / lateral angle • Associated with shoulder aB / aD • This motion takes place in frontal plane • Pg 37 textbook
  36. 36. MOVEMENT CLASSIFICATION • Scapular Protraction: • Forward rotation of glenoid fossa / lateral angle sliding over the rib cage • Scapular retraction: • Opposite motion, where the medial scap borders move toward the median • This motion takes place in the horizontal plane • Pg 37 textbook
  37. 37. MOVEMENT CLASSIFICATION • Scapular elevation: • Movement of shoulder girdle superiorly • Scapular depression: • Movement of shoulder girdle inferiorly • This motion takes place in frontal plane • Pg 38 textbook
  38. 38. MOVEMENT CLASSIFICATION • Internal (medial) rotation: • Rotation of a segment about its long axis such that the anterior side of the segment moves toward the median • Hip is moving • External (lateral) rotation: • Rotation of a segment about its long axis such that the anterior side of the segment moves away from the median • Hip is moving • Pg 38 textbook • This motion takes place through the hip joint
  39. 39. LOWER EXTREMITY DEFORMITIES • Refer to textbook pages 39-44.

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