The unique individual motivation global awareness

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  • 1. Facilitator: Dean EganCommunicating with NLP
  • 2. To NLP SuccessA Jargon-free and xplosive approach to one of the world’s most lucrative businesses…
  • 3. SUBJECT TOPIC’S• THE UNIQUE INDIVDUAL• DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS• MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIES• THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAM• DEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERS
  • 4. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALThe Learning ProcessIn today’s volatile global business world,individuals and organizations must becontinues learners. For the individual,continues learning should include looking foropportunities to learn from class instruction,reading, and open to or expose oneself to, alltypes of new experiences.
  • 5. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALLearning is a change in behavior orperformance that occurs as a result ofexperience. When we learn, two thingsinitially happen. First, we knowledge(perceive) the new information and then wetry to make sense (process) of theinformation.
  • 6. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALPerceiving Information The ways that people perceive information typically range from a preference for concrete experience (CE) to preferences for abstract conceptualization (AC).Processing Information The ways that people process information typically ranges from a preference for active experimentation (AE) to preference for reflective observation (RO).
  • 7. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALA successful learner will: involve his or herselffully, openly, and without bias in newexperiences (CE). Observe and reflect fromdifferent points of view (RO). Interrogate theirobservations into logical theories (AC). Thenuse these theories to make decisions, solveproblems, and take action (AE).
  • 8. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALLearning Styles Individuals develop their own learning styles that very depending on how much they emphasize each stage of the learning cycle. These differences are contributed to the fact, that the learning process is directed by individual needs and goals.
  • 9. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALThe Diverger Learning Style Ideas come easy Situations are view from multiple perspectives Aware of meaning and valueThe Assimilator Learning Style Sharpened reasoning skills Forms integrated explanations Abstract thinking
  • 10. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALThe Converger Learning Style Decisive, practical applications of ideas Hypothetical deductive reasoning Prefers technical tasksThe Accommodator Learning Style Natural decision maker At ease with planning and implementation Enjoys new experiences People person
  • 11. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALPersonality DimensionsPersonality is defined as the combination ofstable physical and mental characteristicsthat give the individual his or her identity.In common usage, people think of personalityin terms of traits, these traits are usuallyconsistent to a person’s characteristics.
  • 12. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALResearchers have identified five generaldimensions that describe a person’spersonality. These dimensions are called the“Big Five” personality factors.Each factor may contain a wide range ofspecific traits. The Big Five personality factorsare defined as the encounters an individualexperiences.
  • 13. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALThe Extraversion Personality  Outgoing  Talkative  Sociable  AssertiveThe Agreeableness Personality  Trusting  Good-natured  Softhearted  Cooperative
  • 14. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALThe Conscientiousness The Openness to Experience  Personality Personality  Dependable  Intellectual  Responsive  Imaginative  Achievement oriented  Curious  Persistent  Broad-mindedThe Emotional Stability  Personality  Relaxed  Secure  Unworried
  • 15. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALUnderstanding personality traits can assistmanagers when predicting how a personmight react, either positively or negatively, incertain situations.Managers who appreciate the way theiremployees’ personalities differ have insightinto what kinds of leadership behaviors thatwill be most influential.
  • 16. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALDo you know where you fall on the Big Fivescale for each of the factors?Let us take a moment to find out a generalprospective of your common behaviors andtraits.
  • 17. ExtroversionI am usually the life of the party. 1 2 3 4 5I feel comfortable around people. 1 2 3 4 5I am talkative. 1 2 3 4 5AgreeablenessI am kind and sympathetic. 1 2 3 4 5I have a good word for everyone. 1 2 3 4 5I never insult people. 1 2 3 4 5ConscientiousnessI am systematic and efficient. 1 2 3 4 5I pay attention to detail. 1 2 3 4 5I am always prepared for work. 1 2 3 4 5Emotional StabilityI often feel critical of myself. 1 2 3 4 5I often envy others. 1 2 3 4 5I am temperamental. 1 2 3 4 5Openness to New ExperiencesI am imaginative. 1 2 3 4 5I prefer to vote for liberal political candidates. 1 2 3 4 5I really like art. 1 2 3 4 5
  • 18. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALWhich are your most prominent traits?Are the results what you thought they mightbe? Did you find out something new aboutyourself?Using the same set of questions, how do youthink your employees would rate you?
  • 19. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALThe Nature of AttitudesAn Attitude is defined as “a learned predisposition torespond in a consistently favorable or unfavorablemanner with respect to a given object.Keep in mind that there is a distinct difference betweenattitudes and values. These differences are illustratedby three components of attitudes, which are theaffective component, cognitive component, and thebehavioral component.
  • 20. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALThe affective component contains the feelings oremotions one has about a given object or situation.The cognitive component is described as the attitudethat reflects the beliefs or ideas one has about anobject or situation.The behavioral component is how one intends orexpects to act or respond to a given object or situation.
  • 21. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALResistance to ChangeResistance to change is anemotional/behavioral response to real orimagined threats to an established workroutine.Managers need to find ways to influencepositive behaviors during the resistance phase.This can involve programs or education for theindividual or for the group.
  • 22. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALWhy do people resist change?There are many underlining reasons whypeople resist changes but research hasidentified the top two obstacles encounteredduring organizational changes. 1) Communications breakdown 2) Employee resistance
  • 23. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALLet us explore some of the most commonemployee resistances.  An individual’s predisposition towards change  Surprise and fear of the unknown  Mistrust  Fear of failure  Loss of status and/or job security
  • 24. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALLet us explore some of the most commonemployee resistances.  Peer pressure  Disruption of current cultural and/or traditions  Disruption of current group relationships  Personality conflicts  Lack of tact and/or poor timing  Non-reinforcement of current reward system  The individual does not agree with the change
  • 25. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALOvercoming Resistance to Change  Education  Communication  Participation  Involvement  Support  Commitment to change  Develop an environment of trust
  • 26. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALKotter’s Eight Steps for LeadingOrganizational ChangeJohn Kotter, an expert in leadership andchange management, believes thatorganizational change typically fails becausesenior management makes a host ofimplementation errors. Kotter proposed aneight-step process for leading change basedon these errors.
  • 27. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALThese steps are not designed to diagnose what needsto be changed but it is meant to guide managers onhow to effectively lead the change process.  Establish a sense of urgency  Create the guiding coalition  Develop a vision and strategy  Communicate the change vision  Empower broad-based action  Generate short-term wins  Consolidate gains and produce more change  Anchor new approaches in the culture
  • 28. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALIt is important for managers to learn how toeffectively manage resistance to change.Failed efforts are not just measured in dollars;there are other costs and consequences, thatinclude loss of employee loyalty, loweredprobability of achieving corporate goals,waste of money, wasted resources, anddifficulty in fixing the failed change effort.
  • 29. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALUnderstanding the Power and InfluenceManagers need to be able to guide diverse individuals,who are often powerfully motivated to put their ownneeds and wants before participating in commonobjective.So the question is how do you get others to carry outyour wishes? Do you simple tell them what to do or doyou try to influence them so that they will voluntarilycarry out your wishes? No matter which approach youchoice you will be engaging in what is called socialinfluence.
  • 30. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALSocial Influence is defined as “the ability tocommand the human, informational, andmaterial resources in an effort to achieveorganizational goals and objectives”.In 1980, after a 13-year period of research,David Kipnis and his colleagues identified nineinfluence tactics that contribute to how peopleinfluence each other in an organization.
  • 31. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALNine Generic Influence Tactics 1. Rational persuasion 2. Inspirational appeals 3. Consultation 4. Ingratiation 5. Personal appeals 6. Exchange 7. Coalition tactics 8. Pressure 9. Legitimating tactics
  • 32. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALThese approaches can be considered genericinfluence tactics because they characterizesocial influence in all directions.In addition, researches have concluded thatthere a three influence outcomes which are,commitment, compliance, and resistance.
  • 33. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALThe Power of InfluencePower: is the potential ability to influence the behaviorof others.Influence: is the effect a person’s actions have on theattitudes, values, beliefs, or behaviors of others.One-way effective leaders are able to get things done;is by their ability to draw upon and use their sources ofpower and interpersonal influences.
  • 34. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALPower results from an interaction of leader andfollowers. Some of this power comes from anindividual’s position in the organization.Power can also come from the leaders personalsources such as personal interests, goals, and values.The traditional manager’s power comes from theirposition within the organization. The manager’sposition power gives him or her, the power to rewardor punish subordinates to influence their behaviors.
  • 35. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALFive Sources of PowerThere are five sources of power within anorganization, which are legitimate power,reward power, coercive power, expert power,and referent power.
  • 36. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALLegitimate Power: This power comes from the positionand authority level of the manager within anorganization.Reward Power: This power comes from the manager’sauthority to give formal rewards to others, such as payincreases or promotions.Coercive Power: This power comes from themanager’s authority to punish or recommendpunishment.
  • 37. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALExpert Power: This power comes from a leader’sspecial knowledge or skill regarding the tasksperformed by followers.Referent Power: This power comes from a leader’spersonal characteristics that command followers’identification, respect, and admiration so they want toemulate the leader.
  • 38. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALInterpersonal Influence TacticsLeaders can use their power to implementdecisions and facilitate change.Manager’s can build their personal power byobtaining knowledge and skills that help themdevelop positive relationships.
  • 39. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALSeven interpersonal tactics that can be used bymanagers when influencing employee behaviorsduring change.  Use rational persuasion  Make people like you  Rely on the rule of reciprocity  Develop allies  Be assertive - ask for what you want  Make use of higher authority  Reward the behavior you want
  • 40. THE UNIQUE INDIVIDUALThe use of these basic interpersonal tacticscan benefit managers during the process ofchanging ones behavior and/or attitude.Most of these tactics involve the use ofpersonal power instead of relying soling onones position power.
  • 41. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Communication is defined as the exchange and understanding of information between a sender and a receiver. The sender is any person who wants to transmit information to others. The receiver is anyone to whom the information is sent.
  • 42. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS The Communication Process  Sender creates a message  Sender identifies the receiver(s)  Message is encoded  Medium or channel is selected  Message is sent though the chosen medium  Message is received  Message is decoded  Receiver interprets or creates meaning from the message
  • 43. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Communication starts when a sender encodes an idea or thought. This forms the foundation of the message. Next, the sender decides who the receiver is and selects the medium or channel, in which they will send the message. The receiver then decodes the message that was sent to them.
  • 44. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Barriers of Effective Communication For communication to be effective, the sender must properly convey their intended message and the receiver(s) must perceive and interpret the message accurately. Anything that gets in the way of this process is considered a barrier.
  • 45. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS There are three common barriers, which can affect the communication process. 1) The message is never sent or is not received. 2) The communication channel is blocked. 3) The receiver does not understand the message.
  • 46. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Personal Barriers  Lack of variable skills to communicate effectively  Variations in how information is processed and interested  Variations in interpersonal trust  Stereotypes and prejudices  Big egos  Poor listening skills  Natural tendency to evaluate other’s messages  Inability to listen with understanding  Nonverbal communication
  • 47. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Physical Barriers  Environmental sounds  Noise from other people  Traffic noise  Time  Space  Time-zone differences  Telephone static or reception
  • 48. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Interpersonal Communication The quality of interpersonal communication within an organization is very important. Managers that have developed their interpersonal skills are promoted more frequently than mangers with less or poor developed abilities.
  • 49. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Communication Competence is defined as a performance-based index of individual’s abilities to effectively use communication behaviors in a given context. For an example: Business etiquette is on component of communication competence.
  • 50. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS There are three components to communication competence. 1) Communication abilities and traits 2) Situational factors 3) Individuals involved during the interaction
  • 51. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Managers can improve their communication competence through the development of the five communication styles/abilities/traits. Which are Assertiveness, Aggressiveness, Non-Assertiveness, Nonverbal Communication, and Active Listening.
  • 52. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS An Assertive Style is expressive and self enhancing, without taking away a person’s basic human rights, such as the right to self expression or the right to be treated with dignity and respect. An Aggressive Style is expressive and self enhancing but also, attempts to take unfair advantage of others.
  • 53. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS A Non-Assertive Style is characterized by timid and self-denying behavior. This management style causes others to take unfair advantage of them. Active Listening is the process of actively decoding and interpreting verbal messages.
  • 54. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Sources of Nonverbal Communication  Body movement and gestures  Touch  Facial expressions  Eye contact
  • 55. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Listening Styles Communication experts believe that people listen with a preferred listening style. In addition, people usually choose one dominant listing style; we all tend to use a combination of two or three of these styles.
  • 56. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS The Five Listening Styles 1) Appreciative 2) Empathetic 3) Comprehensive 4) Discerning 5) Evaluative
  • 57. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS The appreciative listener prefers to listen for pleasure, entrainment, or inspiration. The empathetic listener interprets messages by focusing on the emotions and body language being displayed by the speaker. The comprehensive listener makes sense of a message by organizing specific thoughts, and actions. Then this type of listener will integrate this information by associations among ideas.
  • 58. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS The discerning listener will attempt to understand the main message and then determine the important points. The evaluative listener will analytically and continually formulate arguments and challenges to what is being said.
  • 59. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Becoming a More Effective Listener Listening is an important skill that can be improved by avoiding common bad habits while cultivating commonly used good habits.
  • 60. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Bad Listening Habits  Tends to daydream  Listener tries to formulate facts  Tunes out speaker when not interested  Tunes out a monotone speaker  Gets to emotional  Disagrees and tries to argue  Listener is easily distracted  Denies unfavorable information  Resists difficult issues  Does not pay attention
  • 61. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Good Listening Habits  Stays in line with the speaker  Reiterates for understanding  Listens to entire message  Gives the speaker full attention  Avoids distractions  Uses visual aid to enhance understanding
  • 62. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Keys to Effective Listening  Capitalize on thought speed  Listen for ideas  Find an area of interest  Judge content, not delivery  Hold your fire  Work at listening  Resist distractions  Hear what is being said  Challenge yourself  Use handouts, overheads, or other visual aids
  • 63. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS In addition, communication experts have recommended three ways for a manager to develop or improve their listening skills. 1) Listen closely to what is being said. 2) Allow others to finish speaking before taking a turn. 3) Reiterating what you have heard and give the speaker the opportunity to clarify the message.
  • 64. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Gender Differences in Communication Gender-based differences in communication are partly caused by linguistic styles commonly used by women and men. Linguistic style refers to a person’s characteristic speaking pattern.
  • 65. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS The linguistic style is the set of culturally learned signals by which we not only communicate what we mean but also how we interpret others including, how we evaluate one another as people. Increased awareness of linguistic styles can improve communication accuracy and your communication competence.
  • 66. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Electronic Communication The computerized information age has radically changed communications in both our personal and professional lives. The internet is a global network of independently operating but interconnected computers.
  • 67. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Electronic Communication The intranet is an organizations private internal communications system, which links company computers together. An extranet is an extended intranet that connects internal employees with selected customers, suppliers, and other strategic partners.
  • 68. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Benefits from Electronic Mail The use of e-mail throughout the world has exploded due to four key benefits: reduced costs of distributing information, increased teamwork, reduced paper costs and increased flexibility.
  • 69. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Drawbacks from Electronic Mail There are also some drawbacks: wasted time and effort when dealing with spam and junk mail, information overload, increased costs to monitor usage, hackers, and there is no way to guarantee confidentiality.
  • 70. DIMENSIONS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS A Blog is an online journal in which people write whatever they want about any topic. Videoconferencing is the use of video and audio links along with computers to enable people in different locations to see, hear, and talk with one another. Telecommuting or teleworking, is a way for employees to complete some of their work from a remote location typically at home, using a variety of information technologies.
  • 71. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESManagers are busy everyday managing theeffectiveness and maximizing all availableresources in the effort to achieve theorganizational goals and objective.Each of the resources, which are human,financial, material, and information, are allequally necessary to the success, in its ownwhy.
  • 72. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESIndividual Human CapitalThe definition for human capital is: theproductive potential of one’s knowledge andactions.Human contributions can affect, eitherpositively or negatively, the success of anorganizations goals and objectives.
  • 73. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIES Intelligence/abilities and  Creativity knowledge  Enthusiasm Visions/dreams and  Motivation/commitment aspirations  Persistence Technical and social skills  Ethical standards/courage Confidence/self-esteem  Honesty Initiative/entrepreneurship  Emotional maturity Adaptability/flexibility Readiness to learn
  • 74. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESFive Human Capital Outcomes 1) Leadership 2) Workforce optimization 3) Learning capacity 4) Knowledge accessibility 5) Talent engagement
  • 75. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESThe Concept of MotivationThe term motivation derives from the Latinword movere, meaning, “to move”. In thepresent context, motivation is thepsychological processes that arouse anddirect the goal-directed behavior.
  • 76. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESThere are two factors of motivation in thework place. The first one is individual inputsand the second is job content. Sincemotivation influences job behaviors andperformance, the manager must learn toidentify what motivates each member of hisor her team.
  • 77. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESSatisfying NeedsNeed for Achievement: to accomplish somethingdifficult; to master manipulate, or organize physicalobjects, human beings, or ideas; to overcomeobstacles and attain a higher standard.Need for Affiliation: to maintain social relationships;To be included in group activities; needs for affection.Need for power: desire to influence, coach, teach, orencourage others to achieve; like to work.
  • 78. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESThrough Job DesignJob Enlargement: putting more variety into a worker’sjob by combining specializes tasks of comparabledifficulty.Job Rotation: moving employee from one specializedjob to another. Giving the employee that opportunity tobe cross-trained.Job Enrichment : when one has the opportunity toexperience achievement, recognition, stimulating workfunctions, higher responsibilities, and advancement.
  • 79. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESIntrinsic MotivationKenneth Thomas developed the model ofIntrinsic Motivation based on his intriguingresearch on empowerment. The model hasfour key intrinsic rewards underlining anindividual’s level of intrinsic motivation.
  • 80. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESSense of Meaningfulness: is the feeling that one is on thepath that is worth time and effort; that has or gives value andpurpose.Sense of Choice: is the ability to select tasks that are rightfor oneself and then having the ability to perform those tasksin ways that make sense.Sense of Competence: involves the feeling one gets fromdoing something good, from producing high quality work orby successfully completing a challenging task.Scene of Progress: involve the success of accomplishingconstant forward progression of a task.
  • 81. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIES NEED BEHAVIOUR REWARDFEEDBACK: Reward informs a person whether their behavior was appropriate and should be used again.
  • 82. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESManagers can increase a person’s meaningfulnessby inspiring their employee and modeling desiredbehavior. Managers can increase a person’schoice by empowering them by delegatingmeaningful assignments and tasks. Managers canenhance a person’s competence by supporting andcoaching their employees. A Manager can alsoincrease a person’s progress by on-the-spotrecognition or rewards.
  • 83. Here are a few questions you can ask them to find out. Disagree Disagree Disagree Strongly Agree or Strongly Neither Agree AgreeAre you motivating your employees?Are you passionate about your job?Do you know that the work you are completing,contributes to the organization’s goals and objectives?Are you given the opportunity to complete job tasks asyou see fit?Does your supervisor or manager delegate importantprojects/tasks that significantly contributes to thesuccess of your team or department?Do your skills match the job your are performing?Do you receive recognition for a job well done?Does your department celebrate progress while workingtowards achieving annual goals?Do you receive personal progress and developmentreports on a consistent bases?
  • 84. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESMotivation is a ChallengeThe challenge is to keep employee motivationconsistent with organizational goals. Resultsfrom employee motivational practices:Motivated, enthusiastic, and satisfiedemployees drive success.
  • 85. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESFoundations of MotivationA manager’s assumptions about employeemotivation and use of rewards depend on hisor her perspective on motivation. Four distinctperspectives on employee motivation haveevolved: the traditional approach, the humanrelations approach, the human resourcesapproach and the contemporary approach.
  • 86. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESTraditional Approach  Content theories  Process theories  Reinforcement theoriesHuman Relations Approach  The whole person  People are complex and are motivated differently
  • 87. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESHuman Resources Approach  Noneconomic rewards  Works studies as social peopleContemporary Approach  Systematic analysis of an employee’s job  Economic rewards for high performance
  • 88. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESContent Prospective Methods  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory  ERG Theory  Two-Factors Theory  Acquired Needs TheoryProcess Theories  Equity Theory  Expectancy Theory  Goal Setting Theory
  • 89. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESReinforcement Perspective  Positive Reinforcement  Avoidance Learning  Punishment  ExtinctionIntervals of Reinforcement  Continues Reinforcement  Partial Reinforcement  Fixed Interval  Fixed Ratio  Variable Internal  Variable Ratio
  • 90. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESEmployee MotivationEffective employee motivation has long beenone of management’s most difficult andimportant responsibilities. In addition,employee motivation and satisfaction arebased on considering the individualdifferences that make us all uniqueindividuals.
  • 91. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESMaslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsPsychologist Abraham Maslow firstintroduced his concept of a hierarchy ofneeds in his 1943 paper "A Theory of HumanMotivation".
  • 92. The Five Levels of Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Self-Actualization Needs Esteem Needs Belongingness Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs
  • 93. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESPhysiological Needs: Include the most basic needs thatare vital to survival, such as the need for food, water,and air. At work, these needs reflex the needs foradequate heat when it is cool, clean air, and a basesalary.Safety Needs: Include needs for safety, and securityphysical and emotional environment. This includesfreedom from treats, such as violence, and an orderlysociety. At work, these needs reflex the needs for asafe working area, fringe benefits, and job security.
  • 94. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESBelongingness Needs: These needs reflex the desire foracceptance by one’s peers, having friendships, being part of agroup, and to be loved. At work these needs are the desire forgood relationships with co-workers, participation in work groups,and a positive relationship with one’s supervisor or/and manager.Esteem Needs: These needs are relate to the desire for a positiveself-image and to receive attention, recognition, and appreciationfrom others. At work, these needs reflect a motivation forrecognition, an increase in responsibilities, high status, and creditfor contributions made to the organization.
  • 95. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESSelf-Actualizing Needs: This represents theneed for self-fulfillment. This includes theneed to achieve one’s full potential, andIncreasing one’s competence. At work, theseneeds can be met by having opportunitiesfor growth, the chance to be creative andacquiring training for challenging assignmentsand advancements.
  • 96. Personal Life Fulfillment Work/Career FulfillmentEducation, religion, hobbies, Self-Actualization Opportunity for training,personal growth advancement, growthApproval of family, friends, Esteem Needs Recognition, high status, increasedcommunity responsibilitiesFamily, friends, community Work groups, clients, co-workers,groups Belongingness and supervisor Needs Safe work environment, jobFreedom from war, pollution,violence Safety Needs security, fringe benefitsFood, water, oxygen Controlled & comfortable Physiological environment, air, base salary Needs
  • 97. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESERG TheoryClayton Alderfer proposed a modification of Maslow’stheory in an effort to simplify it and respond tocriticisms of its lack of empirical verification.His ERG theory identified three categories of need.Existence Needs: The needs for physical well-being.Relatedness Needs: The needs for satisfactoryrelationships with others.Growth Needs: The needs that focus on thedevelopment of human potential, personal growth,And increased competence.
  • 98. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESAcquired Needs TheoryDavid McClelland created the Acquired Needs Theoryproposes that certain types of needs are acquiredduring the individual’s lifetime. In other words, peopleare not born with these needs; they are needs thatdevelop throughout one’s lifetime.  Need for Achievement  Need for Affiliation  Need for Power
  • 99. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESGoal Setting TheoryThere are four key elements to the goal-setting theoryof motivation.Goal Specificity: Refers to the degree to which goalsare concrete and unambiguous.Goal Difficulty: Challenging goals are more motivating.Goal Acceptance: Subordinates have to “buy into” thegoals and be committed to them.Feedback: Subordinates receive feedback to indicatetheir progress toward goal achievement.
  • 100. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESMcGregor’s Theory X and Theory YIn 1960, Douglas McGregor wrote a bookentitled The Human Side of Enterprise, whichhas become a philosophical base for themodern view of people when they are atwork. In addition, McGregor identified twosharply contrasting sets of assumptions abouthuman nature.
  • 101. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIES Assumptions About People at Work Theory X Theory Y Most people dislike work; they avoid it Work is a nature activity, like play and when they can rest. Most people must be coerced and People are capable of self-direction and threatened with punishment before they self-control if they are committed to will work. objectives. Most people actually prefer to be People generally become committed to directed. They tend to avoid organizational objectives if they are responsibility and exhibit little ambition. rewarded. The typical employee can learn to accept and seek responsibilities. The typical member of the general population has imagination, integrity, and creativity.
  • 102. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESHerzberg’s Two-Factor TheoryHerzberg’s research revealed workcharacteristics associated with dissatisfactionwere quite different from those pertaining tosatisfaction, which supported the concept thattwo factors influence work motivation.
  • 103. Area of Motivators InfluenceHighlySatisfied Satisfaction Level of Satisfaction. Motivators Achievement Recognition Responsibilities Work itself Personal growthNeither SatisfiedNor Dissatisfied Area of Hygiene Factors Dissatisfaction Influence Level of Dissatisfaction. Hygiene Factors Working conditions Pay and job security Company policies Supervisors Interpersonal RelationshipsHighlyDissatisfied
  • 104. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESHerzberg believed that two entirely separatedimensions contributed to an employee’s behaviorAt work. The first dimensions is called hygienefactors, which involves the presence or absence ofJob dissatisfies, such as working conditions, pay,company policies, and lack of interpersonalrelationships.
  • 105. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESWhen hygiene factors are poor, work isdissatisfying. However, good hygienefactors simply remove the dissatisfaction;they do not cause people to becomesatisfied or motive in their work.
  • 106. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESThe second set of factors does influencejob satisfaction. Motivators focus on high-level needs and include achievement,recognition, responsibility, andopportunity for growth.
  • 107. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESHerzberg believed that when motivatorsare absent, workers are neutral towardwork, but when motivators are present,workers are highly motivated andsatisfied.
  • 108. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESEquity TheoryThe equity theory is a process theory thatfocuses on individuals’ perception of howfairly they are treated compared to others.Developed by J. Stacy Adam’s, equity theoryproposes that people are motivated to seeksocial equity in the rewards they expect forperformance.
  • 109. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESAccording to this theory, if people perceivetheir compensation as equal to what othersreceive for similar contributions, they willconclude their treatment is fair and equitable.A state of equity exists whenever the ratio ofone person’s outcomes to inputs equals theratios of another’s outcomes to inputs.
  • 110. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESInequity occurs when the input-to-outcomeratios are out of balance. If a personperceives inequity or out of balance withothers they will start a cycle of individualnegative motivation, in an effort to bringequity into balance again.
  • 111. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESCommon Methods to Reduce Perceived InequityChange Inputs: A person may choose to increase ordecrease his or her inputs to the organization.Change Outcomes: A person may change his or heroutcomes.Distort Perceptions: Research suggests that peoplemay distort perceptions of equity if they are unable tochange inputs or outcomes.Leave the Job: People who feel inequitably treated maydecide to leave their jobs rather than suffer the inequityof being under paid or over paid.
  • 112. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESJob Characteristics ModelOne specific approach to job design is the jobcharacteristics model developed by RichardHackman and Greg Oldham. Hackman andOldham’s research focused on work redesign,which, is defined as altering jobs to increaseboth the quality of employees workexperience and their productivity.
  • 113. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESThe model consists of three major parts: core jobdimensions, critical psychological states, and employeegrowth-need strength.Hackman and Oldham identified five dimensions thatdetermine a job’s motivational potential.  Skill variety  Task identity  Task significance  Autonomy  Feedback
  • 114. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESCritical Psychological States  Experience meaningfulness of the work  Experience responsibility for outcomes of the work  Knowledge of the actual results of the work activitiesPersonal and Work Outcomes  High internal work motivation  High-quality work performance  High satisfaction with the work  Low absenteeism and turnover
  • 115. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESEmployee Growth-Need StrengthThe final component of the job characteristicsmodel is the employee growth-need strength,which means that people have differentneeds for growth and development.
  • 116. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESIf a person wants to satisfy low-level needs,such as safety and belongingness, the jobcharacteristics model has less effect.However, if a person has a high need forgrowth and development, including the desirefor personal challenges, achievements, andchallenging work, the model is especialeffective.
  • 117. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESThe job characteristics model suggests thatthe more these five core characteristics canbe incorporated into the job, the more theemployees will be motivated and thus,creating, higher performance, quality, andsatisfaction.
  • 118. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESInnovative Ideas for Motivating  Pay for performance  Gain sharing  Employee stock ownership  Lump-sum bonuses  Flexible work schedule  Team-based compensation  Lifestyle awards  Pay for knowledge
  • 119. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESA Continuum of EmpowermentEmpowerment is power sharing, thedelegation of power or authority tosubordinates in an organization.As a leader, remember most people want todo well and to improve, so give them chancesto learn and become more proficient.
  • 120. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESEmpowering employees involves giving them fourelements that enable them to act more freely to accomplishtheir jobs: information, knowledge, power, and rewards. Employee receives information about the company’s performance. Employees have knowledge and skills that contributed to the company’s goals and objects. Employees have the power to make substantive decisions. Employees are rewarded on company performance.
  • 121. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESGiving Meaning to WorkAnother way to meet higher-level motivationalneeds and help people get intrinsic rewardsfrom their work is to install a sense ofimportance and meaningfulness.
  • 122. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESIn recent years, managers have focused onemployee engagement, which has less to dowith extrinsic rewards such as pay and muchmore to do with fostering an environment inwhich people can flourish.
  • 123. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESEngaged employees are more satisfied andmotivated because they feel appreciated bytheir supervisors and the organization, andthey thrive on work challenges rather thanfeeling frustrated by them.Engaged employees are motivated, enthusiastic, andCommitted employees. In addition, there is a growingrecognition that it is the behavior of managersthat makes the biggest difference in whetherpeople feel engaged at work.
  • 124. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESOne way to evaluate how a manager or anorganization is doing in engaging employeesby meeting higher-level needs is a metricdeveloped by the Gallup researches calledthe Q12.
  • 125. Q12 High-Level Needs Metric Yes NoDo I know what is expected of me at work?Do I have the materials and equipment that I need to do my work right?At work, do I have the opportunity to do what I do best every day?In the past seven days, have I received recognition or praise for doing goodwork?Does my supervisor, or someone at work, seem to care about me as aperson?Is there someone at work who encourages my development?At work, do my opinions seem to count?Does the mission or purpose of my company make me feel that my job isimportant?Are my co-workers committed to doing quality work?Do I have a best friend at work?In the past six month, has someone at work talked to me about myprogress?This past year, have I had opportunities to learn and grow?
  • 126. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESImproving Individual Job PerformanceA manager can encourage improvement of anemployee’s individual performance byfocusing on the individual. A manager thatunderstands the complexity of one’s self willbe prepared to assist their employees in theprocess and achievement of their own self-esteem fulfillment.
  • 127. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIES Self is the core of one’s conscious existence. Aware of self is referred to as one’s self- concept. Self-concept is “the concept the individual has of himself or herself as a physical, social, and spiritual or moral being.” Self-Esteem is a belief about one’s own self- worth.
  • 128. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIES Self-Efficacy is a person’s belief about his or her chances of successfully accomplishing a specific task. Self-Monitoring is the extent to which a person observes his or her own self-expressive behavior and adapts it to the demand of the situation. Cognitions are referred to as “any knowledge, opinion, or belief about the environment, about oneself, or about one’s behaviors.”
  • 129. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESThe IndividualEach individual has many importantdimensions and differences that are definedas self-concept, personality traits, attitudes,mental abilities, and emotions. There is aspecific correlation between self-concept(how you view yourself), personality (how youappear to others) and key forms of self-expression.
  • 130. The Individual Forms of Self-Expression Attitudes Self-Concept Self-Esteem Abilities Self-Efficacy Self-Monitoring Emotions
  • 131. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESPerformance ManagementPerformance management is an organizationalsystem that managers integrate into theactivities of goal setting, monitoring andevaluating, providing feedback and coaching,and rewarding employees on a continuesbasis.
  • 132. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESA Continuous ProcessThe process starts with hiring the right peoplewith the required abilities, skills, and jobknowledge needed in order to be successfulwithin the job assigned. Next is to give propertraining on how to effectively complete the jobper company specifications and to correct anyknowledge shortfalls.
  • 133. Situational Factors Performance Improvement Cycle Desired Outcomes Individual Personal Traits and Characteristics Goal Setting Job Knowledge Persistent Motivation Effort Learning & Personal Growth Improved Job Rewards & Positive Performance Organizational Reinforcement Job Satisfaction Organization’s Feedback & Culture Coaching Job Design Quality of Supervision
  • 134. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESEstablishing Employee LoyaltyWhy should a manager or company care about employeeloyalty? Employee loyalty has a direct correlation with profitability numbers. Employee loyalty directly contributes to customer loyalty. Reflects positively on the manager and company. Affirms company and management’s commitment to their employees and customers. Confirms management is truly in touch with the needs of employees.
  • 135. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESA great employee seems to do his or her jobeffortlessly. Yet replacing such a person is anything buteffortless, it takes hours of recruiting, time-consuminginterviews, training, and less-than-productive trialperiods.In addition, the average cost of replacing an employeeis often equal to 150% of the positions salary. This canbe a tremendous financial and productivity drain on acompany.
  • 136. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESCan You Hear Your Assets Talking?Give employees an on-going avenue to voicetheir suggestions, concerns, compliments,complaints, ideas, and thoughts in an open butanonymous way. This creates and encouragescontinual input from staff members and canresult in learning specific ways for the companyand management to take action and useresources in a more effective way.
  • 137. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIES Increase feedback and input from staff Improve workplace culture by acting quickly on issues Pre-empt employee meltdowns by monitoring office attitudes Decrease ethical violations that may be occurring Create greater employee loyalty Reduce employee turnover and related hiring and training costs
  • 138. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIES Predict future consequences by understanding attitudes right now Correlate employee feedback with quantifiable measurements like profitability Track trends and match them to employee or departmental actions Learn more about employee needs and wants Creates awareness of specific knowledge gaps
  • 139. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESJob SatisfactionA positive attitude towards one’s job is definedas Job Satisfaction. This includes positiveexperiences that match the individual’s needs,interests, when working conditions and rewardsare satisfactory.
  • 140. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESTwo actions that managers can take toreinforce job satisfaction: Make sure employees have a reasonable workload and ensure they get enough support to organize their job responsibilities. Remember that a positive attitude can go a long way towards helping others feel good about themselves and their work responsibilities.
  • 141. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESHere are six questions to identify jobsatisfaction.Each question represents various aspects ofsatisfaction that an employee may experienceon a job.
  • 142. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESQuestionOverall, how satisfied are you with your job? 1 2 3 4 5How satisfied are you with the opportunities 1 2 3 4 5to learn new things?How satisfied are you with your boss? 1 2 3 4 5How satisfied are you with the people in your 1 2 3 4 5group?How satisfied are you with the amount of pay 1 2 3 4 5you receive?How satisfied are you with the contributionsyou are make to the success of the 1 2 3 4 5organization? Total Score
  • 143. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESWork/Life BalanceWork-Life Balance is a broad concept includingproper prioritizing between "work“ (career andambition) on one hand and "life” (pleasure,leisure, family, and spiritual development) onthe other.Related, though broader, terms Include"lifestyle balance" and "life balance".
  • 144. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESFive Steps for the Individual to ImproveWork/Life Balance Figure Out What Really Matters to You in Life Drop Unnecessary Activities Protect Your Private Time Accept Help to Balance Your Life Plan Fun and Relaxation
  • 145. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESBenefits From Work-Life Balance Initiatives Increases productivity by teaching people how to attain a higher level of achievement & enjoyment every day, both on and off the job. Understanding and fulfilling ones individuals needs creates bottom-line results for the organization and more value and balance for the individual. Drives personal commitment and accountability to the organization.
  • 146. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESManagers and leaders can contribute to thework-life balance initiative by developing orsharpening their skills in the following areas:  People Management  Project Management  Time Management  Change Management  Focusing on Interpersonal Skills  Seeing & Setting Big Picture Goals
  • 147. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESOverall Benefits to the OrganizationEducating managers and employees with skillsto help themselves create their own best lifework effectiveness, the employer can seebreakthrough returns on investment and alasting positive impact on the entireorganization.
  • 148. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESWhat The Company Does For The IndividualCompany provides, policies and benefits thatsupport individual work-life balance.This allows the workforce to focus better whileon the job, because external life issues aremade more manageable.
  • 149. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIES Full access to flex-time Telecommuting Child-care Elder-care Sick leave, Job-sharing In-house stores/services, Gym subsidies Concierge services
  • 150. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESWhat The Individual Does For ThemselvesIndividual responsibilities varies from individualto individual however, we must regularly findand create for ourselves, the balance thatmakes the most sense and provides the mostbenefits to our individual situations.
  • 151. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIES Create a good work-life balance that yields positive results. Improve your opportunities to gain education and training. Take responsibility and ownership for your individual actions. Assume accountability for your performance and output.
  • 152. MOTIVATIONAL METHODOLOGY AND THEORIESWorkplace MentoringWorkplace mentoring is a learning partnershipbetween employees for purposes of sharingtechnical information, institutional knowledge,and insight with respect to a particularoccupation, profession, organization, orendeavor.
  • 153. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAMThe definition of a group is two or more freelyinteracting individuals who share collectivenorms, goals, and have a common identity.There are two formal group functions that aredefined as; organizational functions andindividual functions.
  • 154. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAMOrganizational Functions are the collectiveactions that result in positive shared outcomes,such as achieving team goals or meetingorganizational objectives. Interacting individualswho share collective norms, goals, and have acommon identity.The Individual Functions are positive outcomesfrom being part of the team, that satisfy theindividuals needs or wants, such as fulfilling theneed for affiliation.
  • 155. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAMOrganizational Functions Accomplishing complex tasks Generate new and creative ideas and solutions Coordinate interdepartmental efforts Provide a problem-solving mechanism for complex problems Implement complex decisions Socialize and train new employees
  • 156. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAMIndividual Functions Satisfy the need for affiliation Develop, and confirm one’s self-esteem and sense of identity Opportunity to test and share personal perceptions of social reality Reduce anxieties and feelings of insecurity and powerlessness Provide a problem-solving mechanism for one’s interpersonal problems
  • 157. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAMGroups and teams in the workplace go througha significant process or cycle to become aneffective and productive group or team that iscommitted to achieve a common goal orobjective.
  • 158. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAMMany theorists have concluded that a groupdevelopment process occurs in stages,however they have not all agreed on how todefine and describe each stage. The mostcommonly used theory is the one that wasproposed first in 1965 and than revised in1977, is educational psychologist Bruce W.Tuckman’s Theory of Group Development
  • 159. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAMTuckman’s Theory - Five Stages to GroupDevelopmentTuckman’s Theory contains five stages, which are theforming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning.Each stage represents the steps involved within thegroup’s individual and collective, actions, behaviors,roles, expectations, and the results or outcomes thatare shared experiences by all of the group members.
  • 160. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAMStage 1: The Forming Stage is the process ofgetting to know each other, understanding whois in charge, knowledge and accepting thegoals and objectives of the team andidentifying each member’s specific role withinthe team.
  • 161. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAMStage 2: The Storming Stage is the time oftesting the leaders’ abilities, procedures,strategies, and their power. This is also thetime that an individual identifies specificallyhow they fit into the power structure of group.
  • 162. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAMStage 3: The Norming Stage, is when thegroup has past and resolved any issues fromthe storming stage and now all of the membersare committed to the group’s leader, to thegoals or objectives, and to their individual rolewithin the group.
  • 163. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAMStage 4: The Performing Stage is when thegroup is focused on solving task problems anddevoted to getting their individual taskcompleted without hampering others. This isthe time in which communications is open andgiven freely; there is strong cooperation, andmember support.
  • 164. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAMStage 5: The Adjourning Stage is thecelebration of achieving the groups’ initiativeand time for reflection of the process.
  • 165. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAMGroup Member RolesRoles are defined as sets of behaviors thatpersons expect of occupants of a position.Within a group or team each person assumes aspecific role based on the contributions to theoverall success of the group. There are twotypes of roles, which are task roles andmaintenance roles.
  • 166. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAMTask Roles enable the group to define, clarify,and pursue a common purpose. In addition,task roles are also the goal-directed roles thatkeep the group on track.Maintenance Roles foster supportive andconstructive interpersonal relationships withinthe group. In addition, maintenance roles keepthe group together.
  • 167. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAMTeams, Trust, and TeamworkThe team approach to managing organizationsis having diverse and substantial impacts onorganizations and individuals. Teams promiseto be a cornerstone of progressivemanagement for the near future.
  • 168. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAMThree Dimensions of Trust  Overall trust expecting fair play, the truth, and empathy.  Emotional trust having faith that someone will not misrepresent you to others or betray you.  Reliableness believing that promises and appointments will be kept and commitments met.
  • 169. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAMHow to Build Trust  Communication  Support  Respect  Fairness  Predictability  Competence
  • 170. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAMA Team is More Than Just a GroupJon R Katzenbach and Douglas K Smith define ateam as “a small number of people withcomplementary skills who are committed to acommon purpose, performance goals, andapproach for which they hold themselves mutuallyaccountable”.
  • 171. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAMKatenbach and Smith also note, “Theessence of a team is common commitment.Without it, groups perform as individuals;with it, they become a powerful unit ofCollective performance.”
  • 172. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAMA group becomes a team when the following criteriaare met:  Leadership becomes a shared activity.  Accountability shifts from strictly individual to both individual and collective.  The group develops its own purpose or mission.  Problem solving becomes a way of life, not a part-time activity.  Effectiveness is measured by the group’s collective outcomes and products.
  • 173. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAMSelf-Managed TeamsSelf-Managed Teams groups of employees granted administrativeoversight for their work.Indirect Influence Tactics of Self Managed Teams  Relating  Scouting  Persuading  EmpoweringCross-Functionalism is a team that has technical specialistsfrom different areas.
  • 174. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAMAre Self Managed Teams Effective  Creates positive effect on productivity  Creates positive effect on specific attitudes relating to self-management  No significant effect on general attitudes  No significant effect on absenteeism or turnover
  • 175. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAMSymptoms of GroupthinkGroupthink is a term for a cohesive in-group’sunwillingness to realistically view alternatives.  Invulnerability  Inherent morality  Rationalization  Stereotyped views of opposition  Self-censorship  Illusion of unanimity  Peer pressure  Mind-guards
  • 176. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAMSocial LoafingSocial loafing decrease in individual effort asgroup size increases. Reason for social loafing:  Equity of effort  Loss of personal accountability  Motivational loss due to sharing of rewards  Coordination loss as more people perform the task
  • 177. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAMRecent Research on TrustSchweitzer, Hershey, and Bradlow (2006) – conductedLaboratory study and found:  When trust is broken by untrustworthy actions, it can be restored through consistent trustworthy actions  A promise to act in a trustworthy way helps facilitate the regaining of trust  Deception does serious long-term damage to trust and makes it very difficult to restore, even when followed by trustworthy actions
  • 178. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAMManaging Virtual Teams  Virtual teams allow group members in different locations using information technology, to communicate and conduct business activities.  Virtual groups formed over the Internet follow a group development process similar to that of face-to-face groups.  Internet chat rooms create more work and yield poorer decisions than face-to-face meetings.
  • 179. THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A TEAM Meet face-to-face to start a project and set specific and measurable major milestones. Assume positive intent when receiving e- mails that have negative tones. Withhold judgment until you can learn more or talk to the individual directly via phone or in person. Encourage positive predictable behavior Honor commitments, attend meetings on time, and don’t send terse emails.
  • 180. DEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERSDEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERSGlobal Leadership and Organizational BehaviorEffectiveness is the attempt to develop anempirically based theory to describe,understand, and predict the impact of specificcultural variables on leadership andorganizational processes and the effectivenessof these processes.
  • 181. DEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERSBecoming Cross-Culturally Competent involvescultural intelligence.Cultural Intelligence is the ability to interpretambiguous cross-cultural situations correctly.
  • 182. DEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERSCultural Dimensions  Power distance  Uncertainty  Institutional collectivism  In-group collectivism  Gender egalitarianism  Assertiveness  Future orientation  Performance orientation  Humane orientation
  • 183. DEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERSIndividualism versus Collectivism Individualistic Culture – primary emphasis on personal freedom and choice Collectivist Culture – personal goals less important than community goals and interests
  • 184. DEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERSEthnocentrismEthnocentrism belief that one’s native country, culture, language,and behavior are superior to all others.Dealing with EthnocentrismManagers can effectively deal with ethnocentrism through:  Education  Greater cross-cultural awareness  International experience  A conscious effort to value cultural diversity
  • 185. DEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERSFive Cultural Perspectives  Basic cultural dimensions  Individualism versus collectivism  High-context and low-context cultures  Monochronic and polychronic time orientation  Cross-cultural leadership
  • 186. DEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERSOrganizational CultureOrganizational Culture is defined as a set ofshared, taken-for-granted implicit assumptionsthat a group holds and that determines how itperceives, thinks about and reacts to its variousenvironments.
  • 187. DEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERSOrganizational Culture Characteristics  Passed on to new employees through the process of socialization  Influences our behavior at work  Operates at different levels
  • 188. DEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERSLayers of Organizational CultureObservable Artifacts: – Consist of the physical manifestation of an organization’s culture – Acronyms, manner of dress, awards, myths and stories, published lists of values, observable rituals and ceremonies, special parking spaces, and decorations
  • 189. DEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERSLayers of Organizational CultureEnacted Values: – Represent the values and norms that actually are exhibited or converted into employee behavior – Based on observable behavior
  • 190. DEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERSLayers of Organizational CultureBasic Assumptions: – Constitute organizational values that have become so taken for granted over time that they become assumptions that guide organizational behavior
  • 191. DEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERSFour Functions of Organizational Culture  Organizational Identity  Collective Commitment  Social System Stability  Sense-Making Device
  • 192. DEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERSPositive Outcomes with Organizational Culture  Significantly correlated with employee behavior and attitudes  Congruence between an individual’s values and the organization’s values was associated with organizational commitment, job satisfaction, intention to quit, and turnover  There is not a clear pattern of relationships between organizational culture and outcomes such as service quality, customer satisfaction, and an organization’s financial performance  Mergers frequently failed due to incompatible cultures
  • 193. DEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERSThe Process of Culture ChangeOrganizational members teach each other about theorganization’s preferred values, beliefs, expectations, andbehaviors.  Formal statements of organizational philosophy, mission, vision, values, and materials used for recruiting, selection and socialization.  The design of physical space, work environments, and buildings.
  • 194. DEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERSThe Process of Culture Change  Slogans, language, acronyms, and sayings  Deliberate role modeling, training programs, teaching and coaching by managers and supervisors  Explicit rewards, status symbols (e.g., titles), and promotion criteria
  • 195. DEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERSThe Process of Culture Change  Stories, legends, and myths about key people and events  The organizational activities, processes, or outcomes that leaders pay attention to, measure, and control  Leader reactions to critical incidents and organizational crises  The workflow and organizational structure  Organizational systems and procedures  Organizational goals and the associated criteria used for recruitment, selection, development, promotion, layoffs, and retirement of people
  • 196. DEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERSOrganizational Socialization is the processby which a person learns the values, norms,and required behaviors which permit him toparticipate as a member of the organization.
  • 197. DEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERSCorporate Global Social Responsibilities(CSR) is defined as “the notion thatcorporations have an obligation to constituentgroups in society other than stockholders andbeyond that prescribed by law or unioncontracts.”
  • 198. DEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERSResponsibilities of a Corporate Citizen  Philanthropic Responsibility: Be a good global corporate citizen  Ethical Responsibility: Be ethical  Legal Responsibility: Obey the law  Economic Responsibility: Be profitable
  • 199. DEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERSIndividual Ethical Behavior in the WorkplaceEthical and unethical conduct is the product ofa complex combination of influences. Eachperson have their own unique combinations ofpersonality characteristics, values, and moralprinciples, leaning toward or away from ethicalbehavior.
  • 200. DEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERSInternal Organizational Influences  Ethical codes  Organizational culture  Organizational size  Structure  Perceived pressure for results  Corporate strategy
  • 201. DEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERSExternal Organizational Influences  Political/legal  Industry culture  National culture  Environment
  • 202. DEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERSNeutralizing and Enhancing FactorsTop Management team characteristics can alsoinfluences ethical behavior.  Age  Length of service  Military service  Homogeneity/Heterogeneity
  • 203. DEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERSGeneral Moral PrinciplesManagement consultant and writer KentHodgson has developed a model of moralprinciples to help guide managers to makingbetter ethical and moral decisions. Hodgsoncalls them “the magnificent seven” toemphasize their timeless and worldwiderelevance.
  • 204. DEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERSHodgson added a note that needsconsideration; there are no absolute ethicalanswers for decision makers however,managers should be to able to rely on moralprinciples so their decisions are principled,appropriate, and defensible.
  • 205. DEVELOPING GLOBAL MANAGERSThe Magnificent Seven 1) Dignity of Human Life 2) Autonomy 3) Honesty 4) Loyalty 5) Fairness 6) Humaneness 7) The Common Good