Personal selling is the two-way flow of communication between a buyer or buyers and a seller that is targeted at influencing the buyer to make a purchase. Personal selling can take place in many different communication mediums. Usually, the medium is selected based on the type of product or service that is being promoted. Personal selling can be accomplished through face-to-face, video teleconferencing, on the telephone or over the internet. The most successful sales people are those who build strong long-term relationships with their customers. This is a very important market strategy, which has been defined as, relationship selling.
Relationship Selling is a sales philosophy and process that emphasizes a commitment to maintaining the relationship over the long-term and investing in opportunities that are mutually beneficial to all parties. With relationship selling, it is never really over, even after the sale has been made. The five service quality dimensions can be directly linked to the client – salesperson relationship.
The Value Added When an organization chooses to use personal selling as part of their integrated marketing communications program they are do so because it adds value to their product or service mix- that is, personal selling is worth more than it costs. Personal selling also increases customer loyalty. Personal selling adds value by:Educating and proving advice to the customer Saves the customer time Simplifies the buying processMakes things easier for the customer
Personal Selling and Market Strategy Personal selling is an essential part of many firms’ integrated marketing communications strategy; it offers its own unique contributions to the four P’s. Because of the one-to-one nature of sales, a salesperson is in a unique position to customize a message for a specific buyer. As a result, a preplanned sales presentation or demonstration can be altered at any time as the need arises. In addition, unlike other types of promotion, the sales presentation can be directed toward those customers with the highest potential.
THE FIVE STEP SALES PROCESS
Step 1: Establish Rapport/ Mirroring and MatchingThe first step in building rapport is to mirror the person. You need to match the person’s speech, physical appearance and more. You need to learn to identify the person’s modality of thought.
VAK Learning StylesWhat is thought modality? These are the different ways, in which people process information. The VAK learning style uses the three main sensory receivers: Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic (movement) to determine the dominant learning style. VAK is also known as the VAKT (Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, & Tactile). This theory is based on modalities - a channel by which human expression can take place and is composed of a combination of perception and memory.
Building Rapport is the foundation for any meaningful interaction between two or more people. Rapport is about establishing an environment of trust and understanding, to respect and honor the other person’s world. This process gives the other person the freedom to fully express their ideas, their concerns, and to knowing that they will be respected by the other person. Rapport creates a feeling of being listened to, and heard. Each person can develop an appreciation for the other person’s viewpoint and respect their model of the world. This relationship give both people an opportunity to see things from the other perspective, feel the way they do, and get a better understanding of where they are each coming from.
Mirroring and Matching is the key to establishing rapport. It is the ability to enter another person’s world by assuming a similar state of mind. The first thing you do is to become more like the other person by matching and mirroring their behaviors, body language, voice, words, etc. If the other person is using visual words, you should also use mainly visual words, and similarly for auditory, kinesthetic and auditory digital words. There is no need to feel uncomfortable, about using this process of mirror matching, it is a natural part of building rapport, and if you stop and think about it, you are already doing it unconsciously every day with your encounters with family and friends. Remember, people who are like each other; tend to like each other. PhysiologyTone of Voice Breathing Key words Body language
Step 2: Ask Questions The questions you ask should directly be related; to the specific business of the other person. When taking, use their language. Ask questions in the language of their main interest. (In business, talk the language of their business.) What do you do?What are you interested in?“For what purpose…” do you want this?Discover client’s I/R of successFind out client’s primary rep system and desired stateUncover the client’s Motivation, Decision, and Reassurance StrategiesElicit Values
Choosing Questions for Different ResponsesWhen preparing questions in advance, always look at the type of question that best meets your objective. Keep in mind that prepared questions may not be enough; some answers may promote even more questions. However, keep asking questions until you are satisfied that you have received the answers you require. Types of QuestionOpenQuestion does not invite any particular answer; but opens up discussion. Closed Question is specific and must be answered with a yes or a no. Fact-Finding Question is aimed at getting information on a particular subject. Follow-Up Question is intended to get more information or to elicit an option.Feedback Question is aimed at getting a particular type of information. ExamplesQ What do you think about the company setting up a canteen for all staff members? A I think it is a good idea for a number of reasons. Q Do you ever read the company newsletter? A No.Q What percentage of the staff has replied to the employee attitude survey?A Out of 2,000 questionnaires, we have received 1,400 replies, that’s about 70 percent. Q Is this a good response compared with last time? A The average is about two-thirds, so this indicates reasonably good moral.Q Do you think communications within the company have improved? A Yes. I find it is useful being able to talk to my manager in our new weekly meetings.
Step 3: Find a NeedEstablish a need and establish value. Propose a solution to the client’s need, and then ask, “Do you see the value in this?” (If there is a no, then stop here. Find another client. There are plenty out there.) At this point in the process the quicker, you can get through the no’s the better. You need to persuade the client enough so that he or she can make a decision right now. No’s are infinitely better than, “I need to think about it” or “Can you call me back tomorrow?” Remember the spinning plate’s analogy. Most sales people spend 80% of their time on people who are going to buy nothing. If you spend 80% of your time on people who are going to buy, then they will spend more with you. You want “High Probability” clients. p While you are in this step, you can also use: Conditional Close: “Do you see any value in this...” or “Is it fair to say that if we solved this problem then that would be valuable to you.” Tag Questions: “Then it would be valuable to you to solve this, wouldn’t it?”
Step 4: Link the Need or Value to Your Product or Service At this point, you propose or suggest how your product or service will solve the problem that you uncovered earlier. Make a clear recommendation of how, but with as little detail as possible. Only tell the client enough to make it possible for them to purchase. “What would happen if…”“Compared to…” (Contrast Frame) Because….Agreement FrameUse strategies if you elicited themAlso repeat client’s values & key words as you close
Step 5: Close: Ask for the sale!If yes: Future pace Fire reassurance anchor Get Referrals Handle Objections by either: Ignoring them and going to #3 -or-Handling Objections and going to #3 This part is about moving the buyer from resistance to objection or to buying. Closing: There are a number of ways to ask for the sale, technically called “Closing”. There are also a number of books with many ideas that have worked over the years for closing. Here are some that are valuable: Assuming the SaleThe Order Blank CloseAlternative Choice QuestionSharp Angle Close Answering the Objection You may choose to answer the objection if you think the objection is significant. Here are the only 4 objections: “I don’t have enough time,” “I don’t have enough money,”“It won’t work for me (it works for everyone else but it won’t work for me),” “I don’t believe you.” Handling an Objection: The Final Objection Close Listen fully to the client’s objection!Act a little bit surprised.Say, “Oh I get it, you mean that’s the only reason you’re not buying?”“If I could show you how to have the time would you buy?”The last step is to answer the objection as above and go right back to establishing the value. Re-Establish Value By Going Back To #3.
PLANNING Determine your outcome.Develop as many options as possible to achieve that outcome.Avoid fixed position. Define upper and lower limits of range. Identify potential areas of agreement. Identify issues to be resolved and plan how to discuss them. Determine your best alternatives to an agreement. THE PROCESS Opening Establish rapport. Get consensus that here is basis for negotiation.Qualify the other negotiator through the “as if”. Establish the other negotiator’s outcome through the “as if”. Exchange State areas of agreement.Anchor every and any state you can utilize later. State issues to be resolved.Probe for other’s outcomes in areas of disagreement. Develop options that include both parties’ outcomes.Remind the other of shared interests.Ask for help in developing options.Ask for preference among several options.Emphasize objective standards for selecting an option. Get agreement on the best option and move to close. ClosingSummarize agreement and action plan emphasizing the next step.
TACTICS Do not respond to a proposal with a counterproposal. RestateValidateClarify Probe Invent options for mutual gain- win/win – dovetail outcomes. Avoid attack/defense exchanges. Use “Negotiation Aikido”. Treat their proposal as one option. Probe for the outcome behind it. Treat your proposal the same way. If attacked, probe for the outcome behind the attack. Anchor any and every state you can use later. Avoid “irritators” – value judgments and statements that glorify the options you favor. EG: “I can’t believe you’d make such a ridiculous offer.” Separate intent from behavior. Label suggestions and questions. “Let me offer a suggestion.”“I’d like to ask a question.” Use “I” language rather than accusing. “I’m having trouble understanding this”, rather than, “You’re not making yourself clear”. State your reasons first before making a proposal. ReasonExplanationProposal Anticipate objectives – Handle in advance. Behavioral flexibility – Law of requisite variety. Minimize the reasons you give when stating an option. Multiple reasons give the other the opportunity to select the weakest and make it the basis for rejecting the other options. Note: “We must implement flextime because: it will increase our hiring options, it will reduce our turnover, our employees will be happier, and we’ll look like a progressive company.” Test understanding and summarize.“So you think…”“Your main concern is…”“Then it seems that we both think the ides is worth a trial period.”“Let me be sure I understand where we are now.” Tell the other your feelings.“I’m having trouble with your proposal for more time off. We’ve agreed that we both want a lower unit cost. And yet I feel that this will only increase…” “I get the feeling that we’re jumping into, and from issue to issue. Which one would you like to discuss?” Do not negotiate with a team member in front of other team members. If an option has raised and you need more time or information, ask for a break or schedule another session. If you get stuck: Stop what you are doing.Generate at least three options for doing something else.Choose the best and go with it.
HANDLING OBJECTIONS Ignore them. One of the simplest and most potent ways to handle an objection is to act as if it never came up. Restate and validate. Use agreement frame. Clarify by using the pointers. The pointers will uncover complex equivalents, which may open up new options. Apples or fruit? Some options to resolve:Exaggerate Conditional close through the “As if..” or “What would happen if I could solve this concern?”Devise an acceptable option that handles the objection.Outframe Options when the objection hasn’t been resolved after five minutes.Go on to other issues.“Let’s act as if we were in binding arbitration.”“Act as if you were me.”
THE MEETING FORMAT BEFORE THE MEETING Have as few regularly scheduled meetings as possible. Ask: Could I handle this by memo or phone? Is there a need for interaction? Determine the outcome: What do you want as a result? Stated in the positiveSensory specificHas an evidence procedureIs ecologicalHas short-term and long-term outcomes Develop the evidence procedure: How will you know you have it?“What will you accept as evidence?”, and can be used to direct attention to a representation of a desired state. Develop options: What will happen if…? (As if frame) Establish membership and agenda. Each person invited to the meeting must have information needed for a decision on two out of three agenda items. The two-thirds rule: If 2/3 of relevant people are not there, do not hold the meeting. Meeting place: Choose a meeting place where only business takes place. Sensory check.As people come in, make a sensory check. Check their physiology. “Do I have responsive, alert people here?”
OPENING THE MEETING Establish rapport: Maintain respect for each other. State the outcome and evidence procedure. Get agreement on #2 above: Smoke out hidden agendas. Unless you assign people something to do, they will find something. DISCUSSION Relevancy Challenges The question, “How does (statement) relate to the outcome agreed upon for this meeting”, is a challenge to any statement which, in the perception of the information processor, is not relevant to the outcome. This procedure demands the need the information source justify his statement relevant to the context. Use relevancy challenge to defend the need to know/need not to know. Make agenda overt so meeting participants can become self-monitoring. Write up an agenda and just glance at it. One unchallenged irrelevancy will take at least 20 minutes to get back on track. The Meta Model “As if”/What would happen if?” Provide a context to access information, which would otherwise be unavailable because of some present state restrictions. Use conditional close: “If I X then will you Y?”, OR “If I could, would you?”Get a conditional close or you will be nickle’d and dime’d to death. If someone’s mind appears to be wandering, alert them: “In a few minutes I would like to ask you to backtrack.” Give polarity person a job to do! Polarity people with their natural tendency to see the opposite side of an issue often can demoralize others by derailing the synergy generated by like minds. The problem is not their objections; it is the timeliness of their objections. Give them a role to play at a particular time. Ask them to play the devil’s advocate, and to wait until the end to give the other people enough rope to hang themselves with. Conservative: Conservatives are people who say we have always done it this way. One response is: “I’d be willing to consider doing it the way we have in the past if you will consider driving home tonight while looking only in your rear view mirror”. CLOSING THE MEETING Summarize outcome(s).Backtrack frame provides a mechanism to review or trace the development of the information maps, which is relevant to the outcomes established. State next step(s). GO FOR IT!
KNOWLEDGE REVIEWWE WILL COVER A FEW QUESTIONS…you may complete the other’s on your own. Personal selling mediums include face-to-face, teleconference, on the phone and over the internet. True (or) False Personal selling is, when a seller forces the buyer to purchase their product or service. True (or) FalseConservatives are people who say _______________________. __________ ___________ is the foundation for any meaningful interaction between two or more people.
TOOLS OF THE TRADETemplates, worksheets, and checklists can be found in the appendix. These tools of the trade have been design to ensure that you gather all of the information needed about the Client so that you can build a long-term relationship. Eight- Step Process This process is supported by the tools of the trade; templates, worksheets, and checklists. Prospect ListEstablishing a list of prospective clients and qualify which ones to address first.Situation AnalysisThis questionnaire is used to gather data about a specific client’s organization before you meet them. Opportunity AnalysisThis template is used to check the status of the deal and the client relationship. Align yourself as an expert by using the Deal Strategy, and Client Relationship Checklists. Interview ChecklistThis process is meant to gather data during the first meeting. Client QuestionnaireThis template is given to the client; in an effort to capture more detailed preliminary information.Site SurveyThe survey contains a detailed set of questions that help you organize the solution(s) accurately. Confirm that you understand the Client’s needs and use the Trusted Relationship Planner. Proposal Confirmation/Value PropositionThis is the follow-up call (in person or by phone) that is used to confirm details and ensure the proposal is properly targeted.De-Brief Checklist (for management)/Win-Loss Analysis (for yourself)Evaluate effectiveness after the meeting. These steps have other activities threaded around them, and you can see that the prospecting continues right through the proposal stage. These steps are part of the continuing series of qualification steps that ensure you are on target with the client throughout the process.
BUYER BEHAVIOR The Decision- Making ProcessThere are five-stages in the customer decision-making process. Need Recognition & Problem AwarenessInformation SearchEvaluation of AlternativesPurchasePost-Purchase Evaluation A customer can obtain information from several sources: Public SourcesNewspapersRadioTelevisionConsumer organizationsSpecialized magazines Experiential SourcesHandlingExaminingUsing the product Personal SourcesFamilyFriendsNeighborsSocial Networks Commercial SourcesAdvertisingSalespeopleRetailersDealersPackagingPoint-of-Sale displaysPublic SourcesNewspapersRadioTelevisionConsumer organizationsSpecialized magazines Experiential SourcesHandlingExaminingUsing the product
Why Repeat Business is More ProfitableSince you and the client are acquainted, setting an appointment will be easier. You do not need to worry about getting past an obstructive 'gatekeeper'.You should already know who the key figures in the company are and you can address your proposal directly to them.Your discussions will be more frank and honest, since the client is satisfied with the service received in previous interaction.Repeat customers know you and are willing to set appointments.Current clients accept your phone calls and have open discussions with you because they trust you.Current clients tend to be less price sensitive.Current clients provide an opportunity for a long stream of business, sometimes known as the 'lifetime value of the customer' and may be a source of referrals.It is easier to grow a profitable business if you focus on current customers.
KNOWLEDGE REVIEW WE WILL ANSWER A FEW QUESTION…..FILL FREE TO COMPLETE THE OTHERS ON YOUR OWN.There are three stages in the customer decision-making process. True (or) False The third stage in the customer decision-making process is the Purchase.True (or) FalseFocusing on current clients as a source for new business sales; is a waste of time and resources. True (or) False The Situational Analysis is a template that is given to the client; in an effort to capture more detailed preliminary information.True (or) False
Linear Communication Model Linear communication is a process involving a sender, a receiver, a message, and a channel or method of communicating a message. A sender encodes ideas and feelings into a message and then conveys that message to a receiver who decodes the message. The sender also chooses the communication channel or method in which the message is conveyed; between people. The linear model also includes noise that can interfere with effective communication. Noise can occur at every stage of the communication process. There are three types of noise- that can disrupt communication: External/Physical PhysiologicalPsychological
Communicators Often Occupy Different EnvironmentsThe differences in environment can also disrupt the communication process. Environment refers not only to the physical location but includes the personal experiences, cultural differences, age differences, education levels, and differences in personal perspective.
Choosing the Best Medium/ChannelIn today’s world of technology a communicator has several medium channels to choose from, however, the type of message usually determines the medium.
Listening and Hearing Are Not the Same ThingHearing is the process in which sound waves strike the eardrum and cause vibrations that are transmitted to the brain. Listening occurs when the brain reconstructs these electrochemical impulses into a representation of the original sound and then gives them meaning. Listening is not automatic. Many times, we hear but do not listen. Sometimes people will deliberately tune out unwanted signals. Successful listening consists of several stages: HearingAttending (paying attention) Understanding (making sense of the message) Organize information into recognizable formResponding (giving observable feedback)Remembering Other ConsiderationsPeople remember about half of what they hear immediately after hearing it. Within two months, half of the half is forgotten - bringing what we remember down to 25 percent of the original message. Listening is not a natural processListeners do not receive the same message Mindful listening requires effortPeople cannot listen effectively all the time
Nonverbal Communication The definition of nonverbal communication is defined as, “messages expressed through nonlinguistic means.” Vocal Communication vs. NonvocalCommunication Verbal Communication Spoken wordsWritten words Nonverbal Communication Tone of voice, signs, screams, vocal qualities (loudness, and pitch) Gestures, movement, appearance, facial expression, eye contact, voice, and touch
KNOWLEDGE REVIEW We will review a few questions together; feel free to complete the others on your own…The Communication Process includes a ___________, a ____________, a _____________, and a __________________________. There are three types of noise that can interfere with effective communication. True (or) FalseSome types of mass communication flows in a _______________, linear manner, however most types of personal communication are ________________ exchanges.
THE POWER OF PERSUASION Characteristics of PersuasionPersuasion is the process of motivating someone, through communication, to change a particular belief, attitude, or behavior. Persuasion is not the same thing as coercion. Persuasion makes a listener want to think or act differently. Attitudes cannot be altered instantly or dramatically. Persuasion is a process and when it is implemented successfully, it can generally succeed over time, in small increments. A knowledgeable but realistic salesperson can establish goals and expectations that reflect this characteristic of persuasion. Communication scientists explain this characteristic of persuasion through social judgment theory. This theory tell us that when members of an audience hear a persuasive appeal, they compare it to opinions that they already hold. The preexisting opinion is called an anchor, but around this anchor, there exist what are called latitudes of acceptance, latitudes of rejection, and latitudes of noncommitment. People who care very strongly about a particular point of view will have a very narrow latitude of noncommitment. On the other hand, people who care less strongly will have a wider latitude of noncommitment. In addition, people simply will not respond to appeals that fall within their latitude of rejection. This means that persuasion takes place in a series of small movements or encounters. Strongly Agree – AnchorAgree- (Latitude of Acceptance)Do Not Care - (Latitude of Noncommitment)Strongly Disagree - (Latitude of Rejection)
The Big Five Personality Traits ExtroversionThe degree to which a person is outgoing, sociable, assertive, and comfortable with interpersonal relationships. AgreeablenessThe degree to which a person is able to get along with others by being good-natured, likeable, cooperative, forgiving, understanding, and trusting. ConscientiousnessThe degree to which a person is focused on a few goals, thus behaving in ways that are responsible, dependable, persistent, and achievement oriented. Emotional StabilityThe degree to which a person is calm, enthusiastic, and self-confident. Openness to ExperienceThe degree to which a person has a broad range of interests and is imaginative, creative, artistically sensitive, and willing to consider new ideas.
SELF-ASSESSMENT-------Feel free to complete the self-assessment on your own…. Your Locus of Control This questionnaire is designed to measure locus-of-control beliefs. The higher your score on this questionnaire, the more you tend to believe that you are generally responsible for what happens to you; in other words, higher scores are associated with internal locus of control. Low score are associated with external locus of control. Scoring low indicates that you tend to believe that forces beyond your control, such as powerful people, fate, or chance, are responsible for what happens to you.
Hiring the Wrong Person - Costs Involved A job interview rarely last for more than an hour, but its consequences may last for years. The average cost of a bad hiring choice costs the company 30% of the first year’s potential earnings. In addition, this estimate is based on the fact; that the bad hiring decision is recognized and corrected during the first six months the new employee is on the job. Where do these costs come from? Training a replacementClassified advertisingThe interviewer’s salary and benefitsPotential loss of customersLower productivityLow moraleRecruiting agent feesPossible unemployment compensation claimPotential lawsuitThe time lost associated with starting your job search all over again Talent SourcingOrganizations’ have three choices for locating the talent they need to achieve business goals and objectives: Internal transfers or promotionsExternal hiresAlternative staffing methods
Alternative Staffing MethodsTelecommutingJob sharingInternship programsTemporary workerOn-call workerOutsourcingExternal Recruiting Methods Media sourcesInternet job boards and community sitesCompany websiteColleges and universitiesJob fairsAlumni employeesPrevious applicantsEmployee referralsVendors and suppliersLabor unionsProfessional associationsEmployment agenciesWalk-in candidates
Screening ProcessThe screening process is used to reduce the candidate consideration pool that only contains qualified candidates. This reduction process maximizes efficiency; within the Human Resources department. Resume ReviewApplication ReviewConducting Effective Interviews Reference Checks
Candidate Testing ProgramsThe use of pre-employment test have become more popular in recent years. These tests come in several different forms and have a variety of purposes. When choosing the appropriate testing method keep in mind that the pre-employment test must be job-related and used to predict the level of success for the specific type of position. Aptitude TestsCognitive Ability TestPersonality TestIntegrity TestsPsychomotor Assessment TestsPhysical Assessment Tests
Types of Interviews Behavioral InterviewsDirective InterviewsNondirective InterviewsComputer Based InterviewsPanel InterviewsStructured InterviewsStress Interviews
Hiring the “Right Person” The most important activity in the recruiting process is to define exactly what the salesperson will be doing. Salespersons duties are defined into three different roles:Order GettingOrder TakerSales Support What personal traits and abilities should a sales person possess in order to perform this job with success? PersonalityFriendlySociableEnjoy people Likable OptimismTends to look for the more favorable side of eventsExpects the most favorable outcomes ResilienceDoes not take no for an answerPersistentSelf-motivationMotivated to get things doneGoal orientedEmpathyThey care about their customers, their issues and their problemsFocused on service quality
Labor Market AnalysisConditions in the labor market affect the ability of an organization to hire the qualified individuals it needs. A labor market analysis looks at various economic indicators and other factors that influence the availability of those individuals. Economic IndicatorsUnemployment rateOccupational outlookDemographicsWages by area and occupationOpen positionsHiring statistics and terminations Industry ActivityIndustry situationCompetitors’ activities Labor Market CategoriesGeographicTechnical/Professional skillsEducation
Total Rewards PackagesAn organizations total rewards philosophy affects its ability to attract qualified candidates. The total rewards philosophy is a high-level mission statement used to guide the development and implementation of compensation and benefit programs that attract, motivate, and retain employees. There are two types of rewards in a TR package: Monetary CompensationCash compensation401(k) matchingMedical care premiumsPension plansPaid time off Stock optionsEmployee Stock Ownership Programs (ESOPs) Incentive plans Non-Monetary CompensationIntrinsic rewardsExtrinsic rewards
NLP SALES 101 PRESENTED BY DEAN EGANMASTER PRACTITIONER
RAPPORT OUTCOME THINKING SENSORY ACUITY Critical to the Sale…BEHAVIOR FLEXIBILITY
The Buyer’s Outcome is Already In PlaceCustomer expectation = Customer outcomeNLP clarifies the outcomeBased on past experiences of the customerPersonal for each individual beliefs, values, andattitudesThe reason to buy is subjective and internal
No AssumptionsGood selling begins with understanding theprospects outcomeTreat every sales call as if that were the firstsales callThe outcome can change from one sales call tothe nextYou must identify, and re-identify (theoutcome), on every call
The Three Phases of The Sales CallExactly where you are…Exactly where your customer / prospect is…Exactly what needs to be done to move the sale… You Will KnowThree Things at all Times
PERSONAL SELLINGPersonal selling is the two-way flow of communicationbetween a buyer or buyers and a seller - that is targeted atinfluencing the buyer to make a purchase. Face-to-Face Video Teleconferencing Telephone Internet
RELATIONSHIP SELLING ReliabilityThere are five quality dimensions… Reliability Tangibles Responsiveness Responsiveness Service Quality Assurance Dimensions Empathy Tangibles Empathy Assurance
The Value AddedPersonal Selling adds value by: Educating & proving advice Saves the customer time Simplifies the buying process Makes things easier for the customer
Personal Selling is an essential part ofan organizations…… Integrated Market Strategy
The Five Step Sales Process Link the Need Establish Rapport Close the Sale Ask Questions Find a Need
Step 1 – Establish RapportThe first step in building rapport ….. Mirroring and Matching the person.Match the person’s speech and physical appearance.Learn to identify the person’s modality of thought.
VAK Learning StylesThe VAK learning style uses the three main sensory receivers:Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic. Learning Style Description Visual seeing and reading Auditory listening and speaking Kinesthetic touching and doing
Building Rapport Is the foundation for any meaningful interaction between two or more people. Is establishing an environment of trust and understanding. To respect and honor the other person’s world.
Mirroring and Matching Is the key to establishing rapport. Is the ability to enter another person’s world. Is assuming a similar state of mind.Become more like the other person by matching andmirroring their behaviors, body language, voice, and words.
Step 2 – Ask QuestionsThe questions you ask should directly be related; to thespecific business of the other person. “For what purpose…” do you want this? What are you interested in? What do you do?
Types of Questions OPEN CLOSED FACT-FINDING FEEDBACK FOLLOW-UP
Step 3 – Find a Need Establish a Need If there is a no, then Establish Value STOP here. Propose a Solution Use the Conditional Close Tag Questions Remember the spinning plate’s analogy….
Step 4 – Link the Need At this point, you propose or suggest how your product or service will solve the problem that you uncovered earlier. Make a clear recommendation of how, but with as little detail as possible. Only tell the client enough to make it possible for them to purchase.
Step 5 – Close Handle ObjectionsFuture Pace ClosingFire Reassurance Anchor Answering the ObjectionGet Referrals Handling an Objection The Final Objection Close Re-Establish Value
NEGOTIATING/INFLUENCING Determine your outcome. Develop as many options as possible to achieve that outcome. Identify potential areas of agreement. Identify issues to be resolved and plan how to discuss them. Determine your best alternatives to an agreement. OPENING EXCHANGE CLOSING
TACTICS Do not respond- counterproposal Label suggestions and questions Mutual gain- win/win outcomes Use “I” language Avoid attack/defense exchanges State your reasons first Use “Negotiation Aikido” Make a proposal Anchor any and every state Anticipate objectives Avoid “irritators” Behavioral flexibility Glorify the options you favor Minimize the reasons Separate intent from behavior Test Understanding and Summarize Tell the Other Your Feelings Do Not Negotiate in Front of Other Team Members If you get stuck…
Handling Objections OPTIONS AFTER 5 MINUTES IGNORE THEM Move to other issues… Act as if we were in binding arbitration.. Act as if you were me… CLARIFY WITH POINTERS OPTIONS TO RESOLVE ExaggerateRESTATE & VALIDATE Conditional Close Acceptable Option Outframe
The Meeting Format Explore Other Options Minimize Regularly Scheduled Meeting Determine Outcome BEFORE THE MEETING Develop Evidence Procedure Establish Membership & Agenda Develop Options Meeting Place Sensory Check
OPENING THE MEETING CLOSING THE MEETING1. Establish Rapport – 1. Summarize Outcome(s)Maintain Mutual Respect 2. State Next Step – GO FOR IT!2. State the Outcomes –Evidence Procedure DISCUSSION3. Get Agreement – SmokeOut Hidden Agendas Relevancy The Meta Model4. Assign People Something “As If” & “What Would Happen If?”To Do – They Will Find Use Conditional CloseSomething Wandering Mind – Alert Them! Give Polarity – A Job To Do Conservative
KNOWLEDGE REVIEWPersonal selling mediums include face-to-face, teleconference, on thephone and over the internet. TruePersonal selling is, when a seller forces the buyer to purchase theirproduct or service. False “We have always done it like this”.Conservatives are people who say __________________________. Building Rapport__________ ___________ is the foundation for any meaningfulinteraction between two or more people.
Eight – Step Process Proposal Confirmation Prospect List Situation AnalysisDe – Brief Checklist TOOLS OF THE TRADE Client Questionnaire Site Survey Interview Checklist Opportunity Analysis
Buyer Behavior Sources of InformationThe Decision – Making Process Television1) Needs Recognition Co-Worker2) Information Search3) Evaluate Alternatives4) Making the Purchase Friend Internet5) Post – Purchase Evaluation Sister
KNOWLEDGE REVIEW There are three stages in the customer decision-making process. False The third stage in the customer decision-making process is the Purchase. False Focusing on current clients as a source for new business sales; is a waste of time and resources. False The Situational Analysis is a template that is given to the client; in an effort to capture more detailed preliminary information. False
UNDERSTANDING HUMAN COMMUNICATIONLinear Communication is a process involving a sender,a receiver, a message, and a channel or method ofcommunicating a message. 1. External/Physical 2. Physiological 3. Psychological
Communicators are often in different environments. Thesedifferences cause disruption in the communication process. Physical Location Personal Experiences Cultural Differences Age Differences Education Levels Personal Perspective
Choosing the Best Medium/Channel Amount of Effectiveness Feedback InformationMedium/Channel Contained in the for Detailed Consideration Messages MessageFace-to-Face Immediate Highest Weak Vocal, but notTelephone Immediate Weakest visual Vocal, but notVoice Mail Delayed Weak visual LowestE-Mail Delayed Better (text only) LowestInstant Messaging Immediate Weak (text only) Words,Hard Copy Delayed numbers, and Good(handwriting/typed) images.
Listening and Hearing Are Not the Same ThingHearing is the process in which sound waves strike theeardrum and cause vibrations that are transmitted to thebrain. Hearing Attending (paying attention) Understanding (making sense of the message) Organize information into recognizable form Responding (giving observable feedback) Remembering
Comparison of Communication Activities Listening Speaking Reading WritingLearned First Second Third Fourth Used Most Next to most Next to least Least Taught Least Next to least Next to most Most
Vocal Communication vs. Nonvocal CommunicationVerbal Communication Nonverbal Communication Spoken Words Tone of Voice Written Words Gestures Positive Nonverbal Actions Negative Nonverbal Behaviors Maintain eye contact When the other person is talking it is rude to: Show interest = smile Look away Check E-mail Nod head = understanding Negative body language; Show interest = lean head down, flat tones forward Speaking too fast Match tone of voice or too slow
KNOWLEDGAE REVIEWThe Communication Process includes a ___________, a sender____________, a _____________, and a ________________. receiver message channel/mediumThere are three types of noise that can interfere with effectivecommunication. True one-waySome types of mass communication flows in a _______________,linear manner, however most types of personal communication are two-way________________ exchanges.
THE POWER OF PERSUASIONPersuasion is the process of motivating someone, throughcommunication, to change a particular belief, attitude, orbehavior. Persuasion is not the same thing as coercion.Persuasion makes a listener want to think or act differently. Venus at the Level of the Cave, Kate Robinson 2001 Pyramid at the level of Mercury, Kate Robinson, 2001
Extroversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional Stability Openness to Experience
Attitudes & Behaviors are Influenced by Personality An individual’s personality influences a wide variety of attitudes and behaviors. Four that are of particular interest are: 1) Locus of Control 2) Authoritarianism 3) Machiavellianism 4) Problem-Solving Styles Locus of Control: The tendency to place the primary responsibility for one’s success or failure either within oneself (internally) or on outside forces (externally).
RECRUITING AND SELECTING SALES PROFESSIONALS Hiring the Wrong Person Talent Sourcing Costs Involved: Three Choices: Training a replacement 1. Internal transfers or Interviews salary promotions Loss of customers 2. External hires Low morale 3. Alternative staffing Unemployment benefits methods Potential lawsuit
Alternative Staffing External RecruitingMethods Methods Telecommuting Media sources Job sharing Internet job boards and Internship programs community sites Temporary worker Company website On-call worker Referrals Outsourcing Job fairs
Candidate Testing Cognitive Ability Test Integrity Tests Psychomotor Assessment Tests PREDICT SUCCESS Aptitude Tests Physical Assessment Tests Personality Test
Nondirective Interviews Computer Based InterviewsStructured Interviews TYPES OF INTERVIEWS Stress InterviewsBehavioral Based Interviews Panel Interviews Directive Interviews
Hiring the “Right Person” What personal traits and abilities do successful sales people possess? Personality Resilience Friendly Does not take no for an answer Sociable Persistent Enjoy people Self-Motivation Likable Motivated to get things done Optimism Goal oriented Looks for favorable side of Empathy events Cares about their customers Expects favorable outcomes Focused on service quality
Labor Market AnalysisEconomic Indicators Industry Activity Unemployment rate Industry situation Occupational outlook Competitors’ activities Demographics Wages by area and Labor Market Categories occupation Geographic Open positions Technical/Professional Hiring statistics and skills terminations Education
Total Rewards PackagesMonetary Compensation Non-Monetary Compensation Cash compensation Intrinsic rewards 401(k) matching Extrinsic rewards Medical care premiums Pension plans Paid time off Stock options ESOPs Incentive plans