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# D R A W I N G I N S T R U M E N T S, M A T E R I A L S,And E Q U I P M E N T Revised

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### D R A W I N G I N S T R U M E N T S, M A T E R I A L S,And E Q U I P M E N T Revised

1. 1. DRAWING INSTRUMENTS, MATERIALS, AND EQUIPMENT<br />
2. 2. INSTRUMENTS, MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT<br /><ul><li>T-Square
3. 3. Triangles
4. 4. 30 x 60 degrees
5. 5. 45 degrees
6. 6. Scale or RuleDrawing PencilsTechnical PensDividers
7. 7. CompassProtractorFrench CurvesErasing ShieldPencil Sharpener</li></li></ul><li>T-square<br />Used by draftsmen primarily as a guide for drawing horizontal lines on a drafting table.<br />T-squares come in varying sizes, common lengths being 18", 24", 30", 36" and 42".<br />It may also guide a triangle to draw vertical or diagonal lines.<br />Permanent/fixed or movable/adjustable head.<br />
8. 8. The Triangles<br />Used as a guide in drawing vertical or inclined lines.<br />2 Types<br />450 Triangle<br />300-600 Triangle<br />Made of celluloid<br />
9. 9. The Triangles<br />As a guide, the 90 degrees is positioned against the blade of the T-square.<br />Can be combined to produce 15, 75 and 105 degrees angles.<br />To test the accuracy of the triangles, the 2 celluloid triangles should be positioned against each other on a piece of glass or mirror and check if they intersect on the same point.<br />
10. 10. Scale or Rule<br />A scale or rule is needed for measuring sizes and distances and for transferring measurements from it to the drawing paper.<br />A scale or rule can also be used to divide a line into any number or equal parts with the help of the T-square and a triangle.<br />
11. 11. Drawing Pencils<br />Used for drawing straight and curved pencil lines, either freehand or mechanically.<br />Have various grades of hardness and softness.<br />Pencil Grades<br />H - hard (H-9H)<br />B - soft (B-6B)<br />F - fine<br />HB - medium<br />
12. 12. Used for lettering and drawing lines.<br />Can vary from different sizes of points from 0.1mmto 2.0mm<br />Common Brands<br /><ul><li>Staedler, Rotring, Faber Castle</li></ul>Rule in using technical pens<br /><ul><li>Handle it with care to avoid blots and broken tech penpoints.</li></ul>Drawing/Technical Pens<br />
13. 13. Parts of a Technical Pen<br />
14. 14. Divider<br />Consist of two legs each with a needle point.<br />Legs should never be oiled.<br />Parts<br /><ul><li>Handle
15. 15. Yoke - U - shaped metal piece</li></ul> which holds the legs.<br /><ul><li>Leg
16. 16. Needle point</li></li></ul><li>Compass<br />Use in creating arcs or circles<br />Compass with pencil point and compass with <br /> pen point.<br />Parts of the compass<br /><ul><li>Head or Handle
17. 17. Yoke
18. 18. Legs
19. 19. Needle point
20. 20. Pencil point (pencil compass)
21. 21. Pen Point (pen compass)</li></li></ul><li>Protractor<br />The protractor is a tool used to measure or lay out an angle or an arc. It is either circular or semicircular. The celluloid protractor is preferred to the metal one.<br />The numbers indicated on it are in degrees. There are 180 degrees in a half circle.<br />
22. 22. French Curve<br />A French curve is a drafting tool used as guide in mechanically drawing irregular curved lines, either in pencil or ink.<br />French curves are of varied sizes and shapes. <br />At least three sizes and shapes will do for ordinary work. <br />Celluloid ones are preferred by many draftsmen.<br />Like the triangles, they should be well taken care of because they are easily scratched or broken.<br />
23. 23. Erasing Shield<br />An erasing shield is necessary when erasing inked or penciled lines, views, and so forth, located in areas where there are other lines. <br />It is generally of a thin sheet of stainless steel or alloyed aluminum.<br />
24. 24. Pencil Sharpener<br />Use to sharpen drawing pencil of varying grades.<br />Pocket knife or razor blades can be a substitute.<br />
25. 25. REMINDERS ON THE USE OF DRAWING INSTRUMENTS<br />Don’t use the scale as a ruler<br />Don’t use the head of the T-square as a hammer.<br />Don’t put oil on joints of compasses.<br />Don’t sharpen a pencil over the drawing board.<br />Cork the ink bottle all the time.<br />Never put away instruments without relieving the spring tension.<br />
26. 26. REMINDERS ON THE USE OF DRAWING INSTRUMENTS<br />Never fill up a pen over the drawing board.<br />Always clean the instruments and the drawing table before beginning your work.<br />Don’t fold drawing or tracing paper.<br />Don’t use the divider as pincers or picks.<br />Never use the same thumbtacks holes.<br />
27. 27. REMINDERS ON THE USE OF DRAWING INSTRUMENTS<br />Don’t use the edge of the T-square as a guide in cutting the edge of paper.<br />Rub the eraser only on the surface to be erased.<br />Never job the dividers on the drawing board.<br />Always use the upper edge of the T-square as guide in drawing lines.<br />Always clean your instruments after using them.<br />
28. 28. Order of Penciling<br />Lay of sheet to standard size.<br />Decide what to scale.<br />Draw center line for each view and on others “block in” view by laying off principal dimensions and outlines.<br />Draw the view.<br />Finish the project.<br />
29. 29. Order of Penciling<br />Draw necessary dimension lines, and put dimension values.<br />Draw guidelines for the notes and then letter them.<br />Lay-out the title.<br />Check the drawing carefully.<br />
30. 30. Order of Inking<br />Ink a full-line circles, beginning with the smallest, and then circle arcs.<br />Ink dotted circles in same order as #1.<br />Ink any irregular curved lines.<br />Ink straight full-lines in this order horizontal, vertical and inclined.<br />Ink straight dotted lines in the same order of #4.<br />
31. 31. Order of Inking<br />Ink center lines.<br />Ink extension and dimension lines.<br />Ink arrow heads and dimension lines.<br />Section-line all areas representing out surfaces.<br />Letter notes and title (draw pencil guidelines).<br />
32. 32. Prepared By:<br /> Arch. Marites G. Balmas - UAP<br />THANK YOU!!!<br />THANK YOU!!!<br />THANK YOU!!!<br />THANK YOU!!!<br />