1. VoIP(Voice over IP) Security Dayanand Prabhakar
2. Project scope• Understanding VoIP• Threat profiling of VoIP application• Develop the test case and Methodologies to test VoIP application• Sample testing of one VoIP application and report presentation• Mitigation strategies• Conclusion
3. What is VoIP? Routingof voice conversations over the Internet or through any other IP-based network.
4. Benefits VoIP enables convergence of data, voice, and video onto single network. Attractive opportunities – Reducing costs – Reducing complexities – Enabling progressive business gains
5. VoIP implementations Business-grade VoIP telephony – Designed specifically for business grade usage Softphones – X-lite, 3cx , Express Talk Instant Messaging voice services – Application such as AIM, MSN, Apple iChat offer ‘voice chat’ functionality Mobile VoIP – Requires mobile telephone with 3G or wireless connectivity – Using a mobile version of a Softphone mobile devices and telephones are capable of offering VoIP services VoIP handsets – Requires a VoIP handset from the service provider – Offer call functionality and services similar of typical PSTN services
6. Protocols Signaling Protocol – Create, modify, and terminate sessions with participants – Conferences – Proxies – Authentication Transport /Carrier Protocol – Manages the actual voice data
7. Protocols Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) – Signaling protocol – Session Initiation Protocol – Application layer control protocol for initiating VOIP sessions – Currently most favored protocol for new systems
8. Protocols H.323 – One of the earliest sets of VoIP standards by ITU-T – Handles voice, video and data conferencing – Some limitations, but most VoIP traffic utilizes this today Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) – Used for media transfer by other protocols – Fast, scalable and efficient – RTP uses UDP
9. Most Common VOIP SecurityMistakes1. Treating VOIP security the same way as Network security2. Not treating VOIP security the same way as Network security How it’s the Same How it’s Different • Uses mostly the same • Some unique protocols protocols • Traditional Security devices • Uses mostly the same (Firewalls can disrupt service) Operating Systems • People treat it like the old phone • Many of the same system threats
10. Complexities in VOIPArchitecture
11. Voice over IP ThreatsThreats are categorized into followingparameters. Threats against availability Threats against confidentiality Threats against integrity Threats against social context
12. Voice over IP ThreatsAgainst Availability Against Confidentiality Call flooding Eavesdropping Toll Fraud Call pattern Tracking Call hijacking Reconstruction Fuzzing TDOS
13. Voice over IP ThreatsAgainst Integrity Against Social context Message Misrepresentation Alteration Call SPIT (Spam over Call Rerouting Internet Telephony ) Media Alteration Vising
14. What are the Threat Vectors? OS Exploits Signaling Attacks Endpoint Admin Privilege Exploits Real Time Protocol (RTP) Attacks DoS Attacks IP PBX &Telephony Server Exploits
15. Specialized Hacking Tools BackTrack Penetration Testing Distribution – www.backtrack-linux.org/ Wireshark (http://www.wireshark.org) – Packet Sniffer Cain and Abel (http://www.oxid.it) – Password cracker – ARP spoofing – RTP Playback SiVuS (http://www.vopsecurity.org/html/tools.html) – VoIP Vulnerability Scanner – General Purpose VoIP packet generation, spoofing, testing tool.
16. Attack on VoIP
17. Mitigation Strategies Create VOIP Specific Security Policies Segmentation as appropriate – Utilize separate VLANs for voice and data Device Hardening – Do not use default passwords – Turn off unnecessary services – Apply vendor supplied patches in a timely manner – Perform vendor installation security checklist to harden applications Pay attention to Security Risk Assessments and planning against the VOIP infrastructure
18. Key Mitigation Strategies Apply Encryption where possible Use tools to test the network Utilize VoIP aware Firewalls, Intrusion Prevention Systems Continue to protect against traditional system attacks (Toll Fraud, Modem Security, Social Networking Attacks & etc.) Avoid Single point of failure
19. Conclusion VoIP is established as the future of telephones Security is critical when designing, implementing and maintaining VoIP systems VoIP technology should there by provide a balance between security and business needs .
20. References VOIPSA – http://www.voipsa.org/ The VOIP Dilemma SANS Institute – http://www.sans.org/rr/whitepapers/voip/1452.php NIST - Security Considerations for Voice Over IP Systems, – http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800- 58/SP800-58-final.pdf IP Telephony & VoIP: Security technical implementation guide – http://csrc.nist.gov/pcig/STIGs/VoIP-STIG-V2R2.pdf