E Health Article March 16 2009v2


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Articcle, What is eHealth, presented byDawn Jeffress, March 16,2009.

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E Health Article March 16 2009v2

  1. 1. What is e-Health: A Systematic Review of Published Definitions By Dawn Jeffress EDAE A637 The Design of e-Learning Source: Powell, J. and Pagliari, C. (2005). What is e-Health: A systematic review of published definitions. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 7(1): e1.
  2. 2. Problem <ul><li>e-Health is a widely used term by a variety of professional and academic institutions, individuals and funding organizations. Communications between the various organizations and individuals using the term could be enhanced by providing more information regarding the variety of meanings e-Health may encompass. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Purpose <ul><li>To report the results which were found after a methodical review of proposed, suggested and published definitions of eHealth. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definitions were analyzed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arising patterns, ideas, and themes were recorded </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Methodology <ul><li>Peer reviewed literature was systematically reviewed where definitions of eHealth were described. Inclusion criteria consisted of: </li></ul><ul><li>Published source in print or on the internet </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria used was printed in English </li></ul><ul><li>Text was used which defined eHhealth </li></ul>
  5. 5. METHODOLOGY CONT. <ul><li>The following electronic data bases were researched using the search query of e-health, eHealth, or electronic health. </li></ul><ul><li>EMBASE (1980-May 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Web of Science (all years) </li></ul><ul><li>International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-May 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Information Sciences Abstracts (1966-May 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Wilson business Abstracts (1982-May 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Library Information Sciences Abstracts (1969-May 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Also searched was dictionaries and Google web search engine (Feb. 2004-June 2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to overwhelming hits on Google only the first 400 were reviewed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search refined using “definition” and only first 400 hits reviewed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Further search using “what is e-Health” or “what is eHealth” reviewing results of 358 </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Qualitative Analysis <ul><li>A qualitative analysis was used and all the presenting definitions were coded for content, patterns, emerging themes, and any novel ideas. A constant comparative method of coding described by Corbin and Strauss was used in an iterative process where phrases, words, paragraphs, and sentences were broken down, compared, labeled and grouped until there was no emergence of any new categories. Definitions were coded and compared for consistency and reliability using an analytical qualitative software package (QSR NVivo v2.0). </li></ul>
  7. 7. FINDINGS <ul><li>A systematic review provided the following information: </li></ul><ul><li>10 different definitions emerged relating to the term “eHealth” from 1209 abstracts and 430 citations found on the bibliographic databases </li></ul><ul><li>41 unique additional definitions emerged from the Google search from 1158 sites </li></ul><ul><li>2 universal themes were identified: Health and Technology </li></ul><ul><li>6 themes less generally mentioned were: Activities, Outcomes, Commerce, Stakeholders, Place and Perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions were many and varied from the application of e- </li></ul><ul><li>commerce toward pharmaceuticals and healthcare to an ever </li></ul><ul><li>increasing area of social policies using media technology to provide </li></ul><ul><li>existing and new health outcomes. </li></ul>
  8. 8. IMPLICATIONS <ul><li>Due to the fact that eHealth is such a widely </li></ul><ul><li>used term and has a variety of concepts </li></ul><ul><li>more research could be done to define the </li></ul><ul><li>term even more explicitly. This would </li></ul><ul><li>ultimately improve understanding and </li></ul><ul><li>communication throughout the health care </li></ul><ul><li>community and the variety of organizations, </li></ul><ul><li>schools and professional individuals which </li></ul><ul><li>encounter the term. There is such a variety of </li></ul><ul><li>methods of providing care such as through </li></ul><ul><li>doctors, hospitals, labs, pharmacies, medical </li></ul><ul><li>and pharmaceutical companies, social </li></ul><ul><li>workers, nurses as well as rural versus urban </li></ul><ul><li>areas that the term eHealth may provide </li></ul><ul><li>different meanings to each entity. I don’t think </li></ul><ul><li>we will have a consensus of a definition that </li></ul><ul><li>will fit all areas of care but may have to allow a </li></ul><ul><li>broader interpretation to encompass a variety </li></ul><ul><li>of disciplines. </li></ul>