Your fitness ebook(2)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Your fitness ebook(2)

on

  • 276 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
276
Slideshare-icon Views on SlideShare
267
Embed Views
9

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
11
Comments
0

2 Embeds 9

http://sitebuilder.yola.com 6
http://www.pursuitofhealthiness.co.uk 3

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Your fitness ebook(2) Your fitness ebook(2) Document Transcript

    • Pursuit of Fitness Boot Camp Orientation Manual www.pursuitofhealthiness.co.uk Karen Casadei & Alex Seckham
    • This E-book was written for anyone who is willing to do the work necessary to change the rest of their life.
    • Pursuit of Fitness Boot Camp Karen Casadei & Alex Seckham Pursuit of Fitness pursuitofhealthiness@yahoo.com (email) www.pursuitofhealthiness.co.uk/ www.pursuitoffitness.co.uk (internet)
    • Contents INTRODUCTION 5 5 EXERCISES YOU SHOULD KNOW FOREVER 10 YOUR MUSCLES AND WHAT THEY DO 11 YOUR MUSCULAR SYSTEM 14 MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS 15 SINGLE AND MULTIPLE JOINT MOVEMENTS 17 YOUR GENETICS AND BODY TYPE 18 BODY STYLE AND SYMMETRY 19 LEAN MASS DEFICIENCY 20 EXERCISE ACCOUNTABILITY 21 PROGRAM INGREDIENTS 22 Warming Up Proper Technique Target Heart Rate All Weight is Created Equal A Short Note About Water Cardiovascular vs. Aerobic If Your Muscles Become Sore If you're Sick Stay Home If you’re Unfit or Over 45 EXERCISE DESCRIPTIONS EXERCISE GLOSSARY INQUIRIES 22 22 23 24 25 26 26 26 27 28 45 54
    • Boot Camp is a complete system to help you achieve your goals. It is clear and easy to follow. We have years of experience helping clients and now you have the chance to use our knowledge to help you. Join our facebook page, ‘pursuit of healthiness barnsley’ and let us know how you get on. Good luck! Karen & Alex Karen Casadei & Alex Seckham Pursuit of Fitness www.pursuitofhealthiness.co.uk/www.pursuitoffitness.co.uk
    • Pursuit of Healthiness Boot Camp The Program
    • Boot Camp was designed to produce the maximum gains in the shortest amount of time - be it fat loss or muscle growth. In the past, traditional programs stressed aerobic exercise as the primary exercise protocol to burn fat. For the average person a little known fact is that strength training or muscle building is a much more efficient fat-burning tool. When you include a proper strength-training program with aerobic activity, fat loss can be much more than with aerobic exercise alone. This is the secret behind our boot camp. In truth, it is really more common sense than a secret. In exercise science, it is well known that the first few minutes of aerobic activity (depending on the individual and intensity) does not burn fat but involves anaerobic energy sources. These very same energy sources are used when strength training or muscle building. When these energy sources are depleted during an aerobic workout done prior to a weight-training workout, your energy levels for weight training will obviously be low or non-existent. This means that your muscles will not be able to train at a level intense enough to provide any benefit. If you begin your complete workout with a strength-training routine, you are able to work harder and maximize your gains. You also deplete your anaerobic energy sources. This allows your body to utilize fat as an energy source once you begin your aerobic exercise or activity. Ultimately this will make your body a much more efficient fat burner. You must understand, for every pound of muscle you gain, your body requires an additional 50 to 75 calories to maintain that pound of muscle. Those calories come directly from fat. Unlike the popular bodybuilding workouts seen on television and in various fitness magazines, 30 days of fat loss trains the whole body 2-3 times per day in short intervals using a type of progressive overload resistance and high interval training. Each muscle group is exercised through its full range of motion and is brought to muscular fatigue within a designated repetition range in only one to two sets. Every workout, your body will be challenged to adapt to an increased workload by either adding more weight or increased repetitions. Your strength-training workout will target specific areas of your body and will consist of a minimum of 10 different exercises and, at times, increase to as many as 15. This deviates from traditional multiple-set training philosophies where the muscle is fatigued by performing numerous sets of a specific exercise. 30 days of fat loss focuses on quality (what is done within the set) not the quantity or the number of sets used to achieve muscular fatigue or fat burning potential. Time is a precious commodity.
    • The duration of your entire workout will between 30- 60 minutes. Your strength training or resistance workout is approximately 30-40 minutes long and your aerobic workout is about 2030 minutes long. This will provide maximum results in a minimal amount of time. The misconception that there is not enough time to exercise often prevents many people from starting a fitness program. If you were to ask anyone who does not exercise why they do not, their answer almost always will be that there is not enough time in a day to work out. They will cite every reason from long hours at the job to spending time with their family. Although these may be valid excuses, they still are excuses. Excuses can ultimately compromise your quality of life and prevent you from living a healthful one. If the reasons you state for not exercising are valid, then they are the very reasons you should begin an exercise program.
    • 5 EXERCISES YOU NEED TO LEARN FOREVER Single leg deadlift Balance on your weakest leg first Bend from the hips and knee, and reach down aiming to touch the floor. Hold for 2 counts, squeeze your glute and return to standing Bulgarian split squats Balance one leg on a bench or step behind you Keep in an upright position, lower the back knee to the floor Hold for 2 counts then return to standing. Step Ups Step up onto a 8 inch step or bench Step up, then return to the start position keeping the working leg on the step or bench Mountain Climbers In a press up position, bring one knee to the chest. Return back to the original position, then alternate legs Press Ups You can begin this exercise with your knees on the floor Lower your shoulders to your hands, keeping your back straight Return back to the original position
    • YOUR MUSCLES AND WHAT THEY DO Front View Back View (From Human Anatomy and Physiology by B.G. King and M.J. Showers, 6th edition, Philadelphia: W.B. Sanders Company, 1969.) An important reason to even begin an exercise or strength-training program is to develop your muscles which will undoubtedly improve your physique. So, it may be good to identify the major muscles or muscle groups you will be exercising. The order in which they are mentioned is also the sequence with which each muscle or muscle group should be exercised. Buttocks Your buttocks are considered to be the largest and most powerful muscle group in your body and are responsible for movement of your hip joint. There are three specific muscles that make up the buttocks: the gluteus maximus (which is the largest), the gluteus minimus, and the gluteus medius. Your buttocks are used in activities such as jumping and sprinting. Quadriceps Your quadriceps consist of four muscles that are located on the front of your thigh. These four muscles are responsible for extending or straightening your lower leg. Your knee's stability
    • depends largely on the strength of each part of your quadriceps, which include the vastus lateralis (outside), vastus medialis (inside), vastus intermedius (in between) and rectus femoris (on top). Your quadriceps are used in all running, kicking,and jumping activities. Hamstrings Your hamstrings are actually three muscles located at the back of your thighs: the semimembranosus, semitendinosus, and biceps femoris. These three muscles flex or bring your lower leg towards your buttocks. Your hamstrings are used in virtually every running and jumping activity. The hamstrings are extremely vulnerable to pulls and strains and need to be exercised as much as the quadriceps to maintain a proper muscular balance. Calves Your calves are made up of two muscles located at the back of your lower leg: the gastrocnemius (the upper) and the soleus (actually underneath) . Although these two muscles are used to raise your heel off the ground, they usually operate independently of one another. The gastrocnemius is primarily used when your legs are straight and the soleus is involved when the knee is bent at a 45-degree angle. Your calves are the densest muscle in your body. So, it is important that you place greater demands on them during your workout. Higher rep ranges usually solve this problem. Chest The major muscle of your chest is the pectoralis major and, located beneath, is the pectoralis minor. Both muscles are used in forward pressing movements, but are most effectively exercised by performing exercises that adduct the shoulder joint (bring your upper arm across your body). Upper Back Your upper back is comprised of many muscles, the primary muscle being the latissimus dorsi or "the lats." This muscle is used in pulling movements such as rowing and is needed to provide muscular balance against the muscles of the chest. The other muscles of your upper back include the rhomboids (located between your shoulder blades) and the trapezius (located at the uppermost part of your back and neck). The primary function of your rhomboids is to squeeze your shoulder blades together and the trapezius are used in elevating your shoulders toward your ears. The trapezius is often mistaken for being part of the shoulders, but is really a muscle of the Upper Back.
    • Shoulders Your shoulders are probably the most complicated group of muscles in your body and are often the subject of many injuries. The reason for this may lie in the fact that 11 muscles make up your shoulders and the structural integrity of all those muscles must be maintained. The deltoids are the largest muscle group of your shoulders and do most of the work. They are responsible for raising your upper arm forward, sideways, and backward. Your shoulders play an important role in every upper-body movement you do, so you should make the effort to train them adequately. Upper Arms Your upper arms consist of two muscles: the biceps and triceps. Your biceps are used to raise or flex your lower arm towards your shoulder and your triceps are used to extend or straighten your lower arm. The biceps generally assist the upper-back muscles in most pulling movements; the triceps usually assist the chest and shoulder muscles in pressing movements. As a result of assisting the larger muscles of the torso, the arms can be (and usually are) over trained by many individuals. Forearms Your forearms consist of two sets of muscle groups: the flexors and extensors. Your flexors bend your hand forward at the wrist. Your extensors bend your hand backward at the wrist. Your forearms are used in every exercise that requires you to grip a bar or piece of exercise equipment. Midsection The muscles of your midsection keep you standing erect and also allow you to bend forward, backward, and laterally. Your lower back (specifically your erector spinae) straighten your upper torso from a bent-over position. Your abdominals (specifically the rectus abdominis) bring your ribcage toward your pelvic bone. Your obliques help to rotate your upper torso while the transverse abdominis constricts or flexes your abdomen without bending your upper torso.
    • SINGLE-JOINT AND MULTI-JOINT MOVEMENTS As you get started on your exercise or strength-training program; you will learn that there are many exercises you will be asked to perform. These exercises usually are one of two types of movements: single-joint or multiple-joint. A single-joint movement or exercise is one in which a single muscle or muscle group is isolated and moves a specific bone. A properly performed biceps curl is an example of a single-joint movement. A multiple-joint movement or exercise involves two or more joints, and therefore, more muscles are exercised. Multiple-joint exercises such as the chest press usually involve a larger muscle (the chest) and smaller ones (the shoulders and triceps). In this case, there is movement at the shoulder and elbow joints. Other multiple-joint exercises include the leg press, rowing exercises, and pressing movements involving the shoulder joint. Some other single-joint exercises include lateral raises, leg extensions and leg curls. Muscles which participate in single-joint or multiple-joint movements are classified as either agonist (to go with) or antagonist (to go against). All the muscles in your body are arranged to oppose each other. For example, your biceps flex or bend your elbow and your triceps extend or straighten your elbow. Your strength-training program should never emphasize one muscle group without providing equal attention to its antagonistic counterpart. Multiple Joint Movement Single Joint Movement
    •  Very Round  Very Muscular  Very Thin  Looks Puffy  Very lean/ No fat  Not Muscular but  No Definition or  More Bodybuilder muscularity Type sinewy  Usually No Fat YOUR GENETICS AND BODYTYPE Your genetics or inherited characteristics play a very distinctive role in how you look as an individual. Your genetic makeup-although predetermined at birth can always be improved. It is highly unlikely but if you do by chance possess all the anatomical attributes in the right combination, you may very well develop a near-perfect physique or the potential to have a perfect physique. If you don't, you should realize that you may have to take what your parents gave you and make the best of it. Among the many attributes that affect your potential to improve your physique by either gaining muscle or losing body fat is your body type. There are three general body types: ectomorph, mesomorph, and endomorph. Understanding the different body type allows you to distinguish what you have to work with and determine your physical potential. Of the three main body types, ectomorphs are usually frail looking and small-boned with thin muscles and very little fat. Ectomorphs generally have a difficult time gaining muscle mass and making significant strength gains. Most marathon runners are ectomorphs. Mesomorphs, on the other hand, have a hard, rugged look about them. Their bones are quite thick and covered in heavy muscle with almost no fat. Mesomorphs obviously have the greatest potential for gaining muscle mass and strength. Classic examples of
    • this body type are wrestlers, gymnasts, and bodybuilders. Last but not least, endomorphs have a distinct roundness and softness, which is typical of an athlete like a sumo wrestler. Endomorphs have a high percentage of fat with very little muscle mass. I want you to understand that these characteristics are general and most people are a combination of the three main body types. For example, a great majority of the population are either ecto-mesomorphs or endo-mesomorphs. Some of us are slightly thin and well defined in muscularity or some may look bulky with absolutely no definition. I would be considered a meso-morph. What body type are you? 30 days of fat loss takes into account all three body-types and utilizes the ability to produce muscle as a measurement for how much you can lose on this program. If you are a basic mesomorph with 30 pounds of extra fat, you will have a much easier time than a basic endo-morph. Although the fat loss will be significant it will be at a much slower pace. Not to worry…it will come off. The foundation of this program is to build muscle specifically to create a larger engine to burn more fuel (fat). BODY STYLE & SYMMETRY Although body type plays an important role in your potential to lose or gain weight, your body style, though never talked about is a better indicator to how much fat you will lose and how much muscle you will gain. Your Body Style is directly related to your body’s symmetry. Symmetry is the look of balance between all the parts of your body. Have you ever seen someone whose head looks too small for their body or someone’s legs looked too short compared to their upper body? This balance discrepancy can be said that the individual has no symmetry. As infants fresh out of the womb, we all (unless born with a skeletal disease) arrive symmetrical. The course of physical activities that we are involved in throughout our young life creates muscular balances or imbalances depending on the activity. If we spend most of our time running, climbing, jumping and tumbling our bodies will adapt to this stress and build muscle to help us achieve greater results in those activities. If we partake in sports that use a part of the body the majority of the time, the muscles related to that movement or sport will, overtime become larger and more dominant, this usually creates an imbalance in our bodies. Symmetry and Body Style play the most important role in exercising. Most often women that have a so called “pear shape” try time and time again to rid their hips by working out their legs, creating usually larger legs. Instead of trying to take away fat from your legs and hips you should be trying to add more muscle to your upper body, specifically your back, shoulders and chest. Without the narrow stature of your shoulders and therefore upper body your hips don’t
    • look so fat. Now with the added muscle in places that you need it your body with begin to burn fat at a faster rate. There are 4 Body Styles that I use to determine 1) Long and Narrow 2) Short and Narrow 3) Long and Broad 4) Short and Broad With all of these Body Styles the Symmetry is the same: Neck: Arms: Calves: same size (or close to it) Chest/Hips: Same size Waist: 8-10 inches smaller If any of these measurements are off by just a little it can hinder your fat burning potential. It is Important to first get these measurements as close to perfect as you can before expecting your body to burn fat efficiently. 30 days of fat loss will correct all inconsistencies in your symmetry and bring your body to it full fat burning potential.
    • EXERCISE ACCOUNTABILITY With the exception of those who are highly motivated and disciplined, most people have difficulty achieving fitness goals when they work out by themselves. The missing link in this success equation is usually accountability. The addition of a training partner, journal or support group can make all the difference between Fab and Flab. There is something motivating about seeing on paper the food atrocities we’ve consumed or knowing someone is waiting for us at the gym. Accountability enables us to go for it as a “team” effort, even if the team is me, myself and I. Whether it’s a training partner with similar goals or a piece of paper-go for it. I usually recommend beginners as well as veterans to the fitness game use the Food Journal that comes with this program, which allows you to write down everything you have consumed, including water intake and record the type of exercise performed. Many trainers and exercise enthusiasts use specific workout journals that record every rep, set and exercise in their workout. I personally don’t think this practice very prudent since it takes time away from your workout intensity. If you want the workout to be intense enough to bring about change then you need to rest very little between sets. These journals are better left to bodybuilders, power lifters and athletes who really need to record small incremental improvements. Almost every time you begin a training program especially with weights, there are large jumps in the amount of weight you can handle. I dislike rep, set and weight journals because the progress in the beginning weeks is often skewed and full of false hope. These leaps in poundage are not a result of significant strength gains but the ability to become more efficient at doing that specific movement. You are actually becoming more skilled at the exercise and adapting to that change in your environment. This is no way to understand real improvement. Consider this adaptive period as kind of a honeymoon to real progress and after the honeymoon comes real work. So whether your sources of accountability comes in human form or through pen and ink remember an effective source to bring about significant change in your body through exercise is to adjust your ATTITUDE and be ACCOUNTABLE.
    • PROGRAM INGREDIENTS Your individual results may vary. Obviously, if you do not have 30 or more pounds to lose than you won’t. A good working knowledge of these program ingredients will enhance your chances of achieving your goals as best as your potential will allow. I suggest that you follow these guidelines to insure you get the full benefit of each workout. WARMING UP Common sense tells us that a cold or stiff body does not move as efficiently as a warm or limber one. So, some time at the beginning of your workout should be dedicated to warming up your body. Warming up helps to increase the internal temperature of your body which affects how your muscles will move. For many individuals, five to ten minutes of warming up is sufficient. PROPER TECHNIQUE If you do not use correct form or technique, you will not get the most out of your workout. When your technique is incorrect, muscles that are not supposed to be exercised will be and those that are supposed to be may not. This is often seen when an individual performs a bicep curl. Proper technique during a bicep curl is to keep your back straight and your upper arms perpendicular to the floor (or parallel to the spine). This isolates the bicep muscle. If you raise your elbow or move it forward while performing the curling movement, your anterior deltoid will come into play. This diminishes the muscular growth throughout the biceps full range of motion and uses other muscles to help lift the resistance. I want to emphasize that you should always use correct form and technique when doing any and all exercises. An easy way to maintain correct form is to remember to keep your head up, shoulders back and chest out when performing upper-body movements. You also should always keep your knees behind your toes when doing any pressing movements with your legs. Proper technique should be practiced every time you perform an exercise. To ensure that proper technique and form are being practiced, you should workout in front of a mirror whenever possible or train under supervision. Another aspect of proper technique pertains to your speed of movement within the exercise. The speed of movement during an exercise can either increase or decrease your potential for injury. It will also dictate the intensity of the exercise. Performing quick, jerking movements tends to use momentum and will not fatigue the muscle through its full range of motion. The speed of any and all exercises should be slow and controlled. A controlled movement significantly reduces the risk of injury during that exercise while increasing the intensity. A slow, controlled movement can be demonstrated by performing a concentric contraction in about two seconds and an eccentric contraction in about
    • four seconds. Therefore, a single repetition should be six seconds in length. When you multiply six by your designated repetition range such as 20-25, your set for that particular exercise would be between 120 seconds (2 minutes) and 150 seconds (2 1/2 minutes) respectively. To increase the intensity within a set, you may be asked to slow the speed of movement to eight or ten seconds for a single repetition. TARGET HEART RATE 30 days of fat loss uses a high interval technique that brings your heart rate out of its aerobic target zone on a regular basis. This version of high intensity training is the way that the body was intended to work… in short intense spurts. This type of training confuses your body and creates chaos when it tries to use its energy systems. Usually the body burns glycogen and then fat during a sustained exercise activity. Not so with high interval training. Your body doesn’t know what to do so it burns off the glycogen very quickly and utilizes fat as its energy source. The best part of this process is the increased muscle mass creates an all day fat burning environment. The bigger the engine the more fuel it burns all day. What does this have to do with target heart rate? Everything! I don’t want you keeling over and dying from a heart attack just when you finally made the decision to start training and losing the fat on your body. Determining your minimum and maximum heart levels is very important when beginning 30 days of fat loss. Before you try to determine your target heart rate, it is wise to understand that target heart-rate levels are just guidelines and should be treated as such. For one thing, your target heart rate depends largely on what type of physical condition you are in. Let's say you haven't worked out on regular basis for a long time and you're 25 years old. A friend of yours has been walking 3 days a week and strength training 3 times a week for the past year and he or she is 25. Wouldn't you agree that the two of you would have different target heart rates? The easiest and most effective way to determine your Target Heart Rate (THR) is to calculate it using the Karvonen Method. If you use the 220 minus your age, dived by 60%, 70 % or 80% your THR can vary as much as 25 points. Not good when you want to get the maximum benefits from your workout. Here’s how to calculate it with the Karvonen Method:
    • The formula factors in your resting heart rate, so you’ll need to determine your resting heart rate by doing the following:    Prior to getting out of bed in the morning, take your pulse on your wrist (radial pulse) or on the side of your neck (carotid pulse). Count the number of beats, starting with zero, for one minute. For accuracy’s sake, take your resting heart rate three mornings in a row and average the 3 heart rates together. Another element in finding your training heart rate zone is determining the intensity level at which you should exercise. As a general rule, you should exercise at intensities between 60% - 85% of your heart rate. Use the following table as a guide for determining your intensity level: Beginner or low fitness level . . 60% Average fitness level . . . . . . . . 60% - 70% High fitness level . . . . . . . . . . . 75% - 85% Now that you have gather the necessary information let’s figure it out: 220 - Age = Maximum Heart Rate Max Heart Rate - Rest. Heart Rate x Intensity + Rest. Heart Rate = Training Heart Rate Example, Tara is 35 yrs old, has a resting heart rate of 75 and she’s just beginning her exercise program (her intensity level will be 60%.) Tara’s training heart rate zone should be 142 beats per minute: Tara's Maximum Training Heart Rate: 220 - 35 (Age) = 185 185 - 75 (Rest. HR) = 110 110 x .60 (Max. Intensity) + 75 (Rest. HR) = 141 Beats/Minute ALL WEIGHT IS CREATED EQUAL The statement made by our forefathers that all men are created equal, can also be applied to resistance. If you have been in the business as long as I have, you will hear myths that seem to come to life and sometimes become bigger then life. This is true when it comes to the argument that free weights are a better training modality or method than pulley machines or body-weight exercises. Well, I'm here to tell you that there is definitely no truth to that myth whatsoever. Your muscle fibers do not know the difference between you lifting an 8-pound brick or an 8pound dumbbell. All it knows is that the weight of the object is eight pounds. This also holds true for resistance that comes in the form of machines such as the lat pull down or row machine. When lifting a resistance your muscle does not know whether it is moving a dumbbell, barbell or a machine. As long as that muscle is exercised to exhaustion it will not know or care what did it, just as long as it did.
    • A SHORT NOTE ABOUT WATER Water retention or the medical term “edema” has many women and men trying to shed pounds when the solution is fairly easy (unless you have a medical condition), drink water to get rid of water. The whole truth is that when the body needs water, it will retain it. Many dieters have it in reverse. They’d rather not drink too much water for fear it will put pounds on. Ironically, the more water we drink, the less we retain! If the body knows that it will be replenished with a new supply of water every hour or so it will very rarely retain it. Water is what we’re mostly made of, and it’s about the healthiest thing we can do for ourselves. Studies have shown that the less water you drink the less fat you will lose. There’s two reasons for this; 1. Almost every chemical function in your body utilizes water to carry out that function i.e. energy expenditure; also dehydration slows down those processes and; 2. Most individuals have a tendency to mistaken the water loss due to dehydration as fat loss because they see weight loss on the scale. Remember weight loss is not fat loss. How much is too much? You should drink at least one third of your bodyweight in ounces gradually Increasing that to half your bodyweight in ounces. That’s a lot of water! If you weigh 150 pounds than begin by drinking 50 ounces of water per day then gradually increase in to 75 ounces per day. Only increase when you stop peeing every 10 minutes. Any time you change a bodily routine in will take a little adjusting to, but stick with it. You’ll look younger and feel better. Drinking any less will leave you dehydrated and will keep you from hitting your goals. Without water your body can’t work hard enough to burn fat. Dehydration also causes undue muscle cramping and can prohibit adequate intensity during exercise.
    • CARDIOVASCULAR vs. AEROBIC For years, you have probably heard the word "cardiovascular" or "cardio" used as a description for aerobic activity or training. This isn't too far from the truth, but there is and should be a distinction between the two terms. The term cardiovascular represents the system that involves the heart and lungs. Although the cardiovascular system is exercised during aerobic training, the main objective of aerobic training is to burn fat. A common misconception is that weight or strength training does not help to improve your cardiovascular system. This is definitely untrue. It may be true that weight training does not burn fat initially but let's think about this for a minute. As you perform a set of high-intensity exercise, your body (especially the muscle group you are working) is placing great demands on your lungs for oxygen and your heart for blood flow. These two organs predominantly make up your cardiovascular system. If you train with high intensity during your strength-training workout, you will develop your cardiovascular system. So remember, you don't have to engage in traditional forms of aerobic activity to strengthen your cardiovascular system. IF YOUR MUSCLES BECOME SORE Placing demands on muscles that you rarely use will cause those muscles to become sore. This soreness is a result of chemical waste products that come from exercising an unconditioned muscle. These chemical waste products are known as lactic acid and carbon dioxide. When lactic acid is present in an unconditioned muscle, it is believed that the muscle becomes sensitized to pain. This pain, though a bit uncomfortable, represents a new beginning for your new body. Muscle soreness can also occur when higher demands are placed on a conditioned muscle. An example of this would be bench pressing 150 pounds for 20 reps and then increasing the weight to 170 pounds and forcing yourself to do 20 repetitions in your next workout. This soreness is usually temporary and can usually be remedied by exercising those same muscles in a subsequent workout. On occasion, I've known people who tried to eliminate this discomfort by taking an anti-inflammatory medication such as ibuprofen. This may relieve the pain temporarily but isn't recommended because pain or soreness is an indicator that care should be given to the area affected by the soreness. Masking this pain can cause problems in the recovery process due to overuse.
    • IF YOU’RE SICK STAY HOME In the unfortunate event that you become ill, it is important to remember that your body's immune system is compromised. Exercise is a stressor that will also compromise your immune system. If you engage in exercise while ill, there is a good chance that it will make the illness worse and not better. Many people believe that you must sweat out a cold. I'm not one of those people. In my experience it has always been better to take a day off and rest so that you will be 100% when you train on your next workout. The body needs to heal itself before you are ready to train hard again. Your body is only made to handle one immune suppressor at a time. IF YOU ARE UNFIT OR OVER 45 Unfortunately, most everyone who begins an exercise program rarely seeks the advice of their doctor. If you are overweight and/or unfit, it is suggested that you seek advice and permission from your doctor before you begin your exercise program. You may think it's a bit troublesome but it may prevent problems or even save your life. If you are over 45 and want to begin an exercise regimen and you haven't exercised in years, it is strongly advised that you make an appointment with your doctor to set up a stress test. Although you may believe yourself to be healthy it is always a good idea for you to be evaluated by your doctor just to make sure nothing has crept up on you due to lack of exercise or the aging process. Do yourself a favor and do it right the first time, or you'll wind up seeing him any way. The fitness and training systems you are about to implement, if consistent, will yield amazing results. Now, it's up to you to build and shape the body that you will be proud of. Remember that education is the key to motivation. If you have trouble understanding any part of this introduction, please contact us at pursuitofhealthiness@yahoo.com to explain the section or sections you do not understand. This introduction, although informative, is only the tip of the iceberg. Teaching you complete exercise physiology and exercise science would take several years and, in some cases, might bore you to tears. I hope that we at Pursuit of Healthiness have given you the information necessary to set you off on the right road to fitness. For additional information and reference sources please refer back to www.pursuitofhealthiness.co.uk
    • Pursuit of Healthiness 30 Days of Fat Loss Exercise Descriptions
    • Push-up Begin with your hands and toes on the floor. Your torso and legs should remain rigid, keeping your back perfectly straight throughout the movement. Bend your arms and slowly push (lift) your body, stopping when your arms are fully extended and then lower yourself to the start position. Negative Push Ups Begin in the up position, keeping your back totally flat and your head up (parallel to floor, not hanging!) Lower yourself by bending your elbows on a 3 to 5 count. Touch your chest (not your hips, lazy ass!) on the ground, bend your knees so they touch the ground and press up with your arms raising yourself back to the up position, straighten your knees and get up on your toes and repeat the process all over again. Dumbbell Fly Begin by lying back on a flat bench, planting your feet firmly on the floor (if the bench seems high, place your feet on the bench so your back does not arch). Grasp two dumbbells and bring them out to your sides, maintaining straight arms throughout the movement. Your palms should be facing each other, and your upper arms should be as straight as possible. Slowly raise the dumbbells upward in a semicircular motion. Gently touch the weights together at the top of the move and, squeeze your chest muscles at the top of the exercise; slowly return the weights to the start position.
    • Incline Dumbbell Press Begin by lying face up on an incline bench set at approximately 30 to 40 degrees, planting your feet firmly on the floor. Grasp two dumbbells and, with your palms facing out (away from your body); bring them to shoulder level so that they rest just above your armpits. Simultaneously press both dumbbells directly over your chest, moving them in toward each other (in a triangle) as you raise them. At the finish of the movement, the sides of the dumbbells should gently touch together. Squeeze your chest muscles at the top of the exercise and then slowly reverse direction, returning to the start position. Front Lat Pull Down Begin by taking a shoulder-width grip on a lat pull down bar with your palms facing forward. Secure your knees under the restraint pad and allow your arms to straighten fully so that you feel a complete stretch in your upper back (under your arm pits). Maintain a slight backward tilt (almost 45 degrees) to your body and flex your abdominals throughout the move. Slowly pull the bar down to your upper chest, bringing your elbows back as you pull down. Squeeze your shoulder blades together and then slowly reverse direction, allowing the bar to return to the start position. One Arm Dumbbell Row Begin by placing your left hand and left knee on a flat bench, keeping your right foot planted firmly on the floor. Your torso should be parallel with the bench throughout the entire movement. Grasp a dumbbell in your right hand and, with your palm facing your side, let it hang down to the ground. Keeping your elbow close to your body, pull the dumbbell upward and back until it touches your armpit. Feel a contraction in the muscles of your upper back and then reverse direction, lowering the dumbbell to the start position. Switch arms and repeat.
    • Horizontal Row Sit upright with slight bend in knees; place feet against or under pads for support. Reach forward and grip “triangle bar”, bending at the waist pull back with both arms all the way to your chest (just under your pectorals or breasts); do not have your torso go past 90 degrees when pulling back. Repeat the same movement for desired repetitions. Note: You can vary the exercise by using a straight “lat bar” or a “rope”. Jumping Jacks Begin with your hands at your sides, keeping your arms perfectly straight raise them in an arc over your head while spreading your legs as you jump up. Bring your arms back to your sides and your heels together. Repeat for desired repetitions. Reverse Lat Pull Down Begin by taking a shoulder-width grip on the lat pull down bar (the bar with the ends curved down and rubber grips) with your palms facing toward your body. Secure your knees under the restraint pad and allow your arms to straighten fully so that you feel a complete stretch in your upper back. Maintain a slight backward tilt (at about 45 degrees) and flex your abdominals throughout the movement. Slowly pull the bar down to your upper chest, bringing your elbows back as you pull down, return to the start position.
    • Rear Delt Raise Note: The photo is for illustrated purposes only. I recommend supporting your chest or head to take stress of your lower back (if there is a problem). Begin by bending over, keeping your back tilted slightly upward and the dumbbells hanging just under your chest. Raise both dumbbells at the same time out to the side until they are parallel to the floor. Once at the top of the exercise lower the dumbbells slowly and repeat the movement for desired repetitions. Lateral Raise Sitting on the end of a bench, grasp two dumbbells palms facing the body and allow them to hang by your hips. Keeping your arms as straight as possible, raise the dumbbells simultaneously up and out to the sides until they reach ear level. Slowly return the weights back to the starting position. Dumbbell Shoulder Press Sit at the edge of a flat bench. Grasp two dumbbells and bring the weights to shoulder level with your palms facing away from your body. Slowly press the dumbbells directly upward and in, allowing them to touch together directly over your head. Try to touch your biceps to your ears. Return to the start position. Front Raise Grasp two dumbbells and allow them to hang over your thighs. Keeping your arms as straight as possible, slowly raise the dumbbells directly in front of your body until they reach slightly over your head. Lower slowly to the start position.
    • Upright Rows Grasp two dumbbells and allow them to hang over your thighs. Raise the dumbbells bending your elbows as you bring them to just under your chin. Keep your elbows out to the side. Lower the dumbbells slowly to the start position. Repeat for desired repetitions. Lying Side Lateral While comfortably lying on your chosen side, with your body braced, keep the arm to be exercised as straight as possible and out in front of you. Grip the dumbbell and raise it in an arc out to the side and over your shoulder. Stop just before your arm is perfectly straight and slowly lower the dumbbell down to the start position. Seated Dumbbell Curl Sit at the edge of a flat bench, grasp a pair of dumbbells and allow them to hang at your sides with your hands facing away from your body. Slightly press your elbows into your sides and keep them stable throughout the move. Slowly raise the dumbbells upward toward your shoulders staying with the natural motion of your elbow joint (do not touch your shoulders) and squeeze your biceps at the top of the movement. Return to the start position.
    • Standing Dumbbell Curl Standing upright with your knees slightly bent; grasp a pair of dumbbells and allow them to hang at your sides with your hands facing away from your body. Slightly press your elbows into your sides and keep them stable throughout the move. Slowly raise the dumbbells upward toward your shoulders staying with the natural motion of your elbow joint (do not touch your shoulders) and squeeze your biceps at the top of the movement. Return to the start position. One-Arm Overhead Dumbbell Extension Begin by grasping a dumbbell in your right hand with your feet flat on the floor. Bend your elbow and allow the weight to hang down behind your head as far as comfortably possible (or in line with your head). Slowly straighten your arm, keeping your elbow back and pointed toward the ceiling throughout the movement. Straighten your arm and then slowly lower the weight to the start position. After you have performed the desired number of reps, switch arms and repeat the process. Two-Arm Overhead Dumbbell Extension Grasp the dumbbell at the insertion of the stem and ball of the dumbbell with both hands. Bend your elbows and allow the weight to hang down behind your head as far as comfortably possible (or in line with your head). Slowly straighten your arms, keeping your elbows back and pointed toward the ceiling throughout the movement. Straighten your arms over your head, and then slowly lower the weight to the start position. Lying One Arm Tricep Extension Lie on the floor facing up. Bend your knees to support your lower back. Hold dumbbell in right hand at arm’s length above shoulder. Lower dumbbell in a semi-circular motion to the side of your head, keeping your arm at a 45 degree angle. Push the dumbbell backup to the start position. Repeat for left arm.
    • Tricep Pushdown Stand facing a high pulley with a straight, cambered or V bar. Grip the bar with a palmsdown, with a close grip. Start with the bar at about chin level and your upper arms angled slightly up. Begin the movement by bringing your elbows down in line with your body. When your elbows are pointing down, continue the movement by pushing down with your hand out in front of you. Keep your elbows pinned tightly in to your sides and your wrists as straight as possible. Do not let your wrists bend back. Let the bar up. Keep the bar close to your body when raising the bar back up to the start position. Repeat for desired repetition. Lunges Stand upright and place your hands on your hips. Take a long stride forward (about the length of your body) with your right leg and raise your left heel so that your left foot is on its toes. Keeping your shoulders back and chin up, slowly lower your body by flexing your knees and hip, continue lowering until your left knee is almost touches the floor. Make sure that your right knee does not move forward over your toes. Return to the starting position by pushing upward using your hips and thigh. When your knee is straight, step back. After performing the desired number of reps, switch legs and repeat the process. Lying Inside Leg Lifts Begin by lying on your right side. You can bend your left leg at a 90-degree angle or keep it straight (as shown). Keeping your right leg straight, slowly raise it as high as possible. Squeeze the inside of your thigh and then slowly return to the start position. After finishing the desired number of repetitions,
    • repeat the process on your left side. For added intensity, attach leg weights to the ankle you are exercising. Bench Hamstrings Curl Begin by lying face down on a flat bench or the floor and attach ankle weights to both ankles. Keeping your thighs pressed against the flat surface; slowly curl your feet upward, stopping just short of touching your butt or as far as comfortably possible. Contract your hamstrings and then reverse direction, returning to the start position. Seated Calf Raise Begin by sitting in a seated calf machine and place the leg pads of the machine tightly across your thighs. Place the balls of your feet on the footplate and allow your heels to drop as far below your toes as possible. Slowly rise up as high as you can onto your toes until your calves are fully flexed. Contract your calves and then slowly reverse direction, returning to the start position. One Leg Dumbbell Calf Raise Begin by sitting at the edge of a flat bench with the ball of your right foot on a block of wood or a step. Place a dumbbell on your thighs and hold it in place and drop your right heel as far below your toes as possible. Keeping your left foot back, slowly rise as high as you can onto your right toes until your calves are fully flexed. Contract your calf muscles and then slowly reverse direction, returning to the starting position. After performing the desired number of repetitions, repeat the process on your left. Crunch Begin by lying face up on the floor. Place the palms of your hands on the top of your thighs. Slowly raise your shoulders up and forward
    • towards your thighs, shortening the distance of your trunk. Bring your palms over your kneecaps. Feel a contraction in the your abdominal muscles and then slowly reverse direction and return to the start position Bicycles Begin by lying on the floor with your legs bent at a 90-degree angle. Place your hands under your buttocks. Slowly bring your right knee up toward your abdomen. As you return your right leg to the start position, bring your left leg toward in the same manner. Continue this movement, alternating between right and left sides as if pedaling a bike. Toe Touch Begin by lying flat on the floor with your arms and legs straight in the air, perpendicular to your body. Slowly curl your torso up and forward, raising your hands as close to your toes as possible. Contract your abs and then reverse direction, returning to the start position. Criss Cross Crunches Begin by lying face up on the floor with your knees bent. Your thighs should be perpendicular to the ground and your hands should be behind your head. Slowly raise your shoulders up and forward towards your chest, twisting your body to the right. Feel a contraction in your abdominal muscles and then slowly reverse direction, returning to the
    • start position. After performing the desired number of repetitions, repeat the process, twisting your body to the left. Reach for the Sky (Stick Ups) Stand with your feet shoulder width and your hands on your waist. Raise your hands over your head (pretend you are pushing a box over your head) while you raise up on your toes. Lower your arms and heels back to the start position. Repeat for desired repetitions. Mountain Climbers Get into the pushup position. Flex your abs. Lift one foot and bring your knee to your chest. Touch the foot down, and then return it to the start position, alternating sides. Be sure to keep your buttocks down. Pay close attention that your buttocks doesn’t rise above your shoulders. Keep your chest over your hands. Leg Circles Begin on all fours. Raise one of your legs so that it is straight back (do not bend the knee). Rotate your whole leg at the hip joint clockwise in six-inch circles for designated time limit. Stop and reverse rotation for the same amount of time. Stop and switch legs and repeat for other leg.
    • Fire Hydrants On all fours keeping your back straight and your knee bent, raise one of your legs out to the side. Raise your leg as far as it can go without twisting your back. When you feel you muscle stop, lower you leg down slowly and repeat for desired repetitions. Switch legs and repeat for other leg. Hip Splits Begin in the up push up position with your chest over your hands and your body straight. Spread your legs as far as they can go without raising your butt higher than your shoulders, touch your toes to the ground and bring them back so that your feet touch. Repeat for desired repetitions. Side Leg Lifts Lying on one side comfortably, brace yourself with the opposite hand across your body resting it on the floor. Flex your toes upward (so your feel your calf stretch) and raise the top leg at the hip joint. Keep your leg straight throughout the movement. Raise your leg until it stops (without twisting your body) then lower it slowly back to the start position. Repeat for desired number of repetitions.
    • Jump Backs Begin on all fours with your thighs gathered up under your stomach and on your toes. Forcibly thrust your feet backwards into a “plank” position (or “up” push up position). Pull your knees and gather them back up under your stomach and repeat for desired repetitions. Step Ups Begin by standing in back of a bench with one foot on top of the bench. While keeping your body straight, push forcibly with your leg to raise yourself and the other leg onto the bench. Touch the bench with the opposite foot and lower yourself back to the start position. Note: Keep your knee behind your toes when raising yourself up onto the bench Incline Push Ups Kneel on the floor in front of a flat bench hands shoulder width apart. Place feet on bench, knees locked, back straight, head up. Keeping your body rigid lower yourself until your chest hits the floor. Pause at the bottom and push up to the start position. Repeat for desired repetitions.
    • Self Assisted Leg Curl Lie on the floor (or mat) face down with your hands resting on you forearms. Place the instep of one foot behind the heel of the other. Raise the lower part of the bottom leg while adding resistance with the instep of the top leg. Slowly lower your bottom leg again adding resistance all the way down. Repeat this for desired repetitions. When finished switch legs and repeat movement. Wall/Leg Raised Criss Cross Crunches Lie on floor with body close to wall. Place feet against wall slightly bent. Place hands behind head and twist your upper body while raising it up; touch your elbow to your opposite knee. (keep other elbow down) Lying Knee Ups Lie on the floor (or mat) with hands under your buttocks, palms down and legs extended. Bend knees, pulling upper thighs into midsection. Return to starting position. Repeat for desired repetitions. Note: to increase intensity, hold a dumbbell between your feet.
    • Bench Knee Ups Sit on a flat bench. Place hands behind buttocks and grasp sides of bench. Extend legs straight out. Bend knees pulling thighs into midsection. Return to starting position. Repeat for desired repetitions. Note: keep lower legs parallel to floor when extended Double note: to increase intensity, hold a dumbbell between your feet.
    • Pursuit of Healthiness 30 Days of Fat Loss Exercise Glossary
    • EXERCISE GLOSSARY Abduction- Movement of a limb away from middle of body, such as bringing arm to shoulder height from hanging down position. Abs- Abbreviation for abdominal muscles. Adduction- Movement of a limb toward middle of body, such as bringing arm to side from extended position at shoulder. Aerobic Exercise- (With oxygen) - Activity in which demands of muscle for oxygen are met by circulation of oxygen in blood. Distance running, cross country skiing, distance cycling are aerobic activities. Agonist- Muscle directly engaged in contraction, which is primarily responsible for movement of a body part. Anabolic Steroid- Synthetic chemical that mimics the muscle-building charateristics of he male hormone testosterone. Anaerobic Exercise- (Without oxygen) - Activity in which oxygen demands of muscles are so high that they rely upon an internal metabolic process for oxygen. Short bursts of “all-out” activities such as sprinting or weight lifting are anaerobic. Antagonist- Muscle that counteracts the agonist, lengthening when agonist muscle contracts. Atrophy- Withering away- decrease in size and functional ability of tissue or organs. Barbell- Weight used for exercise, consisting of a rigid handle 5-7’ long, with detachable metal discs at each end. Biomechanics- Science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on a human body and the effects produced by these forces. Bodybuilding- Weight training to change physical appearance. Buffed- As in a “finely buffed finish” – good muscle size and definition, looking good. Bulking up- Gaining body weight by adding muscle, body fat, or both. Burn- As in “going for the burn” - endurance exercise, working muscles until lactic acid buildup causes burning sensation. Cardiovascular Training- Physical conditioning that strengthens heart and blood vessels. Circuit Training- Going quickly from one exercise apparatus to another and doing a prescribed number of exercises on each apparatus, to keep pulse high and promote overall fitness. Compound Training- Sometimes called “giant sets”; doing 3-4 exercises for same muscle, one after other, with minimal rest between. Concentric Contraction- When muscle contracts or shortens. Crunches- Abdominal exercises – sit-ups done lying on floor with legs bench, hands behind neck.
    • Curl-Bar- Cambered bar designed for more comfortable grip and less forearm strain. Cutting Up- Reducing body fat and water retention to increase muscular definition. EXERCISE GLOSSARY (cont.) Dead Lift- One of three power-lifting events (other two are squat and bench press). Weight is lifted off floor to approximately waist height. Lifter must sand erect, shoulders back. Delts- Abbreviation for deltoids, the large triangular muscles of the shoulder which raise the arm away from the body and perform other functions. Double (split training) Routine- Working out twice a day to allow for shorter more intense workouts. Usually performed by advanced bodybuilders preparing for contests. Drying Out- Encouraging loss of body fluids by limiting liquid intake, eliminating salt, sweating heavily and/or using diuretics. Dumbbell- Weight used for exercising consisting of rigid handle about 14” long with sometimes detachable metal discs at each end. Easy Set- Exercise not close to maximum effort, as in a warm up. Eccentric Contraction- Muscle lengthens while maintaining tension. Endurance- Ability of a muscle to produce force continually over a period of time. Estrogen- Female sex hormone. Extension- Body part (i.e. hand, neck, trunk, et.) going from a bent to straight position, as in leg extension. Fascia- Fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates all muscles and muscle groups. It also unites skin with underlying tissue. Fast-Twitch- Refers to muscle ells that fire quickly and are utilized in anaerobic activities like sprinting and power-lifting. Flex- Bend or decrease angle of a joint; contract a muscle. Flexion- Bending in contrast to extending, as in leg flexions. Forced Repetitions- Assistance to perform additional repetitions of an exercise when muscles can no longer complete movement on their own. Gluteals- Abbreviation for gluteus maximus, medius, and minimus; the buttocks muscles. Hard Set- Perform a prescribed number of repetitions of an exercise using maximum effort. Hypertrophy- Increase in size of muscle fiber. Isokinetic Exercise- Isotonic exercise in which there is ACCOMODATING RESISTANCE. Also refers to constant speed. Nautilus and Cybex are two types of isokinetic machines, where machine varies amount of resistance being lifted to match force curve developed b the muscle. Isometric Exercise- Muscular contraction where muscle maintains a constant length and joints do not move. These exercises are usually performed against a wall or other immovable object.
    • Isotonic Exercise- Muscular action in which there is a change in length of muscle and weight, keeping tension constant. Lifting free weights is a classic isotonic exercise. EXERCISE GLOSSARY (cont.) Kinesiology- Study of muscles and their movements. Lats- Abbreviation for latissimus dorsi, the large muscles of the back that move the arms downward, backward, and in internal rotation. Lean Body Mass- Everything in the body except fat, including bone, organs, skin, nails, and all body tissue including muscle. Approximately 50-60% of lean body mass is water. Lift Off- Assistance in getting weight to proper starting position. Ligament- Strong, fibrous band of connecting tissue connecting 2 or more bones or cartilages or supporting a muscle, fascia or organ. Lock Out- Partial repetition of an exercise by pushing the weight through only last few inches of movement. Max- Maximum effort for one repetition of an exercise. Midsection- Muscles of abdominal area, including upper and lower abdominals, obliques, and rectus abdominis muscles. Military Press- Pressing a barbell from upper chest upward in standing or sitting position. Muscle- Tissue consisting of fibers organized into bands or bundles that contract to cause bodily movement. Muscle fibers run in the same direction as the action they perform. Muscle Head- slang for someone whose life is dominated by training. Muscle Spasm- Sudden, involuntary contraction of muscle or muscle group. Muscle Tone- Condition in which a muscle is in a constant yet slight sate of contraction and appears firm. Muscularity- Another term for definition, denoting fully delineated muscles and absence of body fat. Myositis- Muscular soreness due to inflammation that often occurs 1-2 days after unaccustomed exercise. Nautilus- Isokinetic-type exercise machine which attempts to match resistance with user’s force. Negative Reps- One or two partners help you lift a weight up to 50% heavier than you would normally lift to finish point of movement. Then you slowly lower weight on your own. Obliques- Abbreviation for external obliques, the muscles to either side of abdominals that rotate and flex the trunk. Olympic Lifts- Two movements used in national and international Olympic competitions: the SNATCH and the CLEAN AND JERK. Overload Principal- Applying a greater load than normal to a muscle to increase its capability. Peak Contraction- Exercising a muscle until it cramps by using shortened movements.
    • Pecs- Abbreviation for pectoral muscles of the chest. EXERCISE GLOSSARY (cont.) Power Lift- Three movements used in power-lifting competition: the squat, bench press, and dead lift. Power Training- System of weight training using low repetitions, heavy weights. Progressive Resistance- Method of training where weight is increased as muscles gain strength and endurance. The backbone of all weight training. Pumped- Slang meaning the muscles have been made large by increasing blood supply to them through exercise. Quads- Abbreviation for quadriceps femoris muscles, muscles on top of legs, which consist of 4 parts (heads). Repetition- One complete movement of an exercise. Rep Out- Repeat the same exercise over and over until you are unable to do any more. Reps- Abbreviation for REPETITIONS. Rest Interval- Pause between sets of an exercise which allows muscles to recover partially before beginning next set. Ripped- Slang meaning extreme muscularity. ‘Roid- Slang for ANABOLIC STEROID. Set- Fixed number of repetitions. For example, 10 repetitions may comprise one set. Slow-Twitch- Muscle cells that contract slowly, are resistant to fatigue and are utilized in endurance activities such as long-distance running, cycling or swimming. Spot- Assist if called upon by someone performing an exercise. Spotter- Person who watches a partner closely to see if any help is needed during a specific exercise. Sticking Point- Most difficult part of a movement. Straight Sets- Groups of repetitions (SETS) interrupted by only brief pauses (30-90 seconds). Strength- Te ability of a muscle to produce maximum amount of force. Strength Training- Using resistance weight training to build maximum muscle force. Stretch Marks- Tears (slight scars) in skin caused if muscle or fat tissue has expanded in volume faster than skin can grow. Striations- Grooves or ridge marks seen under the skin, the ultimate degree of muscle definition. Super Set- Alternating back and forth between two exercises until the prescribed number of sets is complete. Tendon- A band or cord of strong, fibrous tissue that connects muscles to bone.
    • Testosterone- Principle male hormone that accelerates tissue growth and stimulates blood flow. Thick Skin- Smooth skin caused by too much fatty tissue between the layers of muscle and beneath skin. EXERCISE GLOSSARY (cont.) Tone- See MUSCLE TONE. Training Effect- Increase in functional capacity of muscles as result of increased (overload) placed upon them. Training to Failure- Continuing a set until it is impossible to complete another rep without assistance. Traps- Abbreviation for trapezius muscles, the largest muscles of the back and neck that draw head backward and rotate scapula. Trimming Down- To gain hard muscular appearance by losing body fat. Tri Sets- Alternating back and forth between 3 exercises until prescribed number of sets is completed. Universal Machine- One of several types of machines where weights are on a track or rails and are lifted by levers or pulleys. Variable Resistance- Strength training equipment where the machine varies amount of weight being lifted to match strength curve for a particular exercise- usually with a cam, lever arm, or hydraulic cylinder. Also referred to as “ACCOMMODATING RESISTANCE”. Vascularity- Increase in size and number of observable veins. Highly desirable in bodybuilding.
    • For information on Pursuit of Healthiness products and services, e-mail us at pursuitofhealthiness@yahoo.com like our facebook page, Pursuit of Healthiness Barnsley www.pursuitofhealthiness.co.uk www.pursuitoffitness.co.uk Karen Casadei & Alex Seckham