St Antony’s College - founded in 1948 by Antonin Besse, a French businessman with a trading empire based in Aden. He also donated significant sums to other Oxford colleges and UK universities. Convent: designed in 1866-8 by Charles Buckeridge for the Society of the Holy Trinity. JL Pearson added the chapel in 1891-4 ( which now houses the library, conversion by Architects Design Partnership 1994) The original convent buildings and chapel are listed Grade II. “ A rather grim piece of building, of rough hammer dressing, with very blunt grouped or single lancet windows ” Pevsner College moved in to the site in 1950. Became a full College of the University in 1963
Grade II Listed. Listing Decision 28 Sep 2009: “ REASONS FOR DESIGNATION: The Hilda Besse building, St Antony’s College, Oxford is listed at Grade II for the following principal reasons: * It is a major example of a university building by the practice HKPA, who are acclaimed for their post-war university buildings a number of which are listed; * It has special architectural interest for its skilful application of concrete in a modern interpretation of the traditional hall; * It also received the RIBA Architecture Award and Concrete Society Award in 1971 in recognition of its structural ingenuity and architectural elegance.” Very much a modernist design – complies with four of Le Corbusier’s ‘ Les 5 Points d' une architecture nouvelle’ in a unique expression: (1) pilotis elevating the mass off the ground, (2) the free plan and (3) the free facade, achieved by separating the skin of the walls from the load bearing columns (4) the long horizontal windows – only no roof garden. Press release of Twentieth Century Society, 13 Oct 2009: “ Its intelligent break-up of the apparent symmetry of the building, clarity of structure, innovative concrete design, and skilful control of natural lighting were all reasons that the Society thought the building deserves to be included in the Statutory List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest.” “ HKPA belong to the post-war generation of architects with their roots firmly in the Modern Movement despite their penchant for non-literal historicism. They described themselves as pragmatists, dogmatic only about consistency of architectural form, detailing, materials and colour. The principle of separation and articulation can be seen behind all their work. In planning this may be expressed by the separation of a larger building into several distinct parts, an approach that stems both from the Modern Movement canon of the programme as generator of form ….” ( The Concise Grove Dictionary of Art, OUP) “ HKPA developed their particular interest in separating the structure of a building from its skin and in using the skin to modulate the way light enters the building. Their buildings were usually informally grouped to create places of character between and around them and express their principal or ‘served’ spaces separately from service spaces. They tend to do this by giving each principal space its own visible structure.” (Frank Hawes, Concrete Quarterly Autumn 1992)
“ St. Anthony’s Hall is planned to be on the first floor of the new building with its kitchens at the same level. This arrangement enables a simple circulation through the ground floor so that the building will connect easily to a future residential wing on one side and on the other to the proposed new teaching building and the convent ”. (John Partridge in CQ 1971) “ PLAN: The building is rectangular on plan and set on a plinth which is reached by steps on all sides and is approached by a paved walkway to the west. It is divided between informal circulation spaces and grander formal spaces. On the ground floor the foyer is separated by glazed screens from the buttery so that the gardens can be seen through transparent glazed walls on all sides. At the rear or eastern side are small dining rooms.” … “ The ground floor, treated as an undercroft, has glazed walls panels which admit light and allow views in and out and enabled the intended subsequent phases to be linked easily to the hall.“ (Listing Notice 28 Sept. 2009) Philip Opher “ simple in its plan, but complicated in its overall structure and appearance ” 20 th Century Oxford, p.20. “ Although perhaps over-complicated, the building has been put together in a masterly way ”. Oxford Modern, p.6
Structure and cladding of building (except from floors) are entirely pre-cast concrete. Roofs of large spaces (hall, common rooms) “made from precast post-tensioned diagrids. The ground floor structure is like an undercroft to the larger rooms over it. The columns support the floors through large splayed concrete cross-heads set on the diagonal. (John Partridge in CQ 1971)
“ The ground floor structure is like an undercroft to the larger rooms over it. The columns support the floors through large splayed concrete cross-heads set on the diagonal ” …. “ Having chosen concrete internally and to exploit its sculptural qualities we felt it necessary to use brickwork to give a scale reference to the interiors. It can give scale to the spaces of a building and provide a reference for the eye to gauge the different size of volumes and areas” . Used a concrete brick “ a light warm grey in colour harmonizing with the acid etched concrete structure ”. (John Partridge in CQ 1971)
“ Monumental stairs rise from the foyer to the hall and common rooms, and descend to the basement .”…” Stairs have open treads with a slightly rounded profile and robust balustrades. ” (Listing Notice 28 Sept. 2009)
“ most traditional dining halls are characterized by their lack of windows, apart from clerestory or roof lighting. They are based on mediaeval halls and they evoke the corporate qualities of more protected inward looking groups. At St. Anthony’s we set out to get the best of both worlds – to design a hall that was both outward and inward looking. This meant that the view windows had to be designed so that they did not lessen the impact and strength of the walls enclosing the space ”…. The dining hall tables and chairs are made from oak and dark olive green leather - designed to complement the structural aesthetics of the interior of the building. Also echo the bleached oak and dark green glass used in the doors and the interior generally (John Partridge in CQ 1971)
Roofs of large spaces (hall, common rooms) “made from precast post-tensioned diagrids. Ceiling reminiscent of the dining hall at Wolfson College by Powell & Moya – but that came afterwards in 1974
THE WINDOWS Pevsner “The external details are wilful. That they include canted out windows goes without saying”. Hooded window surrounds, come from John Partridge’s interest in regulating the flow of water on the facades of buildings and using the skin to control the way light enters. - Because they are only used for the dining hall and common rooms, they permit a clear external expression of these ‘served’ spaces (Frank Hawes, CQ 1992) “ large windows set back from the face bringing the panorama of the College gardens into the rooms” (John Partridge in CQ 1971) Concrete facets of the windows, outside the glazing, designed to be lit at night, so that the view does not become dead - room can be partly lit through the timber slatted blinds - (John Partridge in CQ 1971) “ A fine acid etched finish is used on all the structural units while the cladding panels and window units have a larger Cornish granite exposed aggregate. The cladding panels are very large in scale and incorporate complete projecting window units each about 10ft by 12 ft in elevation and weighing about 6 tons.” - (John Partridge in CQ 1971)
Top, left and right: Reyne and Wolfson Buildings, St. Anne’s College – HKPA 1968 “ The buildings, reflecting the confident machine-like aesthetic of the period, now seem a little dated ”. (Opher, 20 th Century Oxford, p15) Bottom left: detail of window structure for St. Anne’s – CQ Autumn 1992 Bottom right: Ashley Building, Birmingham University 1961-64
Pevsner “The most curious detail is the treatment of the angles of the building as well as the stair towers” The slits of glass between the columns and the window units - emphasize the functional distinction between these elements, and allow a small amount of light to play on the faceted surfaces of the structure.
“ All the elements of structure including the diagrids are based on the use of octagonal columns with 6 in. faces and the beams, column heads and cladding faces all line up with the column faces, the diagonal directions being used almost as much as those square to the building.” - (John Partridge in CQ 1971)
Octagonal Structures Top and bottom left: University Graduate Centre, Cambridge – HKPA 1963-67 Top right: Arts Centre, Christ’s Hospital – HKPA 1970-74 Bottom right: Dining Hall - Darwin College, Cambridge – HKPA 1964-70
Left, top and bootom: Hilda Besse Building: Octagonal concrete columns capped with large, splayed cross heads set on the diagonal Right, top: Downing College Cambridge Right, bottom: Gatehouse, St. Anne’s College, Oxford 1960-79
Problems with the building: original heating system (inovative in its day) doesn’t work / Concrete cancer / conduits for cables within the concrete are rusting / College could spend £8M on refurbishment (Source: DJG interview with Peter Robinson, Domestic Bursar, St. Anthony's College 26/10/11) And yet, it remains a wonderful piece or architecture – a classic of the late 20 th century British strain of Modernism ‘ The building is beautifully detailed and a tour de force in articulation. The effect achieved by the wide span open coffered ceiling of the dining hall is striking. The lasting impression one retains from both the interior and exterior of the building is that of elegance and amenity ’ (Architect and Builder Nov 1971, 21). ‘ St Antony shocks twice. By its insistence on expression, on house style: and by its historical overtones’ (Architectural Review, Feb 1971, 89). An ‘aesthetic indestructibility’ (Architectural Review, Feb 1971, 96). “ The result is a very formal, monumental building which grasps the fundamental of construction in a clear and supremely successful way. It is perhaps the ultimate expression of the HKPA idiom of prefabricated, post and lintel construction and may be their finest work. Awarded RIBA Architecture Award and Concrete Society Award, 1971 .” (Listing Notice, 28 Sep 2009) “ sinister but compelling” (Geoffrey Tyack, Modern architecture in an Oxford college: St John's College, 1945-2005, p49) Acutely aware of the historical context of the work – the building will “ have to take its place in the long line of College dining halls dating from the Middle Ages and extending to Jacobsen’s St. Catherine’s of the early 1960’s ”. (John Partridge in CQ, 1971) – I believe HKPA were successful in this ambitious objective.
Source for picture: Sherban Cantacuzino, Howell Killick Partridge and Amis: Architecture (1981) “ The time for an account of the New Building will come when it is complemented by the teaching and accommodation blocks which the architectural plans show as two further sides of a quadrangle one of which would unite the Woodstock Road frontage. The square would be open along Bevington Road, on the other side of which Howell, Killick, Partridge, and Amis have built for St. Anne's College an impressive crescent in a similar but distinctive style. Inevitably for an Oxford college, which is precluded from finance by the University Grants Committee, the further development of St. Antony's must await adequate funds from private sources. The grant of funds by the Volkswagen Foundation for the construction of a second new building (announced in December 1972) thus represented a major step forward.” St. Antony's College, Oxford - A History of its Buildings and Site: http://www.sant.ox.ac.uk/about/images/HistoryofBuildingandSite.docx
Source for image: planning documents for Gateway Buildings submitted by Bennett’s Associates
ADP plan to create a more formal Oxbridge style college campus, with two quadrangles. Source for top picture: planning documents for Gateway Building submitted by Bennett's’ Associates Bottom image: Bing Maps Create a more formal entrance in the heart of the site (contrary to traditional, more private, ‘door in the wall’ Oxbridge college experience – goes to the heart of the Inward/Outward tension or dichotomy of St. Anthony’s plans) Long term aspirations to acquire houses on Canterbury Road, creating an enlarged site, with three quadrangles. Leave the church (was offered to the College by the diocsese for £1 – rejected by the College because it would cost a fourtune to maintain and is Grade I listed so would not be much use for College operations. No need for a chapel as the College is deliberately non-denominational with no religious affiliation. The College is happy for people to assume the Church is part of the College. It looks impressive – without the burden of the maintenance). Discussions with the diocese to acquire the new vicarage. Originally built by the college in 1957 for the diocese, as part of a swap for the old vicarage, no. 68, which is now the MEC. Rather ugly red brick house, classic new vicarage style, rather mean in proportion. The College plan to demolish the existing building and replace with a new build. Diocese amendable but the College has to find a replacement for the vicar in the immediate vicinity which is proving a challenge. (Source: DJG interview with Peter Robinson, Domestic Bursar, St. Anthony's College 26/10/11) Interesting that the Masterplan envisages new infill buildings along Winchester Road and Canterbury Road
Designed in 1973 – allegedly designed for free, which killed off the HKPA masterplan, but then never built because of the financial crisis of the first oil shock. In the planning application files at Oxford City Council, I discovered a charming booklet which had a written statement and drawings by Oscar Niemeyer, together with notes, doodles and calculations scribbled throughout the document. The Council have scanned the entire document and will place this on line for public access: http://public.oxford.gov.uk/online-applications/applicationDetails.do?activeTab=documents&keyVal=7301326A_H
Designed in 1973 – allegedly designed for free, which killed off the HKPA masterplan, but then never built because of the financial crisis of the first oil shock. In the planning application files at Oxford City Council, I discovered a charming booklet which had a written statement and drawings by Oscar Niemeyer, together with notes, doodles and calculations scribbled throughout the document. The Council have scanned the entire document and will place this on line for public access: http://public.oxford.gov.uk/online-applications/applicationDetails.do?activeTab=documents&keyVal=7301326A_H Designed to be economical, simple and easy to build. Deliberately avoiding concrete structures – made of brick and pre-fabricated concrete slabs 1 metre above ground to give necessary privacy to the bed rooms. But deliberately avoiding the usual pilotis, the building sits on half underground floor which houses the seminar room, cafeteria and secretary’s room. The effect is more original and economical. Vertical concrete slabs in overhang upon the ground floor, create covered verandas for the bedrooms. Roof and floors also concrete. Three types of rooms design: according to the ‘program’, bed sitting rooms, fellow’s sets and one bedroom flats. Finishings will be simplae and identical for all floors and walls, ceilings painted white and the facades all pre-fab concrete.
Windows to be fixed, ventilation form louvre system running in a course under the windows.
“ This was the first and most important step taken by the College in recent years to increase its provision of seminar rooms, work-space and accommodation for its members. The building has 50 en-suite study rooms, 10 2-bedroom flats and 4/6 Seminar rooms, a music room and fitness suite.” http://www.sant.ox.ac.uk/about/buildings.html
PLANS Ground Floor First Floor Second Floor Third Floor
New porters lodge, admin offices, visiting fellows workspaces, and 54 en-suite student accommodation rooms An increase in the student accommodation is vitally important to the College. They have 400 students and yet can only accommodate 179. they need more rooms to compete with the other colleges for the talent. Also en-suite student accommodation can be used for the lucrative conference trade in the vacation periods. Because of transfer of admin offices from Main Building, and their replacement with Fellows’ work rooms from Church Walk, the net gain of student accommodation rooms = 66. The College calculate that the new building should pay for themselves within 13-14 years and with 35 years should be making big profits. This relieves pressure on the financing of the new buildings. They can proceed with only half the funding, and borrow the rest – as compared with the new MEC Extension which has no accommodation and so the College must get all the funding secure up front. (Source: DJG interview with Peter Robinson, Domestic Bursar, St. Anthony's College 26/10/11) Animation: http://artray.co.uk/#/motion/St._Antony's_College/153
Two separate buildings – original plans were for one building, but at an early stage the College were told they would almost certainly be refused planning for a single building. So it was split in two. This is fine for the College because it creates a new Porter’s Lodge. (Source: DJG interview with Peter Robinson, Domestic Bursar, St. Anthony's College 26/10/11) I envisage it looking rather similar to the Porter’s Lodges at St. Anne's’ College and St Catherine’s College. The other building will house all the college administration offices– open plan office, much more favourable for modern office practices than the ‘monastic cells’ of the convent building. Also the move will free up the old convent building for fellow’s work rooms, which are much more suited to the ‘monastic cells’. I believe the College intend to use ADP for the conversions to the convent building and the Church Walk houses, where the fellow’s work rooms are currently, and will be turned into more student accommodation. The College were obliged to relocate a tree from the footprint of the new building. They have moved it 19 metres and it now sits in the Entrance Quadrangle, next to the Hilda Besse Building. The council gave the College to choice to move it or replace it. But the nearest living subsititute which could be found is in Southern France and would cost £20M to transport. So the tree was carefully moved the 19 metres and the Domestic Bursar personally undertook the daily watering of the rootball over the dry summer. (Source: DJG interview with Peter Robinson, Domestic Bursar, St. Anthony's College 26/10/11) Bicycle places under the retained trees along the Woodstock Road wall – very important for Oxford City Council granting planning. Undertakings that the students must not bring cars and the College must provide a large number of bicycle spaces. Other changes enforced by Oxford City Council – discussed later.
Upper Floors contain ensuite accomdation clustered around staircases in traditional Oxbridge model. The Porter’s Lodge Building has disabled access for all rooms – set of six rooms and a kitchen for each floor. The other building has two sets of 6 rooms plus kitchens for each floor.
4 th floor housing ‘drop in work spaces’ for visiting academics in the porter’s lodge and a large size meeting room in the other building. Both have solar panels on the rook and planted sedum roof terraces. Sedum roof both for insulation, environmental credentials (assists with planning permission) and aesthetics. Apparently works very well at HQ offices of Bennett's Associates. Other environmental features of the buildings – ground source heating and sustainable wood. (Source: DJG interview with Peter Robinson, Domestic Bursar, St. Anthony's College 26/10/11)
Materials: Local stone cladding to expressed framework and end gables Oxidised copper panels “ Full height high performance glazing” Stone clad balustrade to top of main elevations Projecting metal and glass bay to animate entrance elevation Exposed and painted steel framework to roof top pavilion Expressed roof with oxidised copper soffits and solar panel arrays Sedum roof Roof panels come for ‘animation at roof level’ rather than the functional dictation by the solar panels. (Source: DJG interview with Peter Robinson, Domestic Bursar, St. Anthony's College 26/10/11)
CHANGES TO THE DESIGN forced by Oxford City Council Retain the memory of the plinth of the Hilda Besse Building – in the same blue glazed brick. Extend the new porter’s lodge of the Gateway Buildings slightly and allow uninterrupted path of the memory of the plinth.
But this only further obscures views of the Hilda Besse Building from the Woodstock Road. There will not be a view of the building through the new porter’s lodge (like the view of the tree through the Kendrew Quad building at St. Johns – picture left). The oxidised copper panels and depth of the new porters lodge will prevent such views. The new porters lodge will sit exactly in front of the Hilda Besse Building and obscure the view of the building from the Woodstock Road. The planning statement of Bennetts Associates justifies the buildings by placing great emphasis on the earlier Masterplan for the college. But the original HKPA masterplan (from which the Hilda Besse Building was created) did not envisage a building immediately infront of the Hilda Bess Building. Bennetts Associates then talk about of the importance of the local architectural tradition of ‘glimpsing’. (This is shown to good effect with the views of the new building at St. Annes, through the gaps of the Victorian houses along Bevington Road – picture right). But I’m not convinced that the angles will permit this at St. Anthony’s. I suspect this is a weak argument dressed up in the statements to obtain planning permission for the greatest number of rooms – the original idea of a single building extended along the entire footprint of the site was clearly going to be rejected by the council.
The new porters lodge will sit exactly in front of the Hilda Besse Building and obscure the view of the building from the Woodstock Road. The planning statement of Bennetts Associates justifies the buildings by placing great emphasis on the earlier Masterplan for the college. But the original HKPA masterplan (from which the Hilda Besse Building was created) did not envisage a building immediately infront of the Hilda Bess Building. Bennetts Associates then talk about of the importance of the local architectural tradition of ‘glimpsing’. (This is shown to good effect with the views of the new building at St. Annes, through the gaps of the Victorian houses along Bevington Road). But I’m not convinced that the angles will permit this at St. Anthony’s. I suspect this is a weak argument dressed up in the statements to obtain planning permission for the greatest number of rooms – the original idea of a single building extended along the entire footprint of the site was clearly going to be rejected by the council.
Needs of the Middle East Centre (‘MEC’) - A purpose built library with double the current storage space and reader’s places; A purpose built archive with double current storage space, in state of the art climate controlled condistions, and double current reader’s places; Lecture theatre with 120 places, wired for current multi-media
Important to understand the context of the site Victorian suburb, formerly owned and developed by St. John’s College. Gothic revival and mock tudor – actually more eclectic than the casual observer would first appreciate Planning recognised that poor control in 2 nd half of 20 th Century resulted in corner plots along the Woodstock Road being demolished for blocks of flats Importance of the Masterplan – creating more traditional Oxbridge college environment (Inward facing), Garden Quad, secure perimeter, controlled access through porter’s lodge at more central location, privacy – but this competes with equal desire for Outward expression (‘wow factor of eye catching design, big name architect, cutting edge technology and materials, raise the prestige of the MEC) which is more in tune with the College’s idea of itself (cosmopolitan student body and alumni, very internationally focused esp. Middle East and Asia, modern foundation by international shipping magnate rather than ecclesiastical mediaeval genesis, dynamism)
PLAN OF SITE Key factors on the form of the building: objective to link the Middle East Centre (‘MEC’) at no. 68, with the MEC archive housed in basement of no. 66. - nicknamed the “Softbridge”. planning restrictions (1): the building must work around the existing sequoia tree “ The main purpose of the new building is to expand the library’s capacity and provide the current archive with appropriate storage facilities. A lounge area for faculty, a new auditorium and ancilliary facilities complements the areas reserved for academic use. The expression of the extension is one of lightness and dynamism that elaborates on a sculptural theme in relation to the landscape and respects the integrity of the existing buildings. The building is to provide a distinctive image for the Middle East Centre and allow for a more formal relation with the college’s internal quad. Internal spaces and landscape are integrated in so far as tree conservation guidelines allow it. The massing and heights are kept at a minimum, relying on efficient use of the allowed footprint by creating a concave design that connects both structures. The dynamic principle that informs the plan layout also acts on the elevation in order to retain the gap between the existing buildings, characteristic to this area of North Oxford” Design Statement, ZHA Criticisms from the trade (CABE report, mentioned in AJ 2009) about the south facing glass wall of the reading room – considered dangerously impractical
Key factors on the form of the building – planning restrictions (2) tight restrictions on massing of building – earlier ADP building rejected. Must retain the gap between the existing buildings Lead to the key features of the form – curved shape, narrow and low waist, splayed opening Opening faces in to the college, not out to the street – Inward/Outward tension “ An opaque bridge contains all the academic facilities, in its first level contains the main library reading room and storage and on the second level the small reading room for the archive, whilst the ground floor is intended to be as transparent and inviting, acting as access. The new auditorium and the Middle East Centre Archive’s storage facilities are located at a basement level to make use of thermal massing in order to control their internal climate. Its architectural contrast that the new building creates is one of integration.” … “ The sweeping form of the bridging shell is mirrored horizontally in the forecourt access area, where a curved concave/convex frameless glass facade reveals this public plateau and frames the main access point. This key landscape feature allows for abstract modulation between interior and exterior planes, extending use and activity. The sunken forecourt is not only an access area but acts as refl ective space, emphasizing the suspended character of the main shell and opening to new non-programmed activities. This is a semi-public space that contrasts greatly with the more formal approach to the new organization towards the curtilage. The new building in this sense works in a series of correlations in regards to the way in connects to the existing context, the number of affiliations dictated by the character of the connection.” Design Statement, ZHA Zaha Hadid’s work ‘fused the dynamic geometry of Russian Constructionivisits with the new intellectual and aesthetic sensibilities of Deconstructivists” (Jonathan Glancy – the Story of Architecture p.223)
First proposed building for the site – by Architects Design Partnership in Rejected by Oxford City Council
“ The strong physical constraints and the scale of the site demand a different approach to linking both 68 and 66 Woodstock Road, where the architecture turns into itself, morphology of dynamic tensions visibly restricted by material boundaries. These last points of reference allow for abstracting use from the current landscape, employing the current topography to mark programme activities and separate public from private functions . Our approach is to define a series of plateaus and territories where different academic and research affiliations can be apparent from the character of the interior space. Form is driven by a series of tension points spread on a synthetic landscape that blends built and natural elements. The new structure deforms and adapts to this new abstract environment, revealing paths and flows, whilst containing the more introvert aspects of the programme brief.” Design Statement, ZHA
PLANS Design informed by circulation and proposed use – separation, yet integration
PLANS Top Floor First Floor
PLANS Ground Floor Basement
MATERIALS Choice of cladding Difficulties with Council College acutely aware of cost of maintenance Variety of proposed materials – some very experimental. College were averse because they felt the building for an Oxford college must last a minimum of 100 years. There should be no risk with experimental materials Testing of proposed materials Final decision on matt stainless steel But even though outer shell weatherpoof, the membranes underneath have a finite lifespan – it is currently unknown if this will be 30, 40 or 50 years. But when it needs replacing then all the outer shell will need to be taken off, panel by panel. Therefore, the College insisted on the donor providing sufficient funding to cover not just the initial build, but also the cost of future maintenance. “ The material of the building responds to the geometry and the set back landscape in a different manner as it deals with the relationship between the existing structure. The formal contrast of the new building in relation to the existing structures is intended as a transition, a bridge where the core public and academic programme is concentrated. The external and internal material choices reflect the building’s dynamic character but also respond to demands of low maintenance, durability and sustainability. A limited palette of colours is used in the interior, highlighting the natural characteristics of each one of the finishes. The common areas at ground floor make extensive use of terrazzo flooring, matching the finish of the sustainable quarried silver grey granite of the hard-landscaping. Where possible the natural finish of the structure will be revealed. At the ground floor level the emphasis is on lightness and openness with extensive use of low energy glass on the façade and transparent balustrades along the circulation routes. In contrast, the interior of the library and the archive reading room is more introspective using wood and soft furnishings throughout. The choice of wood as internal cladding complements the main structure glulam beams that form the core of the geometry at first and second level. Materials at the basement level differ in character as the practical and environmental demands of the archive storage differ greatly from the vibrant soft furnishings of the auditorium. It is in the auditorium where colour will be emphasized, contrasting with the elegant use of selected shades of natural finish in the rest of the building.” Design Statement, ZHA
MATERIALS ‘ Glulam’ timber framed structure On in-situ reinforced concrete Terrazzo floors inside, granite paving outside Low energy Glass Wood cladding for interiors of academic spaces Structural Report of Structural Engineers - Adams Kara Taylor, 2007 Façade and External Material Report - Arup Façade Engineering, 2007
Forced changes to the design by Oxford City Council
Forced changes to the design by Oxford City Council
Forced changes to the design by Oxford City Council
SIMILARITIES Between the Hilda Besse and the Softbridge Buildings – language of architecture derived from movement patterns, expression of structure, expression of materials talk by John Partridge at the Royal Academy 18 January 2008 “ HKPA’s belief that the modern movement had established a basic and valid analytical attitude from which a richer language of architecture could be developed, derived from movement patterns, geometrical systems and the expression of structure and materials. “ Tensions, Dichotomies - Inward vs. Outward, Separation vs. Integration, Hard vs. Soft DIFFERENCES Hilda Besse Bld and Japanese Institute “are an excellent illustration of the polarities of late 20 th century design” (Opher – 20 th Century Oxford) Zaha Hadid and Gateway Blds will be equally excellent illustrations of the polarities of early 21 st century architecture and they will set off the merits of the Victorian architecture around them. The differences will catch the eye and attract closer inspection of the site which visitors would otherwise pass by without a thought.
1. Modern Buildings of St. Anthony’s College
3. Hilde Besse Building Architects: Howell, Killick, Partridge & Amis Design: 1966 Built: 1967 – 1971 Engineers: Harris and Sutherland Interior Design: David Milnaric RIBA Architecture Award 1971 Concrete Society Award 1971 Grade II listing 2009
20. Alterations to the Convent Building Architects: Howell, Killick, Partridge & Amis Design: 1970 Built: 1970-1972
23. The Masterplan
26. Oscar Niemeyer Building
31. The Nissan Institute of Japanese Studies Architects: Architects Design Partnership Design: 1990-94
36. The Founder’s Building Architects: Architects Design Partnership Design: 1993 Built: 1999-2000 Partner in Charge: Bruce Mullet
39. Further Conversions of the Convent Building <ul><li>Chapel - ADP 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>New Russian Library – Nexus, 2008 </li></ul>
40. The Gateway Buildings Architects: Bennetts Associates Architects Design: 2006-11 Engineers: Burro Happold Landscape Architects: Nicholas Pearson Associates
41. Ground Floor Plan
42. 1 st , 2 nd & 3 rd Floor Plan
43. 4th Floor Plan
48. The Middle East Centre Extension “The Softbridge” Architects: Zaha Hadid Architects Design: 2006-08 Structural Engineering: Adams Kara Taylor Service Engineering: Max Fordham & Partners Acoustic Design: Max Fordham & Partners Lighting & Daylight Design: ARUP Façade Engineering: ARUP Fire Engineering: ARUP Access Consultant David Bonnett Associates
63. Sources <ul><li>Oxford City Council – planning applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://public.oxford.gov.uk/online-applications/propertyDetails.do?activeTab=relatedCases&keyVal=001JO6MFLI000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concrete Quarterly, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>October-December 1971, pp42-7; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.concretecentre.com/PDF/cq_091.PDF </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autumn 1992, pp16-19 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.concretecentre.com/PDF/cq_174.PDF </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nikolaus Pevsner and Jennifer Sherwood, The Buildings of England: Oxfordshire (1974), pp239-40 </li></ul><ul><li>Sherban Cantacuzino, Howell Killick Partridge and Amis: Architecture (1981) </li></ul><ul><li>English Heritage Listing Notice 612/0/10190 (29 September 2009) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk/en-506060-hilda-besse-building-including-stepped-p </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Philip Opher, Oxford Modern (2001) </li></ul><ul><li>interview with Peter Robinson, Domestic Bursar, St. Anthony's College 26/10/11 </li></ul>