The planets


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The planets

  1. 1. The Planets By David Gu
  2. 2. General Information <ul><li>Revolve: When a samller object circles around a larger one </li></ul><ul><li>Rotate: When an object spins on its axis </li></ul><ul><li>8 planets have been found in our solar system </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are the inner planets </li></ul><ul><li>Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are the outer planets </li></ul><ul><li>The inner planets are basicly spheres of rock, while the outer ones are gigantic sphereical gas planets with rings </li></ul><ul><li>More craters can be found on the inner planets because they were often hit by asteriods and meteorites for the past 600 million years </li></ul><ul><li>Orbit: A path followed by a Planet, Satellite, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>To be considered a planet the object must have an orbit around the Sun, have a certain amount of mass so that its own gravity can make it into a sphere, and not have any other objects similar to it in about the same distance from the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>A class of objects that meet the first and second requirement to be a planet but not the last one is a Dwarf Planet. </li></ul><ul><li>Pluto, Ceres, and Eris are currently the three dwarf planets in our solar system </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Inner Planets <ul><li>Mercury </li></ul><ul><li>Venus </li></ul><ul><li>Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Mars </li></ul>
  4. 4. Mercury <ul><li>The sun is the cause of Mercury’s non-substantial atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Helium and Sodium can be found in Mercury’s atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Process of forming Mercury’s shape: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact Cratering- Objects crash into the surface leaving craters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanism- Lava floods the surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tectonic Activity- Crust of the planet moves to adjust to the cooling down and heating up of the planet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Average Solar Distance: 57.8 million km </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution Period: 87.9 Earth days </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation Period: 58.6 Earth days </li></ul><ul><li>Equatorial diameter: 4878 km </li></ul><ul><li>Gravitational Pull: 0.38 times the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Satellites: 0 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Venus <ul><li>From Earth, Venus is the brightest planet that can be seen due to its thick cloud layer, therefore it is called the “Evening Star” </li></ul><ul><li>Venus’ atmosphere is composed of carbon dioxide and sulfuric acid (greenhouse, traps heat) </li></ul><ul><li>Retrograde rotation is a type of rotation in which a planet rotates clockwise instead of the other way </li></ul><ul><li>For Venus to rotate once it takes 243 Earth days, but for it to revolve around the Sun once, it takes only 225 Earth days </li></ul><ul><li>On Venus the Sun would appear to rise in the west and set in the east because Venus has a retrograde rotation, which means the planets rotates clockwise </li></ul><ul><li>Venus is the hottest planet in our solar system because its own greenhouse atmosphere traps heat inside </li></ul><ul><li>Average Solar Distance: 108.2 million km </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution Period: 224.7 Earth days </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation Period: 243 Earth days </li></ul><ul><li>Equatorial diameter: 12,100 km </li></ul><ul><li>Gravitational Pull: 0.91 times the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Satellites: 0 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Earth <ul><li>21% of oxygen, 78% nitrogen, 0.9% argon, and the other 0.1% is made up of water vapor, carbon dioxide, neon, methane, krypton, helium, xenon, hydrogen, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone </li></ul><ul><li>Our atmosphere protects us from solar radiation and meteors from reaching us in large amounts </li></ul><ul><li>Earth’s rotational tilt is at a 23.5 degree angle </li></ul><ul><li>The rapid spin of Earth’s iron-nickel core causes the magnetic field </li></ul><ul><li>Our Moon is the natural satellite of Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Average Solar Distance: 152 million km </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution Period: 365.26 Earth days </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation Period: 23.93 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Equatorial diameter: 12,756 km </li></ul><ul><li>Gravitational Pull: 9.8 meters per second per second </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Satellites: 1      </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mars <ul><li>Some pieces from Mars crash landed on Earth that may carry ancient bacteria or other signs of life </li></ul><ul><li>The main element of Mars’satmosphere is carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Much of Mars’ surface is covered by a soil rish in iron-laden clay that makes the planet look red </li></ul><ul><li>Olympus Mons is a Martian volcano over 600 kilometers in width and over 26 kilometers in length </li></ul><ul><li>Phobos and Deimos are the two satellites of Mars </li></ul><ul><li>Average Solar Distance: 228 million km </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution Period: 686.98 Earth days </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation Period: 24.6 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Equatorial diameter: 6786 km </li></ul><ul><li>Gravitational Pull: 0.38 times that of the Earth </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Outer Planets <ul><li>Jupiter </li></ul><ul><li>Saturn </li></ul><ul><li>Uranus </li></ul><ul><li>Neptune </li></ul>
  9. 9. Jupiter <ul><li>Jupiter’s flat poles and bulged out equator is caused by its rapid rotaion </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen, helium, sulfur, and nitrogen make up Jupiter’s atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>The Giant Red Spot on Jupiter is actually a long lasting storm that was their since we discovered Jupiter </li></ul><ul><li>Jupiter has 50 satellites that we know of </li></ul><ul><li>Io, one of Jupiter’s satellites, is volcanically active </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Distance: 778.3 million km </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution Period: 11.78 Earth years </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation Period: 9 hours 55 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Equatorial diameter: 143,000 km </li></ul><ul><li>Gravitational Pull: 2.54 times that of the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Satellites: 50+      </li></ul>
  10. 10. Saturn <ul><li>Hydrogen and helium make up Saturn’s atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Astronemers believe the rings may have formed from parts that resulted from the breakup of the natrual satellites </li></ul><ul><li>The rings of Saturn are made up of ice, rock, and some gases </li></ul><ul><li>Saturn’s density is really small, therefore it can float on water </li></ul><ul><li>Seasons on Saturn are seven years long </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Distance: 1.429 billion km </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution Period: 29.46 Earth years </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation Period: 10 hours 40 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Equatorial diameter: 120,660 km </li></ul><ul><li>Gravitational Pull: 0.93 times that of the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Satellites: 53 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Uranus <ul><li>Uranus is tilted 98 degrees so when we look at it from Earth it appears to rotate on its side </li></ul><ul><li>Uranus’ atmosphere contains hydrogen, helium, and methane </li></ul><ul><li>Uranus has 27 known natuaral satellites </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Distance: 2.871 billion km </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution Period: 84.01 Earth years </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation Period: 17 hours 14 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Equatorial diameter: 51,118 km </li></ul><ul><li>Gravitational Pull: 0.8 times that of the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Satellites: 27       </li></ul>
  12. 12. Neptune <ul><li>Ammonia, helium, and methane make up Neptune’s atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>13 satellites orbit around Neptune </li></ul><ul><li>Triton, Neptune’s largest satellite, is a combination of ice and rock, and astronemers believe Trition wasn’t originally a satellite but was captured into Neptune’s gravitational pull </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Distance: 4.501 billion km </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution Period: 164.79 Earth years </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation Period: 16.11 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Equatorial diameter: 49,528 km </li></ul><ul><li>Gravitational Pull: 1.2 times that of the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Satellites: 13     </li></ul>
  13. 13. Dwarf Planets <ul><li>Pluto </li></ul><ul><li>Ceres </li></ul><ul><li>Eris </li></ul>
  14. 14. Pluto <ul><li>Charon, Nix, and Hydra are Pluto’s three moons, natuaral satellites </li></ul><ul><li>Using a spectroscope scientists learned that there is methane frost on Pluto </li></ul><ul><li>Charon is actually have the size of Pluto and is included into Pluto’s nitrogen and methane composed atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Average Solar Distance: 6 billion km </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution Period: 248 Earth years </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation Period: 6.4 Earth days </li></ul><ul><li>Equatorial diameter: 2400 km </li></ul><ul><li>Gravitational Pull: 0.04 times that of the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Satellites: 3      </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ceres <ul><li>For Ceres to make one complete revolution around the Sun it will take 4.6 Earth years </li></ul><ul><li>Ceres orbits the Sun between Mars and Jupiter, which is in the asteriod belt, and so it was mistakenly considered as a asteriod </li></ul><ul><li>On Ceres’ surface you can probably find water, ice, carbonates, and clays </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Distance: 415 million km </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution Period: 4.6 Earth years </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation Period: 9.074 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Equatorial diameter: 950 km </li></ul><ul><li>Gravitational Pull: 0.028 times that of the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Satellites: 0 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Eris <ul><li>Eris’ original name was Xena, Greek goddess of strife and discord </li></ul><ul><li>It takes Eris 557 Earth days to make a revolution around the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Dysnomia, daughter of Eris and cause of lawlessness in the ancient world, is the moon of Eris </li></ul><ul><li>Eris does not clear out its orbit (similar objects within its range of distance from the Sun) </li></ul><ul><li>Average Solar Distance: 10.12 billion km </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution Period: 557 Earth years </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation Period: unknown </li></ul><ul><li>Equatorial diameter: 2400 km </li></ul><ul><li>Gravitational Pull: 0.08 times that of the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Satellites: 1      </li></ul>
  17. 17. Web Source <ul><li> </li></ul>