The planets
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The planets

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The planets The planets Presentation Transcript

  • The Planets By David Gu
  • General Information
    • Revolve: When a samller object circles around a larger one
    • Rotate: When an object spins on its axis
    • 8 planets have been found in our solar system
    • Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are the inner planets
    • Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are the outer planets
    • The inner planets are basicly spheres of rock, while the outer ones are gigantic sphereical gas planets with rings
    • More craters can be found on the inner planets because they were often hit by asteriods and meteorites for the past 600 million years
    • Orbit: A path followed by a Planet, Satellite, etc.
    • To be considered a planet the object must have an orbit around the Sun, have a certain amount of mass so that its own gravity can make it into a sphere, and not have any other objects similar to it in about the same distance from the Sun
    • A class of objects that meet the first and second requirement to be a planet but not the last one is a Dwarf Planet.
    • Pluto, Ceres, and Eris are currently the three dwarf planets in our solar system
  • The Inner Planets
    • Mercury
    • Venus
    • Earth
    • Mars
  • Mercury
    • The sun is the cause of Mercury’s non-substantial atmosphere
    • Helium and Sodium can be found in Mercury’s atmosphere
    • Process of forming Mercury’s shape:
      • Impact Cratering- Objects crash into the surface leaving craters
      • Volcanism- Lava floods the surface
      • Tectonic Activity- Crust of the planet moves to adjust to the cooling down and heating up of the planet
    • Average Solar Distance: 57.8 million km
    • Revolution Period: 87.9 Earth days
    • Rotation Period: 58.6 Earth days
    • Equatorial diameter: 4878 km
    • Gravitational Pull: 0.38 times the Earth
    • Natural Satellites: 0
  • Venus
    • From Earth, Venus is the brightest planet that can be seen due to its thick cloud layer, therefore it is called the “Evening Star”
    • Venus’ atmosphere is composed of carbon dioxide and sulfuric acid (greenhouse, traps heat)
    • Retrograde rotation is a type of rotation in which a planet rotates clockwise instead of the other way
    • For Venus to rotate once it takes 243 Earth days, but for it to revolve around the Sun once, it takes only 225 Earth days
    • On Venus the Sun would appear to rise in the west and set in the east because Venus has a retrograde rotation, which means the planets rotates clockwise
    • Venus is the hottest planet in our solar system because its own greenhouse atmosphere traps heat inside
    • Average Solar Distance: 108.2 million km
    • Revolution Period: 224.7 Earth days
    • Rotation Period: 243 Earth days
    • Equatorial diameter: 12,100 km
    • Gravitational Pull: 0.91 times the Earth
    • Natural Satellites: 0
  • Earth
    • 21% of oxygen, 78% nitrogen, 0.9% argon, and the other 0.1% is made up of water vapor, carbon dioxide, neon, methane, krypton, helium, xenon, hydrogen, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone
    • Our atmosphere protects us from solar radiation and meteors from reaching us in large amounts
    • Earth’s rotational tilt is at a 23.5 degree angle
    • The rapid spin of Earth’s iron-nickel core causes the magnetic field
    • Our Moon is the natural satellite of Earth
    • Average Solar Distance: 152 million km
    • Revolution Period: 365.26 Earth days
    • Rotation Period: 23.93 hours
    • Equatorial diameter: 12,756 km
    • Gravitational Pull: 9.8 meters per second per second
    • Natural Satellites: 1     
  • Mars
    • Some pieces from Mars crash landed on Earth that may carry ancient bacteria or other signs of life
    • The main element of Mars’satmosphere is carbon dioxide
    • Much of Mars’ surface is covered by a soil rish in iron-laden clay that makes the planet look red
    • Olympus Mons is a Martian volcano over 600 kilometers in width and over 26 kilometers in length
    • Phobos and Deimos are the two satellites of Mars
    • Average Solar Distance: 228 million km
    • Revolution Period: 686.98 Earth days
    • Rotation Period: 24.6 hours
    • Equatorial diameter: 6786 km
    • Gravitational Pull: 0.38 times that of the Earth
  • The Outer Planets
    • Jupiter
    • Saturn
    • Uranus
    • Neptune
  • Jupiter
    • Jupiter’s flat poles and bulged out equator is caused by its rapid rotaion
    • Hydrogen, helium, sulfur, and nitrogen make up Jupiter’s atmosphere
    • The Giant Red Spot on Jupiter is actually a long lasting storm that was their since we discovered Jupiter
    • Jupiter has 50 satellites that we know of
    • Io, one of Jupiter’s satellites, is volcanically active
    • Solar Distance: 778.3 million km
    • Revolution Period: 11.78 Earth years
    • Rotation Period: 9 hours 55 minutes
    • Equatorial diameter: 143,000 km
    • Gravitational Pull: 2.54 times that of the Earth
    • Natural Satellites: 50+     
  • Saturn
    • Hydrogen and helium make up Saturn’s atmosphere
    • Astronemers believe the rings may have formed from parts that resulted from the breakup of the natrual satellites
    • The rings of Saturn are made up of ice, rock, and some gases
    • Saturn’s density is really small, therefore it can float on water
    • Seasons on Saturn are seven years long
    • Solar Distance: 1.429 billion km
    • Revolution Period: 29.46 Earth years
    • Rotation Period: 10 hours 40 minutes
    • Equatorial diameter: 120,660 km
    • Gravitational Pull: 0.93 times that of the Earth
    • Natural Satellites: 53
  • Uranus
    • Uranus is tilted 98 degrees so when we look at it from Earth it appears to rotate on its side
    • Uranus’ atmosphere contains hydrogen, helium, and methane
    • Uranus has 27 known natuaral satellites
    • Solar Distance: 2.871 billion km
    • Revolution Period: 84.01 Earth years
    • Rotation Period: 17 hours 14 minutes
    • Equatorial diameter: 51,118 km
    • Gravitational Pull: 0.8 times that of the Earth
    • Natural Satellites: 27      
  • Neptune
    • Ammonia, helium, and methane make up Neptune’s atmosphere
    • 13 satellites orbit around Neptune
    • Triton, Neptune’s largest satellite, is a combination of ice and rock, and astronemers believe Trition wasn’t originally a satellite but was captured into Neptune’s gravitational pull
    • Solar Distance: 4.501 billion km
    • Revolution Period: 164.79 Earth years
    • Rotation Period: 16.11 hours
    • Equatorial diameter: 49,528 km
    • Gravitational Pull: 1.2 times that of the Earth
    • Natural Satellites: 13    
  • Dwarf Planets
    • Pluto
    • Ceres
    • Eris
  • Pluto
    • Charon, Nix, and Hydra are Pluto’s three moons, natuaral satellites
    • Using a spectroscope scientists learned that there is methane frost on Pluto
    • Charon is actually have the size of Pluto and is included into Pluto’s nitrogen and methane composed atmosphere
    • Average Solar Distance: 6 billion km
    • Revolution Period: 248 Earth years
    • Rotation Period: 6.4 Earth days
    • Equatorial diameter: 2400 km
    • Gravitational Pull: 0.04 times that of the Earth
    • Natural Satellites: 3     
  • Ceres
    • For Ceres to make one complete revolution around the Sun it will take 4.6 Earth years
    • Ceres orbits the Sun between Mars and Jupiter, which is in the asteriod belt, and so it was mistakenly considered as a asteriod
    • On Ceres’ surface you can probably find water, ice, carbonates, and clays
    • Solar Distance: 415 million km
    • Revolution Period: 4.6 Earth years
    • Rotation Period: 9.074 hours
    • Equatorial diameter: 950 km
    • Gravitational Pull: 0.028 times that of the Earth
    • Natural Satellites: 0
  • Eris
    • Eris’ original name was Xena, Greek goddess of strife and discord
    • It takes Eris 557 Earth days to make a revolution around the Sun
    • Dysnomia, daughter of Eris and cause of lawlessness in the ancient world, is the moon of Eris
    • Eris does not clear out its orbit (similar objects within its range of distance from the Sun)
    • Average Solar Distance: 10.12 billion km
    • Revolution Period: 557 Earth years
    • Rotation Period: unknown
    • Equatorial diameter: 2400 km
    • Gravitational Pull: 0.08 times that of the Earth
    • Natural Satellites: 1     
  • Web Source
    • http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/solar_system_level2/planets.html