Sensory Impairments February 22, 2011


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Sensory Impairments February 22, 2011

  1. 1. Sensory Impairments<br />David Berglund and Devon Mechler<br />
  2. 2. Sensory Impairments:<br />Include a spectrum of visual and auditory impairments<br />Considered to be low-incidence exceptionalities <br />It is usually not important for school personnel to know the causes of sensory impairments, because it does not affect instructional strategies<br />Causes of hearing impairments include: genetics, developmental abnormalities, drug use (including prescription drugs), infections, premature birth, Rh incompatibility, physical trauma, allergies, loud noise<br />Causes of visual impairments include: genetics, physical trauma, infections, premature birth, oxygen deprivation (anoxia), retinal degeneration.<br />
  3. 3. Hearing Impairments<br />Hidden<br />Hard of Hearing: people who are hard of hearing find it challenging to understand speech with or without a hearing aid<br />Deafness: people who are deaf cannot understand speech even with a hearing aid<br />Visual Impairments<br />Low vision: enough vision to gain information through reading, with or without aids<br />Blindness:<br />Legal Blindness: visual acuity less than 20/200, or field of vision less than 20 degrees<br />Educational definition: must use Braille or aural methods to learn<br />
  4. 4. Characteristics<br />Students with either Visual or Hearing Impairments:<br />Range of intellectual ability similar to that of peers<br />Generally behind peers academically<br />Less socially mature<br />Students with Auditory Impairments:<br />Poor speech production<br />Students with Visual Impairments:<br />Unable to use non-verbal cues or visual imagery<br />Difficulty in using spatial information<br />
  5. 5. Strategies for Supporting Students with Hearing Impairments<br />Students with suspected hearing impairments should be referred to an audiologist<br />Students vary in their need for supports <br />Students with profound hearing loss usually need an interpreter <br />Seat students where they can best use any hearing they may have and/or where they can easily see the interpreter<br />Information should be presented visually as much as possible<br />Have bright lighting so the students can easily see visual cues <br />Have students work cooperatively with their peers<br />
  6. 6. Figure 9.2 Types of Supports for Students with Hearing Impairments in Inclusive Settings <br />(Smith, 2009, p. 237) <br />
  7. 7. Strategies for Supporting Students with Visual Impairments <br />For students with low vision, simple modifications (e.g. making printed materials larger or using seating arrangements to take advantage of any vision the student has) may suffice<br />Modifications must be more extensive for students who are blind (e.g. Braille, Audio Books, etc.)<br />Adapt materials to accommodate tactile strategies<br />Include all students in the classroom activities<br />Help increase students’ level of activity <br />
  8. 8. Management Considerations for students who are visually impaired<br />Students with visual impairments should be allowed to move around the class to find where they can see best<br />Students with visual impairments need to know where things are in the classroom (‘clock orientation’ is a good way to do this)<br />It is important to use appropriate seating arrangements <br />Make sure the classroom is free of hazards<br />Teachers should think ahead as to how they will adapt lessons to meet the needs of these students <br />
  9. 9. Assistive Technology for Students with Hearing Impairments<br />Using movies that have closed captioning <br />Hearing aids and other sound amplifying devices <br />Cochlear implants <br />Teachers should talk with hearing specialists (such as audiologists, hearing consultants or teachers who specialize in working with students who are deaf) to understand these technologies and create the ideal classroom environment<br />
  10. 10. Assistive Technology for Students with Visual Impairments<br />Low vision aids <br />magnifiers<br />closed-circuit televisions <br />monoculars<br />Braille printers and speech input/output devices<br />Computer training and access (special software is available)<br />
  11. 11. Socio-Emotional Considerations<br />May feel socially isolated <br />Students need to know that someone cares about their social and emotional needs <br />Teachers should help with the student’s social and emotional development<br />Teachers should be available to talk to the student about the student’s concerns<br />The student and teacher need to have a system that allows the student to signal the teacher when they need to talk <br />
  12. 12. References<br />Career and employment services: Helping people with vision loss define and reach their goals. CNIB(Canadian National Institute of the Blind), 354-10th Street, Brandon, MB.<br />Clear print: Accessibility guidelines. CNIB(Canadian National Institute of the Blind), 354-10th Street, Brandon, MB.<br />Early intervention program: Helping children with vision loss reach their full potential. CNIB(Canadian National Institute of the Blind), 354-10th Street, Brandon, MB.<br />Save your sight. CNIB(Canadian National Institute of the Blind), 354-10th Street, Brandon, MB.<br />Smith, T. (2009). Teaching students with special needs in inclusive settings (third ed.). Toronto, Ontario: Pearson Education Inc. <br />Start American Sign Language. (2008-2011). <br />Step-by-step: A how-to manual for guiding someone with vision loss. CNIB(Canadian National Institute of the Blind), 354-10th Street, Brandon, MB.<br />Take a look. CNIB(Canadian National Institute of the Blind), 354-10th Street, Brandon, MB.<br />