Google CIC 2012 - Transportation Issues


Published on

Google's presentation to CS-4261: Mobile Apps and Services at Georgia Tech in Spring 2012. This was presented in the weeks leading up to the 2012 Convergence Innovation Competition -- specifically for the Societal Impact category.

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Google CIC 2012 - Transportation Issues

  1. 1. CIC CompetitionTransit in Atlantacic.gatech.eduEric AyersSoftware EngineerGoogle Atlanta Google confidential
  2. 2. This Google confidential
  3. 3. Follow us search for Societal Impact Google confidential
  4. 4. DisclaimerFollow your passionSocietal Impact category entries are not limited to this topicGoogle Community Affairs is passionate about Atlanta Fostering local innovation Improving transit in our city We think new technologies can transform transitsource: Brenda Pierce Google confidential
  5. 5. My ExperienceLiving, Commuting in AtlantaGrew up in suburbs Came into the city bi-weeklyWent to Georgia TechMoved to apartmentMoved to a house in in north suburbsCommuted across top-end, and into city Google confidential
  6. 6. Atlanta 101Google confidential
  7. 7. But for $18K/mile... a 3 mile commute1792: Indian village "Standing Peachtree"Peachtree Creek + Chatahoochee1813: "Fort Peachtree"1817: Land where my home is built purchased from Cherokee Nation1831-1838: Forced migration on Native Americans: Trail of Tears1837: Rail lines slated to end in Norcross re-routed"Terminus" 3 railroads meet further south at Fort PeachtreeSaves $18K/mile due to terrain, land rightsPopulation: Trees, cows and chickenssource: Brenda Pierce Google confidential
  8. 8. “Terminus will be a good location for one tavern, a blacksmith shop, a grocery store, and nothing else.”Chief Engineer, Western & Atlantic RailroadAfter declining share in 200 acres of property alongpresent day Marietta Street Google confidential
  9. 9. Rapid Growth of TerminusAtlantas history1843: Renamed "Marthasville" after the governors daughter1844: Plan to expand past 7 streets fails vote1847: Renamed "Atlanta"1860-1864: War1864: City systematically burned1865: Resurgens - a city "rises from the ashes" - rebuilt quicklysource: Brenda Pierce Google confidential
  10. 10. Population Growth1840 -1920source: Brenda Pierce Google confidential
  11. 11. Shared Transit, 1920 styleStreetcarssource: Brenda Pierce Google confidential
  12. 12. Transportation AssetsGoogle confidential
  13. 13. Atlanta Today: Transportation HubFreight rail nexusWorlds busiest airport: 89M passengers 950K takeoffs/landingsConvergence of three interstatesExcellent road conditionsBus, Heavy rail transit systemsource: Airports Council International, Georgia DOT Google confidential
  14. 14. Transportation ChallengesGoogle confidential
  15. 15. Political BoundariesOther impactsNot just transporationAtlanta Regional Commissionsource: ARC Google confidential
  16. 16. Geographic BoundariesChallengesFew natural boundaries to growth in any directionChattahoochee RiverIntroduction of I-75/85 impact on city Google confidential
  17. 17. 192411 mi2 Google confidential
  18. 18. Population Density Then19241924 Population of 200,000 City limits included 11 mi2 = 18,200 per mi2source: Brenda Pierce, Wolphram Alpha Google confidential
  19. 19. Population Density TodayOther cities circa 2010New York City population 8.1M (five boroughs) 26,900 per mi2 (Manhattan 71,000 per mi2)London population 7.7M 12,800 per mi2Los Angeles population 14M 8,100 per mi2 (urban)Portland population city/urban 583k/1.4M 4,300 per mi2 (urban)Atlanta population city/urban 475K/4.7M 4,020 per mi2 (city) 2,420 per mi2 (urban)source: wikipeda city page entries, ARC, oregonmetro.govwarning: suspect computations by presenter Google confidential
  20. 20. 132 mi2 0 1 2 milessource:, author Google confidential
  21. 21. Population DensityRegions similar to Atlanta Google confidential
  22. 22. Race/Ethnicity/ClassInfluence on Transportation InfrastructureMigration from the city to inner suburbs to outer suburbs.Years ago, suburban counties opt-out of MARTA,eventually use federal money to build separate bussystemsFuture allocations for transportation: Follow the money? Social Justice? Google confidential
  23. 23. Demographic Map 201120 county metro regionsource: Atlanta Regional Commission State of the Atlanta Region: 2011 Google confidential
  24. 24. Demographic Shifts: 2000-2010 Google confidential
  25. 25. ImmigrantsNew transportation demandsLatino, Korean, other immigrants settle come to ATL in large numbersBuford Highway, Roswell Road not designed for pedestrian lifestyle ofimmigrantsSub-population that does not understand EnglishShadow transportation infrastructure private buses catering to LatinocommunityTop reason Latino arrest in Gwinnett County: No drivers license**Based on anectodal evidence, Google confidential
  26. 26. Hot Topics in Atlanta TransportationMARTA budgetTSPLOST 1% sales tax, 10 years up for vote in Summer 2012Atlanta BeltlineCongestion priced lanes on InterstatesAir Quality - one month a year of unsafe air Google confidential
  27. 27. AutomobilesGoogle confidential
  28. 28. Atlantas Car CultureSuburban living called the "American Dream"Many of us drive before High School graduation Voting age Legally drinking alcoholYou cannot easily get around the Metro Atlanta area without access toa carParking is free in most places in the city Google confidential
  29. 29. Traffic: Why we drive the way we doTom VanderbiltTLDR; interview with the author on Amazon.comCounter-intuitive insights on drivingYou are the above-average driver; everyone else is an idiot, right?Drivers get no feedback on their drivingIs having a passenger safer?When to merge into exit lane?Roads and cars designed to be safer, but feeling of safety leads tomore dangerous drivingRoads with fewer or no signs, natural cues safer Google confidential
  30. 30. The High Cost of Free ParkingDonald ShoupTLDR; are free parking spaces are mandated by ordinances? ● Someone is paying for all those free parking spaces around businesses, many of which go unused ● Looking for free curb parking adds to traffic downtown ● Use market economics to maximize use of curb parking, use money for civic projects ● Remove minimum parking requirements, use market forces to right- size parking/usable building ratio. Google confidential
  31. 31. Land Dedicated to CarsOffice in Midtown14 storyoffice tower Google confidential
  32. 32. Vehicle Miles Travelled1982 - 2009 Google confidential
  33. 33. Projected Atlanta Population2010-2040source: ARC Plan 2040 Google confidential
  34. 34. No Easy Relief for Highways in SightOur roadways are built up in much of our urban area:On-ramp metering: +9% capacityDifficult to add lanes, expensive right-of wayDifficult to add new roads in urban area: See Boston Big DigExtra lane != linear increase in road capacityCarpool lane: ~80% same family membersCapital funds needed for maintenance: Bridges getting oldOur best bets for improving road capacity: fine tune, improveinterchanges and intersectionssource: Georgia DOT, Wikipedia Google confidential
  35. 35. Why Shared Transit?Google confidential
  36. 36. Societal Benefits of Shared TransitCongestion reductionReduced gasoline consumptionReduced emissionsMobility to non-driversCompact sustainable communities BUTAsking sacrifices for public good is not enoughTransit must be fast, comfortable and reliablesource: Dr. Kari Edison Watkins Google confidential
  37. 37. ControversyWho pays? Who benefits?Is it efficient use of taxpayer funds?Ideological issue?source: Dr. Kari Edison Watkins Google confidential
  38. 38. ARC Plan 2040: growth from 3.4m in 2000 to 6.0 in 2040scenario: greenfield growth - More people, more tripssource: Regional Transportation Plan 2040, ARC Google confidential
  39. 39. Commute Times 2010 vs. 2040 from Downtown: no change in growth patterns2010 2040 source: Regional Transportation Plan 2040, ARC Google confidential
  40. 40. Commute Times 2010 vs. 2040 from Perimeter Mall: No change in growth patterns2010 2040 source: Regional Transportation Plan 2040, ARC Google confidential
  41. 41. MARTAGoogle confidential
  42. 42. MARTA StatsBus and Heavy Rail transit system91 bus routes554 buses38 train stations48 miles of heavy rail338 rail cars450,000 passengers a day9 restroomsDirectly serves 2 of 10 counties in ARC regionsource: Wikipedia Google confidential
  43. 43. MARTA BudgetBreakoutsOne-way fare: $2.5050/50 mandated capital/operational expenditure75% of current operating expense is labor$331M revenues from tax + fares$41M income from federal funds$0 funding from the State Budgetsource: Wikipedia, MARTA Reports Google confidential
  44. 44. More MARTA StatisticsImpacts1/3 attendees to stadium events use MARTA46% of riders commute to work that have no other commute optionDisplaces 185,000 cars/dayParatransit for disabled citizensEstimated $2.1B annual impact on economyContributes to disposable income per resident $70/yr for Fulton & Dekalb $104 for other Metro Atlanta $113/yr other GA residentsource: MARTA Annual Report Google confidential
  45. 45. Who Pays for Transportation?Google confidential
  46. 46. Fare Recovery Ratio Google confidential
  47. 47. Transportation Funding20 county metro region Gas Taxsource: ARC Plan 2040 Google confidential
  48. 48. What a difference 20 years makes!Google confidential
  49. 49. source: MARTA Maps Google confidential
  50. 50. Georgia Regional Transit AuthorityGRTACirca 1998 Atlanta consistently fails federal Air Quality standardsThreat of losing federal funds for roadsGRTA formed by State governmentAbility to issue bondsAids local governments (bond issues) to implement a regionaltransporation plan: Mobility Air-Quality Land Usesource: GRTA website Google confidential
  51. 51. source: ARC 2011 Transportation Fact Book Google confidential
  52. 52. source: Author Google confidential
  53. 53. Proof these systems can work together! Google confidential
  54. 54. I-285 Top EndBusiest traffic artery in the 10-county regionNot directly served by public transitCommuters from Kennesaw to Duluth up to 4 transit systems.source: GRTA website Google confidential
  55. 55. Something is wrongmy GRTA to MARTA commuteOne optionfor an ~8 hourworkdayDoraville 20 minsfrom Midtown20% of populationlives in Gwinnettsource: GRTA website Google confidential
  56. 56. This is Atlanta on TransitGoogle confidential
  57. 57. source: Citizens For Progressive Transit Google confidential
  58. 58. source: MARTA 2010 Annual Report Google confidential
  59. 59. How do we get there?Google confidential
  60. 60. “ We need to make it so easy that there is no other reasonable choice but to take transit... it’s not reasonable to expect people to do something that they consider a sacrifice, so let’s take away the sacrifice. Transit service has to improve, but with better information, we can make the system already in place much more usable.”Dr. Kari Edison Watkins, CEco-creator of OneBusAway Google confidential
  61. 61. Back to todayGoogle confidential
  62. 62. Getting Around Atlanta - Sans Auto ? Google confidential
  63. 63. Current Alternatives to Car OwnershipMARTA train and busPrivate Bus (Georgia Bus Lines)County bus Clayton, Cobb, GwinnettRegional Bus (GRTA)Carpools & VanpoolsPublic and Private ShuttlesTaxiRental car, ZipCarBicycleWalkingBum a ride Google confidential
  64. 64. Proposed Atlanta public transit projects● Streetcar● Commuter Rail● Light Rail● Rapid Bus Google confidential
  65. 65. Demand ManagementLivable Centers Initiative (LCI)Concentrate investmentsMove the people closer tojobs and transitsource: ARC LIC Implementation Plan 2011 Google confidential
  66. 66. Psycological Barriers to Transit Google confidential
  67. 67. Transportation and Identity Google confidential
  68. 68. How to get Atlantans out of their cars? Fabio PozzatoLuxury? Speed? Price? Work while you ride? Karma?source: พระมหาดร.คมสรณ์ คุตตธมฺโม Google confidential
  69. 69. Public Transit in Rural Pakistan Google confidential
  70. 70. source: Google confidential
  71. 71. Concerns of a Suburban Mom Hassle with Kids Crowds Privacy Fear Unfamiliar No control Strange People Strange Behaviorsource: unscientifc poll, sample size: 1, wikimedia commons Google confidential
  72. 72. Can an app help a Soccer Mom?Google confidential
  73. 73. OneBusAway Surveysource: Dr. Kari Edison Watkins Google confidential
  74. 74. Behavioral Economics"Study of the effects of social, cognitive and emotional factors on theeconomic decisions of individuals and institutions and theconsequences for market prices, returns and the resource allocation." - WikipediaPredictably Irrational, Dan ArielyExplores why people repeatedly make the same kinds of mistakes thatseem to defy logic. Why it helps to have a wingman Google confidential
  75. 75. Project BrainstormingGoogle confidential
  76. 76. Possible ApproachesInformation DeliveryAwareness/ AdvocacyEntertainmentHabit FormationResource SharingEase of UseRoutingTarget an AudiencePlanningComfort Google confidential
  77. 77. Mobile with a MissionHow can modern convergent technology make public transit moreattractive to a smart phone user?Real-time route informationAndroid devices can be WiFi hot spotQR codes (buses, trains, bus stops)Smart routing of busesPaymentEntertainmentFeedback to transit operatorsBuild networks, sense of community among users Google confidential
  78. 78. Finding a NicheWhat problems do users have? current Transit users potential Transit users former Transit usersResearch them, ask them, study them.Caution! Behavior does not always match survey answers Surveys good indicator of user experience Users not so good at speculation, "What if?" scenarios. Google confidential
  79. 79. A-Train Trip Planneratltransit.orgCitizens for ProgressiveTransitAtlanta grassroots effort tomake car-free commuting inAtlanta easier.Built with Google Maps in2007Transit directions are nowintegrated into Citizens for Public Transit Google confidential
  80. 80. Seattle Areas OneBusAwayonebusaway.orgDr. Keri Watkins, CE Georgia Techsource: Google confidential
  81. 81. Visualizing off the pressUses Fusion Tablesinstead of KMLsource: Creative Loafing, ARC Google confidential
  82. 82. Harness the Power of Commuters Bogost, LCC Georgia TechWe love to hate these kinds ofsocial networking games, but... Easy adoption Casual gameplay Appeals to our compulsive naturePlus, the potential to go viral!source: www.bogost.vom Google confidential
  83. 83. Silly Idea? Google confidential
  84. 84. Ford didnt think soFord Fusion Hybrid Dashboardsource: Google confidential
  85. 85. Grassroots Solutions: Sluggingslug-lines.comsource: Wikimedia commons Google confidential
  86. 86. Empowering the Transit CommuterThe Dump Linesource: Wikimedia commons Google confidential
  87. 87. Questions?Google confidential
  88. 88. Select ResourcesCity of Atlanta Website, entry on WikipediaHistory of Atlanta, site compilationCitizens for Progressive TransitAtlanta Regional Commission websiteTraffic: Why we drive the way we do, Tom VanderbiltThe High Cost of Free Parking, Donald ShoupMARTA website, entry on WikipediaAtlanta Bicycle CoalitionGeorgia DOT Google confidential
  89. 89. This Google confidential