Business Process Modeling -  Lecture Notes week 1, sem 1 2007 - Wasana Bandara Queensland University of Technology Brisban...
Discussion <ul><li>What is a business process? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is business process management so popular? </li></ul>
<ul><li>What is a business process? </li></ul>
Our Process Definition A process is the self-contained,  temporal  and logical order  (parallel and/or serial) of those ac...
What is BPM? <ul><li>Business Process Management is a  structured, coherent and consistent   way of understanding, documen...
<ul><li>What is the value proposition of Business Process Management? </li></ul>
Why Business Process Management? <ul><li>Organisations are a collection of processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Processes reflect ...
Business Process Management Lifecycle Manage- Change ment
Business Process Lifecycle Support
Purposes of process modeling Process Documentation SOA Simulation Workflow/ Document Management Knowledge Management/ Trai...
<ul><li>How does all this fit with what you are about to learn  in this unit …? </li></ul>
Process Modelling  - The Missing Middle?
<ul><li>All IT is initially an expense. </li></ul><ul><li>The efficiency of the business processes determines the value of...
The Magic word … “ PROCESS …”
Challenges of a Process Manager by Scott Adams
What does the industry offer?
1  Organisation of this Subject
The design of this unit … ITB298 Unit Structure ITB298 Content Comprehensive Industry demand Analysis - Australia - USA - ...
Summary Skills Extracted from the Job Content Analysis 31 16 8 7 Client Management / stakeholder management Skill JS-15 32...
Summary Skills Extracted from the Job Content Analysis 15 4 9 2 ITIL reference model knwoledge JS-29 17 8 4 5 Lean Process...
Summary Skills Extracted from  For further details, see report in OLT site Please note that the skills presented here is n...
Organization of this Subject <ul><li>1.1.      Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>1.2.      Assignments </li></ul><ul><li>1.3.  ...
Objectives of this Subject <ul><li>Elaborate an awareness of the issues concerning the management of business processes </...
Objectives of this Subject  (Cont) <ul><li>8. Find process improvements given a process model  </li></ul><ul><li>9. Interv...
1.2  Assessments
Assignments  <ul><li>Assignment 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Report on Business Process Improvement case study  </li></ul><ul><li>...
1.3  Resources
Teaching team and Contributors <ul><ul><li>Wasana Bandara </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prof. Michael Rosemann </li></ul></ul...
Contact Details <ul><li>Wasana Bandara </li></ul><ul><li>Room: 737 Level 7 S block, GP campus. </li></ul><ul><li>Phone: 31...
Contact Details  (cont) <ul><li>For Technical support on ARIS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jan Recker  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
ITB 298 Homepage
Recommended resources Becker, Kugeler, Rosemann Process Management. Springer-Verlag, August 2003. ISBN  3540434992 .
Recommended resources Rob Davis: Business Process modeling with ARIS. July 2001. Springer Verlag ISBN:  1852334347
Recommended resources Scheer, Abolhassan, Jost, Kirchmer: Business Process Excellence. ARIS in Practice. Springer-Verlag, ...
1.4  Structure of the Unit
Unit Structure Mid semester break BPMN workshop Complete readings set for week six. Complete BPMN workshop. Have a first d...
Unit Structure May day holiday  Configurable Reference models exercise Complete readings set for week nine. Complete confi...
Unit Structure Semester revision and Mock exam Complete readings set for week thirteen. Review and attempt mock exam. Comp...
Tutorials <ul><li>TIME:  7.00pm-8.00pm OR 4.00- 5.00pm </li></ul><ul><li>VENUE: S 623 </li></ul><ul><li>Tutorials will sta...
The Market for BPM Tools *  44,000+ Licenses Sold * Sixth year as leader * Complete solutions * Scaleable solution * Compu...
Brief Overview of  Business Process Managament
Business Process Management Overview Manage- Change ment
The story of Business Process Management Henry Ford Scientific Management  - Adam Smith Scientific Management Frederick Ta...
Consequences … <ul><li>Work units changed from functional departments to process teams </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs change from ...
What does BPM really mean? <ul><li>Identify ,Manage , Control and Improve processes. </li></ul><ul><li>BPM focuses on impr...
BPM success elements <ul><li>The Process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engagement Model </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology:  </li>...
Brief Overview of  Business Process Modeling
What is a model? <ul><li>What is a model? </li></ul><ul><li>- Models are  extractions of the real world , developed for th...
Information Model An information model depicts at a specific time, elements and relationships of relevance for a  subject ...
What does it mean to ‘model processes’? Hagemeyer (1999) Event-driven Process Chain Follow the Document Flow Quote Order S...
Process Modeling purposes Bandara (2007)
Most commonly used techniques Bandara (2007)
Alternative Modeling Techniques - Even-driven Process Chains zur Muehlen (2003)
Alternative Modeling Techniques - Petri-Net zur Muehlen (2003)
Alternative Modeling Techniques - Flowchart zur Muehlen (2003)
Most commonly used tools Primary Tools Used   Supporting Tools Used Bandara (2007) 100.00% 222   8.56% 19 Vague statements...
Process modeling Views When? Process Which? Data / Service / Product What? Function Who? Organization
Objectives of modeling your processes Descriprive modeling of the real world (as-is) Prescriptive modeling of the real wor...
Model-based Process Improvement (1/2) 10 Start E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 Minute(s) F5 20 Minute(s) F4 F3 F2 F1 F6 E6 Initial process ...
Model-based Process Improvement (2/2) Integrate F6 & F7 Parallelism of F3 & F4 Create variants Automate  F3 Accelerate F4 ...
Integrated Enterprise modeling
Think beyond the square … Extracted from  Peter Grant -  Director, Stream Executive, December 2004   Albert Einstein “ We ...
From As-Is to To-Be AS IS TO BE
Why do  as-is  modelling? <ul><li>the same problem of understanding </li></ul><ul><li>a defined project scope </li></ul><u...
But it is not without its weaknesses … <ul><li>the results are obsolete as soon as to-be processes are designed and/or imp...
How can we maximise the as-is modelling efforts? Factors for success … <ul><li>Know your  objectives  for modelling </li><...
Know your objectives for modelling <ul><li>To know the  perspective  that you are going to model </li></ul><ul><li>To defi...
Modelling tool/ technique selection Tool: Technique/ Language
Tool selection Essential features …. <ul><li>Support a suitable modelling technique </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible enough to b...
Technique/ Language selection Essential features …. <ul><li>To clearly present the sequence of functions, including splits...
Modelling convention derivation Why use modelling conventions? <ul><li>To reduce variety </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the co...
Modelling convention derivation Essential features …. <ul><li>Layout conventions </li></ul><ul><li>Naming conventions </li...
How can we maximise the as-is modelling efforts? Factors for success … <ul><li>Know your  objectives  for modelling </li><...
Process Modeling Critical Success Factors  Bandara (2005, 2007) Process  Modeling  Success
Collect appropriate information for deriving the models Document Analysis Interviews JAD sessions Questionnaires Structure...
Review Existing Documentation <ul><li>Purposes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preliminary understanding of processes </li></ul></ul...
Conduct Interviews and Discussions <ul><li>Most effective way to understand business functions and rules </li></ul><ul><li...
Types of Questions Types of Questions Examples Closed-Ended Questions *  How many telephone   orders are received per day?...
Issue Register <ul><li>Purpose: keep track of identified issues during process modelling workshops </li></ul><ul><li>conte...
Example: Issue Register
Distribute and Collect Questionnaires <ul><li>Limited and specific information from a large number of stakeholders </li></...
Example Questionnaire
Conduct JAD Sessions <ul><li>Used to expedite the investigation of systems requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks to compres...
Summary… <ul><li>So, what did we discuss today? </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives of Business Pr...
Q & A
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Itb298 Lecture Week 1 Sem 1 2007 Staff Version

  1. 1. Business Process Modeling - Lecture Notes week 1, sem 1 2007 - Wasana Bandara Queensland University of Technology Brisbane, 26th Feb 2007
  2. 2. Discussion <ul><li>What is a business process? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is business process management so popular? </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>What is a business process? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Our Process Definition A process is the self-contained, temporal and logical order (parallel and/or serial) of those activities , that are executed for the transformation of an business object with the goal of accomplishing a given task . Invoice Inquiry Quotation Delivery note Customer order
  5. 5. What is BPM? <ul><li>Business Process Management is a structured, coherent and consistent way of understanding, documenting, modeling, analysing, simulating, executing, measuring and continuously changing end-to-end business processes and all involved resources in light of their contribution to business improvement . </li></ul>Definition by the Australian BPM Community of Practice
  6. 6. <ul><li>What is the value proposition of Business Process Management? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Why Business Process Management? <ul><li>Organisations are a collection of processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Processes reflect time, cost, quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Processes reflect products and services. </li></ul><ul><li>Processes reflect customer orientation. </li></ul><ul><li>Processes reflect flexibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Processes reflect complexity. </li></ul><ul><li>Processes reflect working styles and culture. </li></ul><ul><li>The performance relies on business processes. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Business Process Management Lifecycle Manage- Change ment
  9. 9. Business Process Lifecycle Support
  10. 10. Purposes of process modeling Process Documentation SOA Simulation Workflow/ Document Management Knowledge Management/ Training Process Improvement Process Cost Analysis Enterprise Systems Compliance / Risk Management Software Evaluation/ Selection Enterprise Architecture
  11. 11. <ul><li>How does all this fit with what you are about to learn in this unit …? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Process Modelling - The Missing Middle?
  13. 13. <ul><li>All IT is initially an expense. </li></ul><ul><li>The efficiency of the business processes determines the value of IT. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Magic word … “ PROCESS …”
  15. 15. Challenges of a Process Manager by Scott Adams
  16. 16. What does the industry offer?
  17. 17. 1 Organisation of this Subject
  18. 18. The design of this unit … ITB298 Unit Structure ITB298 Content Comprehensive Industry demand Analysis - Australia - USA - UK Local Industry Experts Pedagogical guidelines +
  19. 19. Summary Skills Extracted from the Job Content Analysis 31 16 8 7 Client Management / stakeholder management Skill JS-15 32 14 9 9 SAP related product skills JS-14 32 9 6 17 Problem solving (tools such as : scatter diagrams, improve, etc ) skills JS-13 32 29 0 3 Context specific knowledge JS-12 33 24 5 4 Process Improvement JS-11 35 25 2 8 Negotiation skills JS-10 37 18 7 12 Business Analysis JS-9 40 6 10 24 Technical / specifications Writing / documentation (Written skill) JS-8 42 22 12 8 Change mangement skill / Business Process Change JS-7 44 25 9 10 Business Intelligence JS-6 55 25 18 12 Process Reegineering / development / BPR JS-5 68 32 24 12 Process Modelling / design / mapping JS-4 73 34 17 22 Project management skill (Project Work Bench, MS Project, Team Work Bench and EPIC) JS-3 78 22 28 28 Analytical skill ( /Business Process Analysis) JS-2 96 43 20 33 Communication (verbal) and presentation skills JS-1 Total Australia UK US Specific Skills / Experience Required Job Skill ID
  20. 20. Summary Skills Extracted from the Job Content Analysis 15 4 9 2 ITIL reference model knwoledge JS-29 17 8 4 5 Lean Process Management (Improvement Methodology) JS-28 17 1 5 11 Leadership skill JS-27 17 13 0 4 Facilitation skills JS-26 19 7 2 10 SDLC knowledge (RUP , Agile, etc.) JS-25 20 4 9 7 Planning & Organizational skills JS-24 21 11 4 6 Requirements gathering methods and analysis knowledge JS-23 23 6 11 6 Process Management (BPM) JS-22 24 19 2 3 How to run training / workshops JS-21 26 4 10 12 Six Sigma JS-20 26 4 21 1 Interpersonal, team and stakeholder management skill JS-19 27 18 3 6 Consulting JS-18 28 1 7 20 MS office (vision, word, excel, MS project etc) JS-17 31 5 1 25 Internet technologies (HTML, java Script) JS-16 Total Australia UK US Specific Skills / Experience Required Job Skill ID
  21. 21. Summary Skills Extracted from For further details, see report in OLT site Please note that the skills presented here is not in any particular order Basic statistical skills Fg-12 Creative ability Fg-11 Team management Fg-10 Scope management Fg-9 Negotiation and leadership skills Fg-8 Ability to run workshops and training Fg-7 Ability to communicate with the client Fg-6 Understand what the business problem is Fg-5 Knowledge on methodology and frameworks Fg-4 Ability to conduct the finer details within BPM projects Fg-3 Ability to see the bigger picture of BPM Fg-2 Systems analysis skills FG-1 **Specific Skills / Experience Required Job Skill ID
  22. 22. Organization of this Subject <ul><li>1.1.     Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>1.2.     Assignments </li></ul><ul><li>1.3.     Resources </li></ul><ul><li>1.4 Contents </li></ul>
  23. 23. Objectives of this Subject <ul><li>Elaborate an awareness of the issues concerning the management of business processes </li></ul><ul><li>Identify, model, improve, introduce, and manage processes in a business organization </li></ul><ul><li>Apply the principles of business process modeling for different purposes [Discuss the characteristics of the Architecture of Integrated Information Systems (ARIS) ] </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the relationships between the modeling, to advance business applications such as knowledge management, enterprise management, process simulation etc </li></ul><ul><li>Use the upper-CASE-tool ARIS to model processes </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate knowledge of syntax and semantics of modelling with ARIS; knowledge of process engineering lifecycles; and skills to undertake process modelling tasks </li></ul>
  24. 24. Objectives of this Subject (Cont) <ul><li>8. Find process improvements given a process model </li></ul><ul><li>9. Interview business partners and effectively communicate the results of the modelling activity in written, oral and visual forms </li></ul><ul><li>10. Locate relevant resources related to benchmarking processes and comparing and contrasting modelling techniques </li></ul><ul><li>11. Complete modeling-based process engineering tasks independently and within groups </li></ul><ul><li>12. Appreciate the social and organisational impacts of Process Modeling projects and effectively communicate this appreciation to stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>13. Work effectively in team leadership roles in team projects and demonstrate an awareness of the historical evolution of business process modelling and management theories </li></ul>
  25. 25. 1.2 Assessments
  26. 26. Assignments <ul><li>Assignment 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Report on Business Process Improvement case study </li></ul><ul><li>(Group work) </li></ul><ul><li>DUE: (16 th of April, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Assignment 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Researched essay on advanced applications of process modelling </li></ul><ul><li>(Group work) </li></ul><ul><li>DUE: (28 th of May, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>EXAM </li></ul><ul><li>DUE: Exam Period </li></ul>© Dr Michael Rosemann, QUT Brisbane – 26 February 2002
  27. 27. 1.3 Resources
  28. 28. Teaching team and Contributors <ul><ul><li>Wasana Bandara </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prof. Michael Rosemann </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jan Recker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Presenters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Contact Details <ul><li>Wasana Bandara </li></ul><ul><li>Room: 737 Level 7 S block, GP campus. </li></ul><ul><li>Phone: 3138 1919 </li></ul><ul><li>Consultation Hours: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tuesdays 2.00pm-4.00pm (S737) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wednesdays 11.00pm-1.00pm (S737) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Michael Rosemann </li></ul><ul><li>Room: 126, Margaret St, Level 5, 504 </li></ul><ul><li>Phone: 3138 9473 </li></ul><ul><li>Consultation Hours and venue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TBA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://sky.fit.qut.edu.au/~rosemann/ </li></ul>
  30. 30. Contact Details (cont) <ul><li>For Technical support on ARIS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jan Recker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For General Inquiries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FIT Duty Tutor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>http://sky.fit.qut.edu.au/~recker/
  31. 31. ITB 298 Homepage
  32. 32. Recommended resources Becker, Kugeler, Rosemann Process Management. Springer-Verlag, August 2003. ISBN 3540434992 .
  33. 33. Recommended resources Rob Davis: Business Process modeling with ARIS. July 2001. Springer Verlag ISBN: 1852334347
  34. 34. Recommended resources Scheer, Abolhassan, Jost, Kirchmer: Business Process Excellence. ARIS in Practice. Springer-Verlag, June 2002. ISBN 3540434798.
  35. 35. 1.4 Structure of the Unit
  36. 36. Unit Structure Mid semester break BPMN workshop Complete readings set for week six. Complete BPMN workshop. Have a first draft of Assignment 1 ready for pre-submission feedback (optional). Process Modelling with the Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN) - Part 1 2nd of April 6 ARIS workshop Complete readings set for week five. Complete ARIS workshop. Continue with Assignment 1 tasks. Further Applications of Business Process Modelling 26th of March 5 ARIS workshop Complete readings set for week four. Complete ARIS workshop. Commence tasks for Assignment 1. ARIS Modelling (Cont) Model based process management - What does it mean …? 19th of March 4 ARIS workshop Complete readings set for week three. Complete ARIS workshop. Read and understand Assignment 1 requirements. The Architecture of Integrated Information Systems (ARIS) 12th of March 3 ARIS workshop Complete readings set for week two. Complete ARIS workshop. Complete and report on group formation. Introduction to EPCs 5th March 2 - none- Read Week 1 document and understand schedule, resources (OLT, Library, etc) and requirements of assessment items. Complete readings set for week one. Introduction to BPM and Process modelling 26th Feb 1 Assessment Tasks/Dates Tutorial/ Practical Tasks Student Activities Lecture Topic Starting Week
  37. 37. Unit Structure May day holiday Configurable Reference models exercise Complete readings set for week nine. Complete configurable reference model exercise in tutorial. Continue with Assignment 2 tasks. Review Assignment 1 feedback with tutor. Meta models and Reference Process Models 30th of April 9 BPMN workshop Complete readings set for week eight. Complete advanced BPMN workshop. Prepare for Assignment 2 Process Modelling in the landscape of Large systems 23rd of April 8 Assignment 1 due BPMN workshop Complete readings set for week seven. Complete BPMN workshop. Finalise and submit Assignment 1 Process Modelling with the Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN) - Part 2 16th of April 7 Assessment Tasks/Dates Tutorial/ Practical Tasks Student Activities Lecture Topic Starting Week
  38. 38. Unit Structure Semester revision and Mock exam Complete readings set for week thirteen. Review and attempt mock exam. Complete SEUs and SETs for unit. Review Assignment 2 feedback with tutor. Deriving Reference models and Process Patterns: Case study example 4th of June 13 Assignment 2 due Student presentations Complete readings set for week twelve. Prepare and present for the oral presentations of ITB298 Assignment 2. Finalise and submit Assignment 2 report. Process Modelling case studies - modelling power and impacts 28th of May 12 Workflow modelling exercise Complete readings set for week eleven. Complete Workflow modelling exercise. Continue with Assignment 2 tasks. Have a first draft of Assignment 1 ready for pre-submission feedback (optional). Closing the loop - Model based process design to process execution 21st of May 11 Tutorial on Process Modelling Management Complete readings set for week ten. Complete Tutorial on Process Modelling Management. Continue with Assignment 2 tasks. The Process of Process Modelling Management 14th of May 10 Assessment Tasks/Dates Tutorial/ Practical Tasks Student Activities Lecture Topic Starting Week
  39. 39. Tutorials <ul><li>TIME: 7.00pm-8.00pm OR 4.00- 5.00pm </li></ul><ul><li>VENUE: S 623 </li></ul><ul><li>Tutorials will start next week (week 2) and please form your groups as early as possible… </li></ul>
  40. 40. The Market for BPM Tools * 44,000+ Licenses Sold * Sixth year as leader * Complete solutions * Scaleable solution * Computer Based Training * Easy to Use
  41. 41. Brief Overview of Business Process Managament
  42. 42. Business Process Management Overview Manage- Change ment
  43. 43. The story of Business Process Management Henry Ford Scientific Management - Adam Smith Scientific Management Frederick Taylor Taylorism <ul><li>Quality Management </li></ul><ul><li>Production management </li></ul><ul><li>Computer integrated manufacturing </li></ul>Hammer and Champy Thomas Davenport
  44. 44. Consequences … <ul><li>Work units changed from functional departments to process teams </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs change from simple tasks to multi-dimensional work </li></ul><ul><li>People's roles changed from ‘being controlled’ to ‘empowered’ </li></ul><ul><li>Job preparation changed from ‘training’ to ‘education’ </li></ul><ul><li>Performance measures shift from activity to result </li></ul><ul><li>Roles of managers and executives change </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational structure changes </li></ul><ul><li>Value changes </li></ul>Extracted from Hammer and Champy, 1993, p.65-79
  45. 45. What does BPM really mean? <ul><li>Identify ,Manage , Control and Improve processes. </li></ul><ul><li>BPM focuses on improving processes in an formalized and integrated manner </li></ul>Business Process Management...
  46. 46. BPM success elements <ul><li>The Process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engagement Model </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IT applications used </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Various Stakeholders in the value chain </li></ul></ul>Process Technology People
  47. 47. Brief Overview of Business Process Modeling
  48. 48. What is a model? <ul><li>What is a model? </li></ul><ul><li>- Models are extractions of the real world , developed for the </li></ul><ul><li>sole purpose of reducing its overall complexity . </li></ul><ul><li>Models aggregate information and document only the relevant aspects of the real world </li></ul><ul><li>An information model depicts at a specific time, elements and relationships of relevance for a subject and purpose </li></ul>
  49. 49. Information Model An information model depicts at a specific time, elements and relationships of relevance for a subject and purpose . SUBJECT MODEL R E A L W O R L D Image Relation Object Relation Activity Relation
  50. 50. What does it mean to ‘model processes’? Hagemeyer (1999) Event-driven Process Chain Follow the Document Flow Quote Order Shipping Invoice Jan. 1 ‘07 Jan. 5 ‘07 Jan. 17 ‘07 Jan. 18 ‘07 Prepare quote Production Prepare - invoice Accept order Verify - invoice Posting Jan. 27 ‘07 RFQ Jan. 2 ‘07
  51. 51. Process Modeling purposes Bandara (2007)
  52. 52. Most commonly used techniques Bandara (2007)
  53. 53. Alternative Modeling Techniques - Even-driven Process Chains zur Muehlen (2003)
  54. 54. Alternative Modeling Techniques - Petri-Net zur Muehlen (2003)
  55. 55. Alternative Modeling Techniques - Flowchart zur Muehlen (2003)
  56. 56. Most commonly used tools Primary Tools Used Supporting Tools Used Bandara (2007) 100.00% 222   8.56% 19 Vague statements 3.15% 7 Unspecified 19.82% 44 38 Others 2.25% 5 Flowcharter 2.70% 6 Staffware 3.15% 7 Provision 3.60% 8 Rational Rose 4.05% 9 Systems Architect 25.68% 57 VISIO 27.03% 60 ARIS % Citations   84 Others (including vague statements) 2 MS Project 2 Rational Rose 4 MS Excel 5 ARIS 10 MS Word 15 MS Powerpoint 28 VISIO Citations  
  57. 57. Process modeling Views When? Process Which? Data / Service / Product What? Function Who? Organization
  58. 58. Objectives of modeling your processes Descriprive modeling of the real world (as-is) Prescriptive modeling of the real world (to-be)
  59. 59. Model-based Process Improvement (1/2) 10 Start E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 Minute(s) F5 20 Minute(s) F4 F3 F2 F1 F6 E6 Initial process Start E1 F1 F6 E6 E3 E4 E5 10 Minute(s) F5 20 Minute(s) F4 F3 Delete F2 E1 F6 E6 Start E1 F1 E3 E4 E5 10 Minute(s) F5 20 Minute(s) F4 F3 Outsource F1 E1 E3 E4 20 Minute(s) F4 F3 F6 E6 Start E1 F1 E5 10 Minute(s) F5 Switch F3 & F4 Expand F7
  60. 60. Model-based Process Improvement (2/2) Integrate F6 & F7 Parallelism of F3 & F4 Create variants Automate F3 Accelerate F4 & F5
  61. 61. Integrated Enterprise modeling
  62. 62. Think beyond the square … Extracted from Peter Grant - Director, Stream Executive, December 2004 Albert Einstein “ We can’t solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them”.
  63. 63. From As-Is to To-Be AS IS TO BE
  64. 64. Why do as-is modelling? <ul><li>the same problem of understanding </li></ul><ul><li>a defined project scope </li></ul><ul><li>the same terminology </li></ul><ul><li>it supports acceptance for the project (unfreezing) </li></ul><ul><li>the base for a migration strategy towards the redesigned processes </li></ul><ul><li>the completeness of to-be processes can be evaluated </li></ul><ul><li>the results of as-is analysis can be used as to-be, if there are no or only minor changes </li></ul><ul><li>it shows weaknesses and restrictions </li></ul>
  65. 65. But it is not without its weaknesses … <ul><li>the results are obsolete as soon as to-be processes are designed and/or implemented </li></ul><ul><li>the danger of narrow focused process design (thinking in constraints) </li></ul><ul><li>time- and cost-consuming </li></ul>
  66. 66. How can we maximise the as-is modelling efforts? Factors for success … <ul><li>Know your objectives for modelling </li></ul><ul><li>Have an appropriate tool </li></ul><ul><li>Have an appropriate technique/ language </li></ul><ul><li>Have a documented set of modelling conventions </li></ul><ul><li>Collect appropriate information for deriving the models </li></ul>
  67. 67. Know your objectives for modelling <ul><li>To know the perspective that you are going to model </li></ul><ul><li>To define the breath and depth of the modelling initiative </li></ul>Tool/ technique selection Documentation of modelling conventions
  68. 68. Modelling tool/ technique selection Tool: Technique/ Language
  69. 69. Tool selection Essential features …. <ul><li>Support a suitable modelling technique </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible enough to be adopted to different purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Muti-user capability </li></ul><ul><li>Model administration (I.e. with an integrated database) </li></ul><ul><li>Sufficient user support </li></ul><ul><li>Easy access via multiple reporting/publishing modes </li></ul><ul><li>Reference models </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
  70. 70. Technique/ Language selection Essential features …. <ul><li>To clearly present the sequence of functions, including splits and joins. </li></ul><ul><li>To allow different hierarchies of models </li></ul><ul><li>To allow models to ‘link’ with one another (within and across different hierarchical levels) </li></ul><ul><li>To relate the process models with other models (like data models, organisational charts etc) </li></ul><ul><li>The technique must be defined appropriately – to allow standardisation and support more advanced functionalities like simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Tool support </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
  71. 71. Modelling convention derivation Why use modelling conventions? <ul><li>To reduce variety </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the comparability of models </li></ul><ul><li>Support the analysis (with clear syntax, sematic and layout standards) </li></ul><ul><li>Acceleration and simplification (just start and ‘ Go ’) </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul><ul><li>Organisational level </li></ul><ul><li>Project level </li></ul>Different types of modelling conventions?
  72. 72. Modelling convention derivation Essential features …. <ul><li>Layout conventions </li></ul><ul><li>Naming conventions </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of detailing </li></ul><ul><li>The modelling lifecycle </li></ul><ul><li>Technical responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of abstraction </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
  73. 73. How can we maximise the as-is modelling efforts? Factors for success … <ul><li>Know your objectives for modelling </li></ul><ul><li>Have an appropriate tool </li></ul><ul><li>Have an appropriate technique/ language </li></ul><ul><li>Have a documented set of modelling conventions </li></ul><ul><li>Collect appropriate information for deriving the models </li></ul>
  74. 74. Process Modeling Critical Success Factors Bandara (2005, 2007) Process Modeling Success
  75. 75. Collect appropriate information for deriving the models Document Analysis Interviews JAD sessions Questionnaires Structured walk through
  76. 76. Review Existing Documentation <ul><li>Purposes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preliminary understanding of processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guidelines / visual cues to guide interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify business rules, discrepancies, and redundancies </li></ul><ul><li>Be cautious of outdated material </li></ul><ul><li>Types of documentation to look for: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reports </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure Descriptions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Internal </li></ul><ul><li>External </li></ul>
  77. 77. Conduct Interviews and Discussions <ul><li>Most effective way to understand business functions and rules </li></ul><ul><li>Time-consuming and resource-expensive </li></ul><ul><li>May require multiple sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Unstructured interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad, Roughly Defined Information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structured interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More Specific Information </li></ul></ul>Sample Interview Checklist
  78. 78. Types of Questions Types of Questions Examples Closed-Ended Questions * How many telephone orders are received per day? * How do customers place orders? * What additional information would you like the new system to provide? Open-Ended Questions * What do you think about the current system? * What are some of the problems you face on a daily basis? * How do you decide what types of marketing campaign to run? Probing Questions * Why? * Can you give me an example? * Can you explain that in a bit more detail?
  79. 79. Issue Register <ul><li>Purpose: keep track of identified issues during process modelling workshops </li></ul><ul><li>contents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>consequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Priority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type (IT / Organ. / Policy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible Solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short Term / Long Term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Related Project </li></ul></ul>
  80. 80. Example: Issue Register
  81. 81. Distribute and Collect Questionnaires <ul><li>Limited and specific information from a large number of stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary insight </li></ul><ul><li>Not well suited for gathering detailed information </li></ul><ul><li>Open-ended questions vs. close-ended questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed-ended questions: Questions that have a simple definitive answer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open-ended questions: Questions that require discussion and do not necessarily have a simple short answer. </li></ul></ul>
  82. 82. Example Questionnaire
  83. 83. Conduct JAD Sessions <ul><li>Used to expedite the investigation of systems requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks to compress fact-finding, modeling, policy formation, and verification activities into a shorter time frame </li></ul><ul><li>Critical factor is to have all important stakeholders present </li></ul>JAD  Joint Application Design : A technique traditionally use to define requirements or design a system in a single session by having all necessary people participate together
  84. 84. Summary… <ul><li>So, what did we discuss today? </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives of Business Process Modelling </li></ul><ul><li>Business Process Modelling Overview </li></ul>Reading resources for this week. Becker et al. 1.3, 1.2 Pearson’s white paper on why process matters Bandara et al. (2005) Rosemann (2006) Raduescu et al.2006 Next week  Introduction to EPCs
  85. 85. Q & A

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