Origin of the universe

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  • 1. Origin of the Universe• Great explosion (BIG BANG)• 10.000 / 18.000 years ago
  • 2. Composition of the Universe• Chemical elements • Energy in the in the Universe Universe• Gases : Hydrogen, • Light Energy Helium • Heat energy• Other elements: • Nuclear Energy Oxygen, Silicon, • Magnetism metals • Electricity• Compounds:Water, Carbon dioxide
  • 3. Composition of the Universe• The Universe is made up of galaxies
  • 4. Our galaxy : Milky Way• Our galaxy, Milky Way, is a spiral galaxy
  • 5. Star systems• Star systems are • Solar system is made made up of: up of:• Central star • The Sun• Stars grouped in • Ursa Major (The constellations Plough); Ursa Minor,• Planets and satellites Orion, Zodiac .• Asteroids or • Eight planets metreorites
  • 6. Stars and constellations• Stars are huge balls of • The Sun gas that give out light and heat energy• The stars are fixed in the sky• The stars are bright (the closer, the brighter)• Stars colour – Blue stars are colder than red stars. – Yellow stars (Sun) have medium heat
  • 7. Constellations• Constellations are groups of stars with special patterns
  • 8. 8 planets in the Solar system• Planets haven’t light and energy, they reflect light from the Sun• Heliocentric theory: Planets go around the Sun. Copernicus, XVI century• Geocentric theory ,wrong: the Sun and planets go around the Earth
  • 9. Relative size of the Sun and planets
  • 10. Distances in the Universe• The Universe is very very big (infinite)• Telescope. Galileo XVII century.• Actual telescope : Hubble telescope• Light year : Distance that the light travels in one year with the speed 300.000 Km/s
  • 11. Movements of the Earth and Moon• Rotation movement • The Moon is the satellite – Around its axis of the Earth – 24 hours • Rotation movement – Consequence : day and – Around its axis night – 28 days• Revolution movement • Revolution movement – Around the Sun – Around the Earth – 365 + ¼ days: – 28 days – Consequence : – Consequence : Phases of – Year / Leap year the Moon
  • 12. Phases of the Moon• The Moon doesn’t give out light, but reflects the Sun’s light• Rotation and revolution movement of the Moon have the same period : 28 days.• So, we always see the same face of the Moon in different phases: – New Moon – Waxing Moon (First Quarter) – Full Moon – Waning Moon (Last Quarter)
  • 13. Gravity pull force• Gravity is the force of attraction of heavenly bodies in the Universe• Everything in the Universe is attracted, by the force of gravity, to everything else.• The Earth and Moon are attracted by gravity.• Gravity’s Moon causes tides on the Earth• Tides =Mareas. High tide marea alta. Low tide marea baja• Gravity of the Earth causes revolution movement of the Moon around the Earth.• Gravity depends on the size of heavenly bodies (big planets have high gravity)• Gravity depends on the distance between heavenly bodies (The Earth and Neptune are very far, so there is a weak attraction between them)
  • 14. Seasons of the year• Cause : The axis of the Earth is tilted• Consequence :The seasons of the year. – When the Northern hemisphere tilts towards the Sun, it gets more light and heat – And is summer in the Northern hemisphere
  • 15. Seasons of the year• Cause :The Earth’s axis of rotation is tilted with respect to the Sun’s radiation.• Consequence: The seasons of the year. – The tilted Hemisphere to the Sun receives more light and heat . – So, it will be summer in this Hemisphere
  • 16. Eclipses• Lunar eclipse – The Earth is between the Sun and the Moon – Total and partial eclipse• Solar eclipse – The Moon is between the Sun and the Earth – Total and partial eclipse