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Heating_the_Earth
 

Heating_the_Earth

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    Heating_the_Earth Heating_the_Earth Presentation Transcript

    • Heating the Earth Energy From the Sun
    • Where We Get Our Energy
        • The Sun is a major source of energy for Earth.
    •  
    • Forms of Energy
        • Different forms of energy include heat, light, electrical, mechanical, sound, nuclear, and chemical.
    •  
    • Electromagnetic Energy
        • Different forms of electromagnetic energy have different wavelengths.
        • Examples of electromagnetic energy are:
          • microwaves
          • infrared light
          • visible light
          • ultraviolet light
          • X-rays
          • gamma rays.
    •  
    • Electromagnetic Spectrum
        • The entire range of radiant energy, including for example, X-ray, visible light, infrared radiation, radio waves, etc.
        • The full set of waves that can travel through space; includes not only visible light but shorter waves, such as X -rays, and longer waves, such as radio waves
    •  
    • Changing Energy
        • Energy is transformed in many ways.
    •  
    • Changing Energy
        • Energy can change from one form into another
        • In the process some energy is always converted to heat.
    •  
    • Conservation of Energy
        • Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but only changed from one form into another.
    • Heat Energy
        • The energy of a material due to the random motion of its particles (atoms 7 molecules).
        • Also called thermal energy.
        • “ Heat" is used when energy is transferred from one substance to another.
    • Heat Energy Explains Phases of Matter
        • The motion of particles (atoms & molecules) helps to explain:
          • the phase (states) of matter
          • changes from one phase to another.
    •  
    • Phases (states) of Matter
        • Gases have neither a determined shape nor a definite volume. Gases assume the shape and volume of a closed container. 
        • Liquids have a definite volume, but take the shape of a container.  
        • Solids have a definite shape and volume. Particles resist a change in position.
    •  
    • Heat Energy Causes Phase Changes
        • During a phase change, heat energy is absorbed or released.
        • Energy is absorbed when:
          • a solid changes to a liquid (melting)
          • a liquid changes to a gas (evaporation)
          • a solid changes directly to a gas (sublimation)
        • Energy is released when:
          • a gas changes to a liquid (condensation)
          • a liquid changes to a solid (freezing)
          • A gas changes directly to a solid, such a forming frost or snow flakes in clouds (crystallization).
    •  
    • Heat Energy Moves
        • Heat can be transferred through:
          • matter by the collision of atoms and/or molecules ( conduction )
          • through space ( radiation .)
          • In a liquid or gas, currents will cause the transfer of heat ( convection .)
    •  
    • Heat Energy Moves
        • Heat moves in predictable ways, flowing from warmer objects to cooler ones , until both reach the same temperature
    •  
    • Heat Moves Through the Atmosphere
        • The transfer of energy within the atmosphere results in formation of regions of different densities .
        • These density differences result in motion.
    • Heat & Density
        • In fluids (liquids and gases), less dense (cooler) substances can rise and more dense (warmer) substances can sink .
    •  
    • Heat Movement & Density in the Atmosphere
        • The transfer of heat energy within the atmosphere occurs as a result of radiation , convection , and conduction .
        • Density differences are the basis for many Earth phenomena, including cloud formation and the formation of atmospheric storms.
    •  
    • Heat Movement & Density in the Atmosphere
        • Heating of Earth’s surface and atmosphere by the Sun drives convection within the atmosphere and oceans, producing winds and ocean currents .
    •  
    • Uneven Heating
        • Insolation ( In coming sol ar radi ation ) heats Earth’s surface and atmosphere unequally due to variations in:
          • intensity (caused by variations in angle of incidence which vary with time of day, latitude, and season );
          • characteristics of the surface materials absorbing the energy (such as color, texture, transparency, states of matter, and specific heat); and
          • duration which varies with seasons and latitude.
    • http://ithacasciencezone.com/earthzone/lessons/07meteor/insolation.htm
    • Weather & Seasons
        • Seasons and weather are NOT the same thing
        • Seasons are caused by:
          • Earth’s tilt
          • Earth’s revolution by around the Sun
            • Resulting in the Earth getting different intensities of energy from the Sun (heat & light) at different times of the year
    • Weather & Seasons
        • Seasonal changes in weather can be explained using concepts of density and heat energy. These changes include: the shifting of global temperature zones, the shifting of planetary wind and ocean current patterns, the occurrence of hurricanes, monsoons, rainy and dry seasons, flooding, severe weather, and ozone depletion.
    • Big Science Idea:
        • The atmosphere is an ocean of air that extends hundreds of kilometers about the Earth's surface. 
        • It is divided according to temperature into four layers - the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, and the thermosphere. 
        • The lowest layer, the troposphere is where air masses form. 
        • Air masses have different characteristics because the areas over which they form receive different amounts of heat energy from the sun.
        • The uneven heating of Earth’s surface is the cause of weather.
    •  
    • Let’s Review: http://wps.prenhall.com/esm_lutgens_atmosphere_8/0,6585,263598-,00.html
    • References
        • http://www.earth2class.org
        • http://universityforholisticarts.org/files/QuickSiteImages/QS_sun_background.jpg
        • http://science.uniserve.edu.au/school/curric/k_6/solar.jpg
        • http://genesismission.jpl.nasa.gov/science/mod3_SunlightSolarHeat/img1.gif
        • http://discover.edventures.com/images/termlib/f/fossil_fuels/support.gif
        • http://www.stanford.edu/group/Urchin/GIFS/spectrum.gif
        • http://www.projectgreenmachine.org/7F-all.html
        • http://www.nasa.gov/centers/langley/images/content/114284main_EM_Spectrum500.jpg
        • http://www.swinburne.edu.au/corporate/hr/ohs/images/radiofrequency.jpg
        • www12.mawebcenters.com/coltslaboratories/gloss.ivnu
    • References
        • www.riverdeep.net/current/2002/01/010702_light_tg.jhtml
        • www.yorku.ca/eye/spectru.htm
        • http://sol.sci.uop.edu/~jfalward/physics17/chapter3/energytransformation.jpg
        • http://www.tburg.k12.ny.us/mcdonald/chain.jpg.gif
        • http://www.bchydro.com/images/rx_images/community/body2880.gif
        • http://www.bioedonline.org/slides/slideimgs/talk007__s014_f.gif
        • http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/science/images/EnergyTransformations.gif
        • http://user.gs.rmit.edu.au/caa/global/graphics/insolation.jpg
        • http://www.boscobel.k12.wi.us/~schnrich/uneven_heating.htm
    • References
        • http://www.miramar.sdccd.cc.ca.us/faculty/fgarces/zCourse/Spring05/Ch100_OL/aMy_FileLec/04_LecNotes_Ch100/13_LiquidSolids/1301_LiquidSolid/1301_liquidSolids.htm
        • http://www.physics.brocku.ca/courses/1p93/images/FG11_16.gif
        • www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/heat.html
        • http://www.cloudappreciationsociety.org/3content/news/hollingshead/i000766big.jpg
        • http://www.anchorflagandflagpole.com/images/PHOTO_windsock_detail.gif
        • http://www.nmm.ac.uk/upload/img/currents.gif
        • http://www.mhhe.com/earthsci/geology/mcconnell/earths_climate/gac.htm