In recent years we’ve seen dramatic changes in the media landscape and the way that people consume and share news and information. For companies and brands, this has profound implications. It means that we have to find entirely new ways to tell our stories. New channels, new tools, new approaches…and new rules of engagement. At Edelman, we believe that the most effective way to navigate this new landscape is to embrace the concept of “transmedia storytelling,” and to do that we think brands need to usethe “media cloverleaf.” In this presentation, we’ll explore this in detail.
First, let’s consider some of the significantshifts in media that have triggered the need for a new approach.
The first is a shift in the sheer number of channels and outlets. Not too long ago our media habits were still shaped by a handful of influential publishers and broadcast networks. That as true in pretty much all markets. The media landscape was dominated by a few big television networks, a couple of large-circulation newspapers, and a select group of influential magazines and radio stations. The Japanese media landscape was dominated by public broadcaster NHK and “the Big 5” commercial media conglomerates that controlled both TV & radio networks and the print media. (Yomiuri, Mainichi/TBS, Fuji-Sankei, Asahi & Nikkei). And in our region, governments owned, controlled or influenced many of those. Today, the Internet, the explosion of social networks, globalization, bloggers and citizen journalists have given rise to what seems like an infinite number of media choices and channels, from niche to mass. The good news here is that we have so many more places to tell our stories. The bad news, of course, is that it’s crowded…REALLY crowded…so it’s much harder to break through all of the noise and clutter. The amount of selectable information in Japan increased more than 532 times since 1996.(Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications) http://success.salesforce.co.jp/Cloudforce2011Japan/Dec-14/A3-Netyear.pdf
The next big change is in the way that we access our news and information. Today, we’re just as likely to be getting news from our smartphones and iPadsas we are from our TVs and PCs. A Pew study says that more than 50% of Americans are now using their cellphones for news and information, and three times as many smartphones are being activated every minute as there are babies being born.Gartner predicts that tablet sales will surge to 63 million this year, up to 326 million by the end of 2015. That’s more than enough to trigger the introduction of new media platforms like The Daily , which launched in February as “a tablet-native national news brand” built “to provide the best news experience by combining world-class storytelling with the unique interactive capabilities of the iPad. The jury is still out on The Daily, and subscription numbers are hard to come by, but the app has been downloaded more than 500K times. Juniper Research forecasts that tablet shipments will reach 253 million by 2016, nearly a five-fold increase from the 55.2 million tablets the company expects to reach the market in 2011. The upcoming holiday season will unleash many of those.Beyond the tablets, PCs, TVs and smartphones, there are plenty of other screens that command our attention these days – in taxis, doctors’s offices, elevators and grocery stores. According to Korea Press Foundation, people spend 337.3 minutes on media a day. To be more specific, 281.3 minutes are spent on screen media (Television, Internet, Mobile device), while only 21.1 minutes are spent on paper media (Newspaper, Magazine). JoongangIlbo was the Korea’s first main daily that developed its iPad application in 2010. Smartphone penetration in Hong Kong has reached 50-60% as of the end of 201155% of all Hong Kong mobile phone users are subscribed to unlimited mobile data plan. The age group of 31-40 comprises the biggest portion of unlimited data subscribers (60%)77% of Hong Kong’s smartphone owners use mobile apps while commutingWith a 93% penetration rate and a bewildering array of handsets, many only available in Japan, the mobile phone has been a key information hub in Japan for more than a decade. Japanese consumers were the first to embrace text-messaging in the 90`s and since 2005 have been able to watch TV on their mobile phones. Japanese consumer have flocked to the iPhone and iPad with more than 20 million iPhones and more than 1.5 million iPads shipped as of the end of 2011. Japan`s digerati spend as average of 100 minutes a day using their cell-phones versus 140 mins on their laptop & 160 mins on their desktop PCs.
While the Internet has given rise to an explosion of media channels and platforms, it’s also given every company the opportunity to act like a media company. Companies and brands no longer have to rely entirely on journalists to tell their stories; they can use their own websites, microsites, apps, blogs, videos,and slideshows. They have myriad opportunities to create, curate, publish and distribute content directly to the audiences that matter most. That includes journalists, by the way: 28% of working journalists access a corporate online newsroom once a week, with 25% indicating they visit every day. (TekGroup, Online Newsroom Survey Research Report) Yet most companies under-utilize this asset. We’ll talk more about “owned” media in a few minutes.
Despite early doomsday predictions that social media would kill traditional media, social networks like Facebook and Twitter are actually breathing new life into traditional print and broadcast media, as people “like” and retweet (and digg and StumbleUpon)mainstream media stories each day. Yahoo did a study earlier this year to see which traditional media in the US gets the most “lift” from Facebook, and the New York times is the clear leader in social engagement with 2.3M likes/month. During the three month study, the New York Times got an average of 400 likes for a median story. Understanding how stories get “socialized,” or shared and amplified via social platforms, is important. Traditional journalists are paying attention, too: they have a strong vested interest in seeing their own stories get “Liked,” retweeted, and shared. And it is very much the same in our region too as you will see in a minute.New Zealand Herald.
Finally, there’s the profound impact of Search. Not too long ago, most stories had a relatively short shelf life. Thanks to “Search Engine Results” pages (or SERPs), a good – or bad – story can last forever. We’ll talk more about search in a few minutes.
Despite these seismic changes in the media landscape, some things remain unchanged…
The first is that, although media choices are infinite, attention remains finite. Think about how many media outlets you interact with on a typical day. The time we spend with those outlets is increasingly limited, too. The average user spends under 20 seconds on a web page and they only read 20% of that page. What's more, 57% will never return to that page again. So even as content and channels proliferate, our time and attention remain stubbornly limited. Tablets and smartphones don't make this easier; those experiences tend to be more immersive and the users are generally more mission-oriented. Pair that insight with Edelman’s own research that suggests that people need to see or hear something 3-5 times before they believe it, and the communication challenge can feel daunting, indeed. (Think of this as the “3 to 5 x 4” mandate: how to tell the story three to five times across four screens?)The amount of selectable information in Japan increased more than 532 times since 1996.(Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications)
But here’s something else that hasn’t changed: we’re suckers for a good story! Whether it’s delivered online or offline, in a YouTube video or a Hollywood blockbuster, as a corporate saga or a more intimate narrative, we’re all drawn to the well-told story with memorable characters and unexpected plot twists, conflict and resolution. As marketers and communicators in a digital age, let’s not lose sight of that. In every language and in every culture this is true
One other thing that hasn’t changed is that to tell a story….unless you are personally standing in front of someone or sitting around a campfire …….. You need an engaging format to tell it. For some reason that has become known as Content and hence …..Content for brands wanting to tell stories is KING.The Content or format that was King a few years ago is very different to today. In the 1920s the movie might have been the killer content format and the book before that and the wall painting before that…….
And the best content these days is content that is social…that allows other people to use it to tell your story to their friends and followers. You can’t do that with cave paintings or movies…..but you can with video’s, pictures, games and info-graphics. Today, the best content has social currency: it’s content designed with sharing in mind.
…more video is uploaded to YouTube in one month than the three major US networks created in sixty years HONG KONG: Hong Kong users watch an average 147 hours of video each monthYouTube set up the local site in Hong Kong on October 17, 2007.In the latest figure from Hitwise Hong Kong, Youtube is the top 2 HK Website with visits share of 11.42%.(Source: Hitwise Hong Kong website- http://www.hitwise.com/hk/datacentre/main/)According to the statistic from Hitwise Hong Kong, over 4.3million people in Hong Kong spend more than 14 minutes in watching videos in YouTube every day. Its market share accounts for more than 60% among all multimedia web. Besides, The Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups interviewed 512 youngsters aged between 12 year old and 34 year old and 43% of them said they have used YouTube for uploading or downloading video.(Source: Apple Daily 25-10-2010)Titus, Mannings and Cartier also upload corporate videos to YouTube.
And the best content these days is content that is social…that allows other people to use it to tell your story to their friends and followers. You can’t do that with cave paintings or movies…..but you can with video’s, pictures, games and info-graphics.
All of this points to a new media ecosystem. We call it the “media cloverleaf.”
The cloverleaf includes four different kinds of media,each with distinct characteristics and rules of engagement, but also connected to, influenced by, and dependent upon one other. As brand and corporate storytellers, we need to consider these dynamics and target all four types: Traditional, Hybrid, Social and Owned, employing various strategies to tell and amplify a story across all four “leaves.” It means evolving how we think, plan and measure earned media, taking a more holistic and integrated approach. At the center of the cloverleaf sit Search, and Content. A robust content plan (using video, images, infographics, slidehows, etc.) has to be part of every media strategy. And readily available search tools should be used to understand what people are looking for, and togenerate insights that can help shape our stories and ensure that they are discovered, and shared. Effective transmedia storytelling in this environment means synchronizinghow, when, and where we tell a story, in order to drive maximum coverage, conversation and reverberation. Ideally, the work we do in each leaf has a multiplier effect, boosting overall visibility and results well beyond what a more linear media strategy could deliver. Let’s look at each of the “leaves” more closely.
Traditional Media are the well-established, mainstream print and broadcast media brands like (CHINA): Guangzhou Daily, Express News and Nanfang Metropolis Daily Today. (KOREA): KBS, SBS, MBC,ChosunIibo, JoongangIibo, Donga libo, and Hankyoreh, SCMP, and WSJ. (INDIA): Aajtak, Star News,DainikJagran, DainikBhaskar,Times of India, Hindustan Times. (JAPAN): local brands such as Nikkei, Yomiuri,Asahi, NHK and Fuji. They reach a broad audience, and are staffed by trained journalists. Traditional media is our “bread and butter;” frankly, it’s often the media that our clients want most. But Traditional media outlets are evolving, too: they’re becoming more search-savvy and in many instances have become even more relevant in the age of social media, as Traditional media coverage gets amplified when people retweet, like, discuss and link to Traditional stories on social networks.
Hybrid media are blogs and media aggregators; many of these have emerged to become popular media brands themselves. Because Hybrid media is media that was “born digital” and has digital DNA, hybrid media outlets tend to be extremely savvy about search, creating headlines and stories that are built to be discovered by search engines. They’re also skilled at driving consumer engagement and reverberation in social media. Our research shows that, on average, a Huffington Post story gets picked up by 218 other media outlets. In many instances, it may be preferable to pitch/place a story in Hybrid media first. A well-placed Hybrid story often triggers conversation in Social media, and that combination can deliver what might have been an elusive Traditional media placement. Many Hybrids are vertical or niche in focus. Some go broader. All tend to be entrepreneurial. CHINA: China Daily, Dayoo, YCWB. Hybrid media also includes the “dotcom” or digital versions of traditional media: nddaily.com and xkb.com.cn. KOREA: Think BLOTER.NET, Newsis, Newdaily, Pressian, and OnMyNews. Hybrid media also includes the “dotcom” or digital versions of traditional media: chosun.comand hani.co.kr (Hankyoreh’s online page). BLOTER.NET’s story is averagely picked up 97.5 times per content by social media outlets for a month. INDIA:Yahoo News, Rediff, Samachar.com Hybrid media includes the “dotcom” or digital versions of traditional media: DNA.com and Indiatimes.com JAPAN: Gizmodo, Nikkei, Diamond online, mycom journal, Yomiuri online
Owned media are a brand or company’s own media assets, their websites, microsites and mobile apps. We often say that every company has the power to be a media company, and a company’s owned media assets provide that power. Because these assets are 100% owned and managed by the company or brand, we can fully control the content and the experience to deliver the story the way we want it told, without filtering it through other kinds of media. Companies and brands can use their owned channels to engage other media, to reach stakeholders directly, and/or to steer a conversation across the full media cloverleaf. Content plays a key role in Owned media strategies: many companies have had success using smart infographics and simple how-to videos – placed on their own websites -- to drive coverage and trigger conversation across the media cloverleaf. We also have a lot of leverage in how we can optimize these assets for search. CHINA:Owned media examples include: ABC.com, ChewbarWeibo, and more. KOREA:Owned media examples include: samsung.com, hyundai.com, lg.com, the Coupang’s mobile app (#1 social commerce website in Korea), and more.INDIA: Owned media examples include: statebankofindia.com, futurebazaar.com, irctc.co.in, landmarkonthenet.com, Bookmyshow’s mobile App, Burrp’s mobile app and more. JAPAN:Owned media examples include: UNIQLO, Suntory, Starbucks, Panasonic, Tetra Pak, Solar Frontier and more. Some Principles of Owned Media:Ensure transparency about business interests (Drives Trust)Think like a Publisher - own topics and issues, curate to become the “go to” site (Drives Value)Update regularly - proactive and reactive (Drives Engagement)Make it findable and sharable (Drives Traffic)
Social media are the social platforms that house a company or brand’s Facebook pages, Twitter feeds and YouTube channels. We typically refer to these as to as digital embassies. Although at first glance they appear to be Owned media assets, they aren’t, because they reside on platforms that others own, and thus the content and experience can’t be fully controlled. So they’re more like “leased or rented” media assets. With social media, engagement is the price of entry: the content has to be worthy of consumer engagement, and worth sharing. Increasingly, this consumer engagement takes place on mobile devices. Social media is also important because platforms like Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube are often go-to sources for Traditional and Hybrid media reporters search for story ideas and sources. Social media has also proven to be an especially effective “amplifier” of traditional and hybrid coverage, as people tweet, like, and link to Traditional and Hybrid stories of interest. Social media platforms include: Facebook, YouTube, Google+, Twitter, CyWorld, RenRen, SlideShare, Scribd. CHINA:Renren, QQ, Weibo,Kaixin001.com, Douban.com. INDIA: Bigadda, LinkedIn, bharatstudent, IbiboJAPAN: Facebook, YouTube, Google+, Twitter, mixi and ameba blog.
Tobe effective storytellers in this environment, we need to leverage the power of Traditional media to ensure that our stories reach broad, meanstream audienceswe need to incorporate search-savvy media like blogs and aggregators – what we’re now calling ‘hybrid media’ -- to amplify our stories. we need to make our stories more sharable and drive consumer engagement – including mobile engagement – via Social media, and social networks and we need to make better use of Owned media assets – corporate and brand websites and mobile apps – to tell stories in a more controlled and compelling way. Let’s take a closer look at the center of the Cloverleaf: Search and Content.
Six out of ten people use a search engine every day, and Edelman’s own Trust Barometer confirms that search engines are the first source that people go to when they’re looking for information about a company (ahead of news sites or company websites). And when you look at the search engine results page (SERP) for any search, and you’re likely to see results spanning all four leaves of the media cloverleaf. In other words, one search typically shows results that link to Traditional media outlets, Hybrid media outlets, social conversations and “embassies,” and Owned sites. So we need to think about the implications of search in all that we do.
This is not about search engine optimization (SEO) or paid search, although those are often vital components of a communications plan. This is about using readily available tools like Google Insights to help shape an earned media strategy. Every media pitch that we do should have a search component: what can I learn from the way people are searching for this topic today? How has this topic already been covered? How can I write my press release so that it incorporates the right keywords? If I’m putting this press release on my client’s website, how do I ensure that it’s “findable” by search engines? Sometimes we’re so close to a program that we can be myopic. Search data helps us develop strategies that broaden our thinking, and align our pitches with topics that truly resonate with consumers. CHINA: Baidu is the most popular and widely-used Chinese search engine. It offers a wide range of search options, similar to Google, but tailored to the Chinese market. Another powerful way of analyzing what will and wont work in the digital sphere is to take a look at social media. Presently, there are 4 major micro-blogging sites in China: Sina, QQ, 163, and Sohu. However, Sina micro-blog (a.ka. Weibo) is by far the most popular. SinaWeibo offers a feature that provides insights into keywords used throughout the platform, broken down by province, city and time frame. This provides an opportunity to not only design a campaign around existing user preferences, but to gather real-time feedback from on-going campaigns
Content is the fuel that powers our stories, and can amplify coverage across all four leaves of the media cloverleaf. Content can be created or curated and can be any of the following: text, video, photos, audio, maps, apps, live events, slidehows, infographics and other kinds of data visualization. Great content not only generates more media coverage, it triggers conversation and drives additional consumer engagement. (Just think about all of the videos and photos that you’ve “Liked” and retweeted.)
Content influences search results, too. Research shows that various forms of visual content rank highest in Google search results. Video is far and away the most effective form of content in driving search results. Let’s look at a few kinds of visual content more closely.
Thirty-one million people watch video on social networks each month (Nielsen, Social Media Report Sept. 2011), and three billion videos are viewed every day on YouTube alone. (More than two thirds of that traffic comes from outside the US, by the way). Simply put, video rules online. With few exceptions, video should be part of every corporate story, and every brand story. How-to footage, brief interviews, manufacturing footage, man-in-the-street comments – they’re all easier and more affordable than ever to shoot, edit and upload to a company’s website, Facebook page and YouTube channel, and to be part of a multimedia press release. They can make a story more sharable, and they frequently boost search engine results. CHINA: Youku and Tudou, China’s leading video sites completed a merger in Mar 2012. The newly formed Youku-Tudou is the dominant platform in China’s online video landscape. With a few exceptions, video should be part of every corporate story, and every brand story. How-to footage, brief interviews, manufacturing footage, man-in-the-street comments – they’re all easier and more affordable than ever to shoot, edit and upload to a company’s website or Youku-Tudou, as part of a multimedia press release. They can make a story more sharable, and they frequently boost search engine results. KOREA: KIA’s ‘Soul Hamster Commercial’ ranked the 5th most viewed video on YouTube in 2011, supporting the product’s sales up to 52.5% inUSA 2011. INDIA: According to a new study from Nielsen India loves to socialize. By Nielsen’s count, there are over 50 million active users on social media sites like Orkut, LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter, 80 percent of whom spend more than 15 minutes on social media every day. An important study showed that Ching’s Secret, an Indian company that makes Chinese-style instant noodles, attracted 100,000 Facebook likes by posting video recipes and sponsoring events. While Ching’s fans might not necessarily have aspired to eat packaged noodles, the campaign at least seemed to turn the brand into something more likeable.India has tremendous subscription on YouTube, and many reports have shown that YouTube's search engine is more utilized than that of Google.Online video viewing is quickly becoming a central activity for Internet users in India. The online video platform offers advertisers and marketers the opportunity to reach audiences in an engaging environment, providing the potential for significant brand interaction and awareness building. As broadband penetration in India continues to increase, we expect to see online video continue to grow and become an increasingly important channel for marketers to reach audiences in the burgeoning Indian online market.JAPAN: NicoNicoDouga, Japan`s homegrown video-sharing platform, boasts more than 23 million registered users (Oct-end 2011) with almost 7 million mobile users.
A picture is worth 1,000 words…but too often, we still default to the words. Flickr has 51 million registered users and hosts 6 billion images. It’s a great place to host corporate and brand imagery. CHINA: Image.baidu is the biggest Chinese photo database. KOREA: Most of the Koreans are used to NAVER and Google. JAPAN: Japan’s love affair with the camera is well known. And Japanese consumers have been quick to embrace Instagram, Google Picasa and local photosharing apps such as snapeee & PhotoZou(フォト蔵). And Japan is now the second largest market for Instagram after the US, according to a recent interview with founder Kevin SystromSource: Techcrunch interview with founder Kevin Systromhttp://techcrunch.com/2011/10/31/instagram-now-has-12-million-users-100k-weekly-downloads-in-china-alone/
Infographics,listicles, charticles…these are fantastic ways to tell stories through data, using intelligent graphic design. Complex stories can be told elegantly through simple infographics, and the most compelling infographics are frequently shared, Liked and retweeted. CHINA: Shujutu.com is a Chinese infographics website with material covering a wide range of topics. Modern Weekly always uses infographics to support its stories. KOREA: Chosun.com is one of the main media company that applied infographic service in Korea.
In the “everything old is new again,” slideshare.com has become a huge online destination for sharing brand and corporate content. Think of it as a YouTube for documents. Graphic-rich, text-light presentations with a clear point of view tend to get shared more than others. CHINA: Wenku, Docin.com and Weipan have become hugely popular online destinations for sharing brand and corporate content in China. Think of it as a Youku for documents.
In summary, there are new rules of engagement for marketers and communicators seeking to tell their stories today:--Craft a compelling story with interesting characters and an unexpected plot--Think about the audience you’re trying to reach--Use the media cloverleaf to synchronize how and where the story should be told. And don’t always default to “Traditional”: sometimes hybrid, owned or social media should be your first stop --think coverage AND conversation. Sometimes, reverberation in social media trumps circulation in traditional media. --make it findable! Use search insights to identify topics and keywords that resonate with your audience. --make it sharable: create rich content that’s worth sharing
Here’s one example of Transmedia Storytelling in Action:
Overseen or produced in-house 28 videos, including 2 interactive ones. Nine of these videos have been used at RIM retail outlets, 8 were showcased on major global BlackBerry hybrid sites, 4 in local traditional media. RIM is now working to embed them onto local BB.com sites. See slide 2 for best-in-class storytelling across the cloverleaf in action! Produced 6 infographics in-house, with translation into six languages. RIM was one of the first brands in Asia to consistently use infographs on social communities to support device launches/education. Produced 11 applications/tabs/competitions in-house – with translation into six languages, across 12 markets. The advent of the Jakarta production house transformed the perception of the kind of content we can produce as a firm with RIM. We must continue to offer this service more broadly. DevCon Social Media Desk. One example of how we collect and amplify content by socializing RIM events as standard operating procedure. Real-Time marketing pilots that we’re currently running in India and Indonesia and how the evolution to real-time engagement (within 30 mins) and content-on-the-fly continues to give us an offering of value to clients.
Media Cloverleaf Presentation to the Asian Marketing Effectiveness Festival, Shanghai, April 2012
TELLING STORIES IN A WORLD OF INFINITEMEDIA OPTIONSDAVID BRAIN, CEO EDELMAN AP
Navigating A New Media Ecosystem TRADITIONAL HYBRID OWNED SOCIAL
Traditional Media Mainstream, broad reach Print and broadcast Well-established media brands Habitual use Now multi-platform Trained journalists Can drive reverberation in social media
Hybrid Media“Born digital”Blogs that act like mediacompaniesAggregators andcrowdsourced upstartsDigital versions ofTraditional mediaMore search-savvyDeeper engagementHigh reverberation insocial media
Owned Media Brand/corporate websites, mobile apps “Every company is a media company” Media assets that are 100% owned by company/brand Can have strong SEO Need to attract an audience 100% control of content and experience Advertising
Social MediaDigital embassiesBuilt-in audienceEngagement = cost of entryHighest consumer andmobile engagementA source - and an amplifier– for Traditional/Hybrid
Use search to:• understand what people are looking for• develop insights that help shape a story• write copy that incorporates relevant keywords• ensure that your content gets discovered
Content is the fuel that powers our stories, and can amplifycoverage across all four leaves of the media cloverleaf.
New Rules of EngagementCraft the storyUse the media cloverleaf to synchronizehow, when and where the story should be toldThink coverage AND conversation: reverberationoften trumps circulationMake it findable: use search insights to shapethe strategyMake it sharable: create and curate contentworth sharing
Research in Motion: Loving What They Do Online 13 APAC Countries 42 Colleagues28 Videos 4.5 million Fans and followers tuned into 15 Multilingual Facebook BlackBerry communities pages11 71Apps/tabs/competitions million6 Fans seeing RIM socialInfographics properties Traditional Hybrid Owned Social
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