What were you like as a teenager?rebellious?sullen?fun to teach?
How are you different now?wiser?more independent?more motivated?
Think of something you were reallymotivated to do, and that you put alot of effort into.What & Why?
What is Motivation ?• In psychology, motivation is the drivingforce (desire) behind all actions of anorganism.• Motivation is goal-directed behaviour.• A student’s willingness, need, desire andcompulsion to participate in, and besuccessful in, the learning process.
What is Motivation ?Intrinsic Motivation:This is caused by factors within the student. Forexample, a person might be motivated simplybecause they enjoy the learning process, becausethey are naturally competitive, or because theydesire the praise and satisfaction of doingsomething well. The teacher can do a lot toincrease or reduce a student’s intrinsic motivation
What is Motivation ?Extrinsic Motivation:This is shaped by factors outside the individual.For example the student might be motivatedby the need to get a job, pass an exam, studyoverseas or to please his/her parents
Learning is not a spectator sportLearning is an activity – not a supine position
The teacherdominates theclassroomThe classroom isstudent-centredTeacher-dominated to student-centred
The teacher…Explains the new languageAsks questionsDecides who answersSets the activitySays what is right and wrongThe students…Listen to the teacherRead the bookWork aloneAnswer the questionsAre correctedWait for the breakIn a teacher-centered lesson
In a student-centered lessonThe teacher…Elicits the new languageAsks questionsPrompts studentsMonitors the activityChecks what is right and wrongThe students…Listen to each otherRead the bookWork togetherAnswer the questionsCorrect each otherWait for the break
Teacher-Dominated / Student-CentredSome things will be different:Some things stay the same:e.g. syllabus, language content, coursebook,teacher’s aims….o what the teacher doeso what the students doo interactiono focus of attentiono error correctiono feedback
The teacher’s role will changeControllerAssessorResourceFacilitatorTutor
PairworkGroupsClass MingleWhole classIndividual workThe student’s role will change
DictationRunning DictationChoral DrillingGroup DiscussionControlled practiceFreer practiceClass SurveyAccuracyFluencyThe activities will changeProject Work
Student-centredThis means:Students are a resourceLearning links to experienceLanguage is relevantPeer work takes placeLanguage is usedSkills are integratedIt’s more interestingMotivation is increased…learning can take place
Adapting classroom managementElicit from students before telling themElicit from students before telling themStudents work in pairs before and after activitiesStudents work in pairs before and after activitiesStudents can nominate who answers questionsStudents can nominate who answers questionsStudents work in groups during activitiesStudents work in groups during activitiesStudents can give feedback as well as the teacherStudents can give feedback as well as the teacher
Student-Centred Classroom“I know I cannot teach anyone anything.I can only provide an environmentin which he (or she) can learn.”Carl Rogers (1965, p. 389)‘Client-Centred Therapy’ (Houghton Mifflin)
A long time ago, there was apoor man in a small village.He had an orange tree in hisgarden. One day, he foundone of his oranges was muchbigger than the others. It wasas big as a football. The poorman took the orange to theking.
“In personalized learning, learners are given space to bring their own experiences,attitudes, and feelings into the learning process. Learning is thus made moremeaningful and real, and learners are able to make systematic connections betweentheir own lives and the life of the classroom.When learning is personalized, content is processed more deeply, and learnerindependence and autonomy are fostered.”Dr David Nunan
What’s the solution? choice of topic sport music family their pet food
You’re stuck in a desert. Which piece ofequipment would you find most useful?cosmetic mirrorparachutetorchwaterbottleknifeTeaching Speaking
4 6 2 3hamburger Egypt banana students answer apple weather6 7 4 9Saturday regular tomorrow results pronounce started remember6 9Motorola possible Saudi another Tokyo customer Manchester6 4 7 3 1passenger Microsoft already government photograph teacher luckily1 2Africa unhappy football monument Toyota Lebanon bicycle5 5 7 9 4 0relative telephone afterwards Nokia unlucky dictionary Mercedes7 5 8Arabia remember computer language Egyptian opposite hospitalTravel through the maze using only those words with first syllable stress ()FINISHBringing Variety to your Teaching
4 6 2 3hamburger Egypt banana students answer apple weather6 7 4 9Saturday regular tomorrow results pronounce started remember6 9Motorola possible Saudi another Tokyo customer Manchester6 4 7 3 1passenger Microsoft already government photograph teacher luckily1 2Africa unhappy football monument Toyota Lebanon bicycle5 5 7 9 4 0relative telephone afterwards Nokia unlucky dictionary Mercedes7 5 8Arabia remember computer language Egyptian opposite hospitalTravel through the maze using only those words with first syllable stress ()FINISH(00-853) 66 55 77 14Bringing Variety to your Teaching
Bringing Variety to your TeachingUsing movie clips