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Green Information Technolocy Presentation

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  • If we don’t take responsibility for our own energy provision, we will not have enough electricity.
  • These are relevant issues, we need to face up to them, we need to deal with them
  • Costing per watt or per kwh?
  • In City of Cape Town:Current ex VAT price is in March 2012 is R1.14 per kwh; R1.29 per kwh incFor business: Current price is R1.02 ex VAT; expected R1.31 ex VAT.
  • Watch Micro Grid Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mwfIVhzn-_8&list=FL0_qrrfdG4Dchd6SYUMLmsg&index=3&feature=plpp_video
  • See http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LT1AF4ycAQY and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oZFd6_0iIg4
  • The Story of Stuff: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLBE5QAYXp8
  • 1240 x 1086 , 180 Watt Module = 1.346 sq. m -> 133 w / sq m; downto 104 w / sq m; use 60 watts per square meter as a guide pre design
  • Thermal conductivity is the quantity of heat transmitted through a unit thickness in a direction normal to a surface of unit area, due to a unit temperature gradient under steady state conditions, ie the property of a material describing its ability to conduct heat. Measured in watts per kelvin-metre. From Wikipedia: Multiplied by a temperature difference (in kelvins, K) and an area (in square meters, m2), and divided by a thickness (in meters, m), the thermal conductivity predicts the rate of energy loss (in watts, W) through a piece of material. In the window building industry "thermal conductivity" is expressed as the U-Factor, which measures the rate of heat transfer and tells you how well the window insulates. U-factor values are generally recorded in IP units (Btu/(hr·ft⋅F)) and usually range from 0.15 to 1.25. The lower the U-factor, the better the window insulates.
  • Or 7.9 KW system at R60 per W = R474,000Or R142,339 is R1,373 pm / 360 wh = R3.81 per kwhOr 840 kwh removed from the grid required; Or govt avoids building 5523 w (7.89 * 70%) of power stations = R331,380
  • Presentations available on request
  • Reducing system cost using energy efficiency
  • The reason for this is that, although the attic stairs account for only 1% of the area, the rate that heat flows through them by conduction (per square foot) is 38 times higher than in the insulated part of the attic. In other words, the amount of heat that flows through the 10 sf of attic stairs is the same as what flows through 380 sf of the insulated attic. Wow!
  • Battery calcs
  • For a battery only system use 2Volt cells.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Sustainable and Cheap ElectricityA Financial Understanding of the costs and benefitsand possibilities for Green IT and Renewable EnergyBy David LipschitzMy Power Station Technology cc28th March 2012Phone: 021 551 9935; 087 2300 ESX; 082 900 5903Email: david@mypowerstation.biz; skype: mypowerstation(c) My Power Station Technology cc 2012Permission is given to copy parts of this presentation as long as the Author is referenced 1
    • 2. Today’s (28 March 2012) News• President Jacob Zuma at the BRICS conferenceseeking R1 trillion for the next 20 yearsinfrastructure expansion program• Other BRICS countries growing at 10% perannum after inflation; SA at 2%• Should we leave everything to government?• Can they think in bigger numbers than us?• Should we allow the government to borrowR1 trillion with us citizens as surety?• Is there a better way?(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 2
    • 3. We’re in trouble!!• South Africa– No new base load power stations in the past 20years– vs: China: 1 GW per week added to their grid!!!– China installed 18 GW of Wind in 2011; 40 GWwere installed worldwide. Zero in South Africa• Can you see where South Africa’s going?• New Coal Power Stations: only 10 GW– Electricity is already sold!!– 10.5 GW will be decommissioned in 2020’s(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 3
    • 4. Agenda• ICT Electricity Challenges• Some Questions• Our Environment– We live in Exponential Times– ICT in Exponential Times• Electricity– Can we rely on it?– Can we make it ourselves cost effectively?• Q&A(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 4
    • 5. ICT• Everything we do depends on electricity– We need security of supply– We need price certainty• Therefore we need a game plan to make this areality(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 5
    • 6. ICT Electricity ChallengesFrom Oracle Day 17/3/2011• IT Challenges– Server Sprawl; Power & Cooling– Under-utilised assets; High operating costs– Inefficient Server Room Space; Capital constraints• By 2015– > 1 Bn more Internet Users; > 15 Billion Connected Devices• In the past 5 years– 20 x CPU Performance increase per watt of electricity• Cloud Computing– Saves 45 GW in 2015; Save $25 Bn IT spend in 2015(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 6
    • 7. ICT Electricity Challenges• Storage: The nature of data is changing– 80% of data is unstructured, i.e. can’t be put intorows and columns– 80% of data is never used after 90 days– 68% of co’s need 100 year archives– Left unchecked, storage management could reach30% of IT spend• Storage consumes 40% of data power; StorageRequirements growing at 20% pa• 15 copies of the same data is typical(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 7
    • 8. ICT Electricity Challenges• Tape– 10 US cents per GB in 2006– .1 US cents per GB in 2020• Faster Tape• Facebook: 3 pictures stored for each upload(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 8
    • 9. Some Questions• http://www.surveymonkey.com/s/NetMetering-2012-12-22• If you could make your own electricitycheaper than you could buy it, would youwant to do this?• Do you know what Net Metering is?• Do you want to make money and conserve theenvironment?(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 9
    • 10. VideoWe Live in Exponential Times• 5 minutes• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lUMf7FWGdCw• This exponential growth depends onexponential availability of inexpensiveelectricity(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 10
    • 11. Our Environment: GDP• World GDP Growth(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 11
    • 12. Our Environment: Electricity• Frost & Sullivan expects worldwide electricityconsumption to grow from 10.5 TWH (10,543Billion kwh) in 1990• To• Over 30 TWH in 2030• A Compound Annual Growth Rate of 3.6%• 150 years to 10 TWH, 40 years to 30 TWH• Source: Engineering News:http://www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/electricity-consumption-to-increase-to-over-30-116-b-kwh-globally-in-2030-2009-04-17(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 12
    • 13. Our Environment: Wind(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 15In 2011 Capacity Installed: China 18GW; Doubled every year 2005 to 2009;Total Installed Wind Capacity Worldwide in 2011: 41,000 MW!World Wide Wind Total Installed Capacity: 238,000 MW (238 GW)
    • 14. Our Environment• Photovoltaic (PV) Production(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 16
    • 15. World Energy Growth Rates by SourcePercent Annual Average Growth(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 18
    • 16. Solar Insolation Map(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 19Germany: 2.4 ave peak sun hours per day; SA 5.9 (5 after derate factor)
    • 17. Global Energy Resources(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 2030 TWH in 203010 TWH in 1990
    • 18. ICT Exponential Growth(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 21
    • 19. Mobile Phones in AfricaExponential Growth• 2011– 500,000,000 All Phones– 15,000,000 Smart Phones– 3%• 2015– 850,000,000 All Phones (70% )– 127,500,000 Smart Phones (850% )– 15%• Electricity Requirement Increase?• Source: NewsNow Magazine 17 November 2011(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 22
    • 20. SA Mobile Data to Grow 49 Fold by 2016Exponential Growth• Kevin Bloch, Cisco CTO, Engineering News,Friday 23rd March 2012• http://www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/sa-mobile-data-to-grow-49-fold-by-2016-2012-03-23• Consumer: 1,195 to 91,818 TB/m• Business: 895 TB/m to 10,747 TB/m• Total: 26 million DVD’s per month(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 23
    • 21. Terminology• Grid Tie: an electrical system that is connected to thegovernment electricity grid• Reverse Feed / Embedded Generation: where someonebesides Eskom sells electricity to the Grid• Net Metering: where the consumer buys and sellselectricity at the same price• Feed In Tariff: where the Grid Operator / Utility pays the“Embedded Generator” a higher rate to feed the grid• Time of Use Metering: where electricity is bought (andsold) at different rates depending on grid demand (during off-peak, standard time, and peak-time, or in the future on a second by second basis)• Inverter / Grid Tied Inverter: Changes DC to AC electricity• Island: allows a grid-tie inverter to operate during a powerfailure, whilst isolating it from the grid(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 24
    • 22. Can we produce electricity cheaperthan we can buy it?Whiteboard / Word• Assumptions:– City of Cape Town– Borrowing at 10% interest rate over 20 years– Rooftop PV Systems– 3 bedroom, 4 person household using 1,200 kwh per month• Homeowner– R1.29 per kwh 16% R1.50• Business owner– R1.02 per kwh 16% R1.18 + 1 cent (additional) levy + R120 perton carbon tax, ie 12 cents per kwh R1.31 28%• More Info: R1,800; R182,400; 8 KW; R22.80; R182,400; R20 per watt?How?(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 25
    • 23. You could show your board ofdirectors how to:• 1) Understand the possibilities of RE• 2) Reduce Consumption• 3) Raise Awareness, Training, Knowledge• 4) Increase Energy Efficiency• 5) Produce Electricity?– What will it cost per kilowatt?– What will it cost per kwh?– What are we paying now per kwh?(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 26
    • 24. The real savings in being energyindependent (kw vs kwh)• If you spend R1m a year on electricity• And you can install your own system forR900,000 per year• What would you prefer?• If you buy your own system, then at 10% perannum over 20 years, the R900,000 equates toa capital cost of R7.5M(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 27
    • 25. The Cherry on Top• Once you’ve paid off the system, it is YOURS• Your electricity cost doesn’t increase everyyear …☞ … which means that you can plan for the future!• E.g.: you can save 50%+ of your electricity costover 20 years(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 28
    • 26. Opportunity to sell electricity• To Cities, Eskom, other users• Especially at peak time– Average electricity cost to City of Cape Town is 55cents per kwh– E.g.: Ankerlig near Atlantis produces 1,350 MW,uses 25,000 litres of diesel per minute, at a cost ofbetween R4 and R11 per kwh– So, we can produce at R1.32 per kwh and sell atR3 per kwh!(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 29
    • 27. Buying and Producing ElectricityGraph in Rand per kwh(c) My Power Station Technology 2012R0.57R0.77R0.95R1.14R1.32R5.56R3.89R2.00R1.56R1.32R0.00R1.00R2.00R3.00R4.00R5.00R6.002008 2009 2010 2011 2012City of Cape Town - When do we get to "Grid Parity"?ie when can we make our own electricity cheaper than we can buy it?For Homeowners using 1,200kwh or more. Plus some other assumptions.Green Line is production using Net Metering. The red line is buying.kwh cost of buying kwh cost of manufacturing
    • 28. NegaWatts, not MegaWatts(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 31PV = Photovoltaic SystemEE = Energy Efficiency: Spend to saveER = Eskom ESCO Rebate (approximate)Price Per Total Monthly%tage watts watt Price Repayments kwh price per kwh Inc VATPV 100% 8,000 R20.00 R160,000.00 R1,600.00 1,200 R1.33 R1.52EE 0% 8,000 R20.00 R0.00PV 30% 8,000 R20.00 R48,000.00EE 70% 8,000 R12.00 R67,200.00R115,200.00 R1,152.00 1,200 R0.96 R1.09ER R290.00R862.00 1,200 R0.72 R0.82NegaWatts = Negative Watts
    • 29. Next Steps …• We would like to present to you and yourBoard to save your company a huge amount ofmoney and to guarantee sustainability in yourelectricity supply!• Please contact me, David Lipschitz, at:– 021 551 9935; 082 900 5903– david@mypowerstation.biz(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 32
    • 30. (c) My Power Station Technology 2012 33
    • 31. Buying and Selling Electricity• Buying– From our “Utility”: e.g. City of Cape Town or Eskom• Selling– If we produce electricity and we have excess wecan sell electricity• 1 KW Rooftop PV example• Payment Systems(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 34
    • 32. Government and Citizens• “Embedded Energy” Generation LegislationAlready Exists• SABS: NRS 097-01-2010 (December)• NERSA: Embedded Generation (2011)• Waiting for:– Eskom adoption– City adoption– Business and Homeowner adoption(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 35
    • 33. What is PV?(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 36
    • 34. What is a Grid Tie Inverter?(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 37
    • 35. What is an Island?(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 38
    • 36. 80,000 Watt with Sunny Boys(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 39
    • 37. This is what a Renewable EnergySystem (without batteries) Looks Like …(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 40PV ArrayCombinerBoxGrid Tie InverterDB BoardMainsUtility[Schematic excludes Grounding Systems; DC & AC Disconnect; Fuses; etc.]Start here …
    • 38. This is what a Renewable EnergySystem (with batteries) Looks Like …(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 41PV ArrayCombinerBoxSolar ChargeControllerBattery BankInverter / Charger(Island System)DB BoardMainsDB BoardBackup LoadsUtility[Schematic excludes Grounding Systems; DC & AC Disconnect; Fuses; etc.]Start here …
    • 39. Grid Tie Island System(c) My Power Station Technology 2012
    • 40. Grid Tie Island Schematic(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 43
    • 41. Grid Tie Island Circuit Schematic(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 44
    • 42. Battery Only System(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 45Watch Battery System Installation Videohttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LT1AF4ycAQY
    • 43. Benefits of Renewable Energy andElectricity Efficiency• Security of supply– Can we rely on our Utility, Eskom?– Should we rely on Eskom?• Money saving– Can we reduce our costs and increase our profits?• Budget planning is made easier– Future electrical costing is easier– Not at the mercy of Eskom’s price increases(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 46
    • 44. To reduce consumption• We must measure– Electricity (kWH, kVA, Voltage, Current, PowerFactor)– Water (kl; Temperature (In, Out, Ring Main Return,Air Temperature))– Heating– Cooling– Insolation– By second, minute, and graphs(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 47
    • 45. To reduce consumption• We must compare– All consumptions against invoices received– Correct?– Are we on the right tariff?– Besides saving can we produce?(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 48
    • 46. Measure - SMART energy"If you can not measure it, you can not improveit.", Lord Kelvin
    • 47. What your electricity measurementshould do• Real time reporting• Onboard reporting• Long term data collection• RS-232 communication todatabase via GSM, Wifi orEthernet modules• SMART control for geyserheating and pool pumps• Load shifting and DMS• SMART geyser elementmanagement
    • 48. Assumptions• All prices include VAT• Buying prices are for a “standard” 3 bedroom 4 personhousehold that uses 1,200 kwh per month and currently paysR1,548 per month in the City of Cape Town, ie Tariff (price)R1.29 per kwh• Interest rates at 10% average and borrowing over 20 years• Our “utility” is the City of Cape Town.• Prices increase by 16% in July 2012 to R1.50 per kwh and the“standard” house will be paying about R1,800 per month.(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 51
    • 49. Hypothesis Development• Hypothesis– We have an idea and want to see if the idea is true– The idea is the Hypothesis• Our hypothesis– Can we produce our own electricity cheaper thanwe can buy it?– How can we implement it?(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 52
    • 50. Hypothesis Development: Page 1• 1) Current Elec Charge: R1.29 per kwh• 2) Increasing 16% to R1.50 per kwh in July ’12• 3) 1,200 kwh * R1.50 = R1,800• 4) R1,800 over 20 years at 10% => R182,400• 5) R182,400 buys 8 kW of PV– 1,200 per month * 12 months / 365 days / 5 peak sunhours = 8 KW• 6) 8 kW of PV using “Net Metering” (NM) is1,200 kwh per month!(c) My Power Station Technology 2012
    • 51. “The Grid is our battery”• Let’s suppose we need 40 kwh per day• And there are 5 sun hours per day in CapeTown• We need an 8 KW PV array• We produce our entire day’s requirement in 5hours• After hours we get our requirement from our“utility”(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 54
    • 52. EQUALITY• How did we get to Equality (Grid Parity)?• Who helped?– Germany (G): Feed In Tariffs since 1991– Still the largest installed base of PV panels (rooftop, building integrated, farm, etc)– 370,000 people employed in RE in G in 2010– Targeted 20% RE by 2020• Achieved this in 2011!• Now targeting 35% by 2020• Solved the “Grid Destabilisation” problem in 2011(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 55
    • 53. July 2012• March 2011: R1.29 per kwh for a house whichuses 1,200 kwh per month• In July 2012, 16% increase -> R1.50 per kwh• Ie, buy electricity at R1.50 per kwh• And we can produce at R1.50 per kwh!!• So we will have reached Grid Parity EQUALITY(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 57
    • 54. Buying and Selling ElectricityAt what rate• Buy at R1.50 per kwh• Sell at R1.50 per kwh• How? Explain “the meter goes backwards at the same speed”• If we buy at R1.50 and sell at R1.50 this is called:– Net Metering• The Grid is our “battery”• If we buy at R1.50 and sell at R3.94, then the R3.94 iscalled a Feed In Tariff• We can also buy at R1.50 and sell at R1 at off peaktime and R3 at peak time.(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 58
    • 55. Hypothesis Development: Page 2• 7) But CoCT won’t allow NM because … eventhough …• 8) They say we must wait until Feb 2014!• 9) So what can we do about it?• 10) Work together. Create Private Grids• 11) How– Create a City Improvement District– Large users already have clout(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 59
    • 56. Hypothesis DevelopmentPage 312) Strength in Numbers• Look at Electricity Paid by MRA members:• 1,200 kwh per house is R1,800 per month• 1,200 kwh * 2000 (houses) = 2,400,000 kwh• R1,800 * 2000 = R3,600,000 per month• If we could all buy together (interdependence)we would be one of the City’s biggestcustomers and could negotiate better tariffs• MRA = Milnerton Residents Association(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 60
    • 57. Hypothesis Development: Page 4• 13) CID: City Improvement District– 2,000 houses at somewhere between R130,000and R180,000 each– Electricity Meters + Electricity Management +Geyser Management + Incentives for BehaviourChange• 14) Working together:– Lower Cost of Ownership– Eskom Rebate: ~ R29 per 10% saving per monthper house(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 61
    • 58. More Questions• Net Metering and Reverse Feed• Do you know that the Cities don’t want toallow Net Metering?• They think they will lose electricity revenue– They get up to 90% of their revenue from electricity sales• According to David Murrin, for GDP Growth,we need: people growth; resources; electricity• How can we get around this problem?(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 62
    • 59. The City of Cape Town (CoCT)• Brian Jones (Head: Green Energy) says that NetMetering will be made available in Feb 2014• Believes Net Metering will reduce theirelectricity revenue. 60% of revenue from electricity• Can’t see the Benefits: huge jobs growth,employment, less crime, higher taxes• In California, Germany, China, the more REthat is installed the faster the economy growsand the more electricity is sold(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 63
    • 60. Countries with Net Metering• 13 Countries + 42 USA States• More than 20 years experience– Were already running in 1991(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 64
    • 61. How can we get around theproblem of the City of Cape Townnot allowing Net Metering?• Create Private Grids• Work Together (Interdependence)• Do Internal Net Metering• Don’t Reverse Feed the Transformers• Do Cluster Electricity Saving(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 65
    • 62. Implementing Cluster ElectricitySaving• Methodology developed by David Lipschitzand a team from Achievement Awards Group• Submitted to the Eskom Open Innovation PilotProject in 2011• See next slide(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 66
    • 63. (c) My Power Station Technology 2012 67
    • 64. But what about “Night”?• For Night and Cloudy Days we will needbatteries and we will need to importelectricity from the CoCT,preferably at “off peak time”• We also need to prevent reverse feed becausethe CoCT won’t allow Reverse Feed• So we need “Islands” & Batteries & BehaviourChange• AND we need Energy Efficiency• We can save up to 77% of our electricityrequirement – and Eskom has an incentive for this(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 68
    • 65. RE Example and Effect of EE(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 69House Loads 1200 kwh/month Ball Park Number for Grid Tie Rand per kwhPeak Average Sun Hours 5 h with Battery Backup R 60.00 R 1.06Estimated W installed 7890 Electricity Cost pa R 15,264.00Estimated Rand Value R 473,424.66 kwh/pa 14400New Electricity Use Efficiency ElectricalCost Saving Equipment Savings Water Savings Savings paAwareness R 899.00 15% R 71,013.70 pa R 2,289.60Insulation - roof / ceiling R 3,000.00 10% R 47,342.47 R 1,526.40Insulation - pool cover R 36,000.00 7% R 30,772.60 R 1,869.60 R 992.16Pool Pumps R 3,000.00 10% R 46,800.00 R 1,508.91Fridge R 5,000.00 4% R 16,800.00 R 541.66SWH R 30,000.00 25% R 118,356.16 R 3,816.00Gas cookingTotals R 77,899.00 70% R 331,084.93 R 10,674.73New Rands New W RqdNew Estimate 473-331k+78k R 220,238.73 R 142,339.73 2372.3New pool cover every 5 years; Pool Size: 50 sq m; Roof Size: 100 sq m; Elec savings higher if inflation includedInverters life expectancy is 15 yrs. Replacement Not included.Gas Cooking: probably no savings, but reduces peak electricity demand.Battery Inefficiency = 20%; Grid Tie Inefficiency = 6%. R60 per watt incl inefficiencies. For 20 years20kl Water Usage for Pool Per Month for 6 Months @ R15.58 R 1,869.60 R 37,392.00
    • 66. MandelatonCommunity Improvement District(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 70
    • 67. • Some more calculations and slides(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 71
    • 68. Why We’re here today• We are reaching “Grid Parity” assuming NetMetering is allowed• Understand terminology• Ask questions:• Can we work together to save money?• Should we continue to accept the “status quo”?• Should we continue to wait for government?• Can we really produce electricity cheaper than wecan buy it?(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 72
    • 69. Steps to CES• 1) Historically– Utility (Eskom) -> CoCT -> Consumers• 2) Invent systems and reduce prices– Grid Tie Inverters; Reverse Feed; Max. Production– Feed In Tariffs• 3) Achieve Grid Parity– Payment Systems, eg Net Metering (NM)• 4) But, CoCT doesn’t want NM (why)• 5) So, create Private Grids (Clusters)(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 73
    • 70. Next Year (July 2013)• Expectation of another 16% increase fromR1.50 per kwh to R1.74 per kwh• Takes “standard” house to R2,088 per month.• If we buy now, we have fixed our electricityprice at R1.50 per kwh for 20 years. Plus anallowance for repairs and maintenance andinsurance(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 74
    • 71. Per House PV• 1,200 kwh per month is 40 kwh per day (1,200* 12 months / 365 days)• Average Sun Hours in Cape Town is 5.9• Germany 2.4!!• Derate Factor from DC to AC 16%, ie we have5 Average Sun Hours in Cape Town• 40 kwh per day / 5 implies an 8 kW PV System• At R25 per watt = R200,000 per house• At R20 per watt = R160,000 per house(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 75
    • 72. 2000 Houses PV• 2000 * R160,000 = R320,000,000• How can we reduce this R160,000?• Energy Efficiency• R60,000 to reduce our electricity consumptionby 70%• 40% of 8 kW is 3 kW * R20 per watt = R60,000plus R60,000 = R120,000 instead of R160,000• Total Project Value is R240,000,000(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 76
    • 73. What do we get?• At R20 per watt, for 8 KW, our cost is R160,000and our repayments are about R1,600 permonth• Compare 1,200 * R1.50 = R1,800.• With EE, we can reduce our cost and installbattery banks• R1,600 * 2000 = R3,200,000 per month(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 77
    • 74. Eskom• Eskom wants us to Save• Will pay approximately R29 per month per10% saving assuming we start with 1,200 kwhhouse. Not much per house and we can’t getit if we work alone• But together:• 2000 Houses: R58,000 per month for 10%• R580,000 per month for 100%. BringsR3,200,000 down to R2,620,000. An 18%discount. (c) My Power Station Technology 2012 78
    • 75. Clients• Some people have already asked me if theycan buy our excess electricity• This can be done using “Retail Wheeling”• The CoCT has Wheeling Tariffs:– 7.78 to 12.68 cents per kwh(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 79
    • 76. How to get started?• Mandelaton CID– Community Improvement District• Milnerton Proper; Woodbridge Island; Lagoon Beach; Joe Slovo /Phoenix; Sunset Beach• Measure: 2,000 meters * R3,000 each installed– Incl, Voltage, Current, Peak Demand,– Can tell what’s running by looking at “profiles”– Can control Geyser– Can switch loads on and off (DSM and rebates)– Is Wireless, so user needs internet connection• Design, Finance, Implement, Insure, Maintain(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 80
    • 77. PV Design and EE Presentation(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 81
    • 78. About David• Is it possible to have a reducing cost of living?• i.e.:– To increase our available money to spend / profit– To cut our carbon / environmental footprint– To become more healthy and wealthy– To plan for “retirement”– So that we don’t need to fear the future!(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 82
    • 79. Cyclical vs Linear Systems• Can mother nature help us with our thinking?• Nature– Cyclical– All waste is reused• Human– Linear– Assumes infinite, low cost, resources• If we consider Zero Waste as our benchmark, then thinking about RE andtotal lifecycle costs becomes easier.• Watch “The Story of Stuff” video on Youtube.(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 83
    • 80. Measure(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 85
    • 81. Advanced Measuring(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 86
    • 82. Peak Shaving / Load Shifting(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 87With thanks to Scott Anderson, VerdeStrategy, Slideshare Presentation.For Peak Demand Management, ESX uses Generators (eg Synchronised Switching / Load Control),Batteries, Load Shifting, Power Saving Methods (eg Power Factor Correction),to reduce peak demand (kVA).Power Factor Correction is cost effective and the easiest form of energy management thatdoesn’t effect production. For pumping, consider variable speed drives.
    • 83. Things to Consider When One is Designinga Renewable Energy System …• Determining the Area of the Solar PV Array:– Sun hits earth’s surface at 1000 Watts Per SquareMeter• Cell / Module / Panel Efficiency– Monocrystalline is 19%– Polycrystalline is 15% (mainly used in RSA)– Thin Film is 9%, although new tech at 22%– 60 Watts per square meter design number to be safe, 1.6 Hectares per MW• Grid Tie Inverter– Efficiency is 94%• Battery Based Systems– Efficiency of 40% to 80%(c) My Power Station Technology 2012
    • 84. Variables to considerdesigning and sizing systems• Slope of roof/panels: Latitude in South Africa– 34 degrees in Cape Town– 26 degrees in Joburg• Azimuth (angle to the sun): Prefer True North• Average Peak Sun Hours• For Solar Water Heaters: does it freeze?• For Photovoltaics: minimum temperature– Determines maximum voltage• Shading, Voltage Drops, Cabling, Fuses(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 89
    • 85. Insulation: Thermal ConductivityBuilding Design(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 90Aluminium lets through 1000 times more energy than wood !!
    • 86. Quotes (Estimates) and Designs• We quote the following prices to install aRenewable Energy System:– Grid tie: Quoted at R25 per watt (plus VAT)– Grid tie with 4 hours battery backup: R50 per watt– 4 hours of battery backup for “battery” or “critical”loads, e.g. Computers, Lights, TV, Garage Door, Gate– Can add air conditioning and other heavier loads– Battery Only: R80 per watt– These numbers have come down up to 22% this yearand are deemed to reduce further(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 91
    • 87. Quotes (Estimates) and Designs• A formal design is necessary and is chargeable• Designs include:– On site visit, if possible– An electricity meter– Detailed equipment specification– Ensure client has sufficient roof or land space– Price confirmation with suppliers, etc.– If client buys from us, we credit the design fee(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 92
    • 88. Grid tie with battery backup - Design• Calculate Battery Requirements:– Look at battery load requirements – kilowatts andhours used• Computers; lights; TV; garage doors; gates• e.g.: Total per day = 5KWH = 5000 WH• e.g. 48 Volt battery bank = 5000 / 48 = 104 Amp Hours– Double 104 Amp Hours for 50% Depth of Discharge– Allow 20% for battery losses– I.e. 250 AH (104 * 2 * 1.2 (20% “battery” losses)) at 48Volt(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 93
    • 89. Sizing the Renewable Energy System• We ask the client for 12 months electricity readings inkwh and in Rands• Eg: 3 bedroom house with a family of 4: 1,200 kwhper month equals 14,400 kwh per annum• Divided by 365 = 39.5 kwh per day• Divided by 5 (i.e. average peak sun hours in S A) = 7.9• London, England: has 2.24 ave. peak sun hours per day; weget 18 KW system• 7,9 Kw X R60/Watt is R474, 000• CAPEX of R474, 000 has repayments of approx R4,600pm(10% pa over 20 years), divided by 1200kwh = R3.83/kwh• Sun hours should be per site, e.g. 5.7 in Cape Town; 8.2 in Upington, etc.(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 94
    • 90. RE Example and Effect of EE(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 95House Loads 1200 kwh/month Ball Park Number for Grid Tie Rand per kwhPeak Average Sun Hours 5 h with Battery Backup R 60.00 R 1.06Estimated W installed 7890 Electricity Cost pa R 15,264.00Estimated Rand Value R 473,424.66 kwh/pa 14400New Electricity Use Efficiency ElectricalCost Saving Equipment Savings Water Savings Savings paAwareness R 899.00 15% R 71,013.70 pa R 2,289.60Insulation - roof / ceiling R 3,000.00 10% R 47,342.47 R 1,526.40Insulation - pool cover R 36,000.00 7% R 30,772.60 R 1,869.60 R 992.16Pool Pumps R 3,000.00 10% R 46,800.00 R 1,508.91Fridge R 5,000.00 4% R 16,800.00 R 541.66SWH R 30,000.00 25% R 118,356.16 R 3,816.00Gas cookingTotals R 77,899.00 70% R 331,084.93 R 10,674.73New Rands New W RqdNew Estimate 473-331k+78k R 220,238.73 R 142,339.73 2372.3New pool cover every 5 years; Pool Size: 50 sq m; Roof Size: 100 sq m; Elec savings higher if inflation includedInverters life expectancy is 15 yrs. Replacement Not included.Gas Cooking: probably no savings, but reduces peak electricity demand.Battery Inefficiency = 20%; Grid Tie Inefficiency = 6%. R60 per watt incl inefficiencies. For 20 years20kl Water Usage for Pool Per Month for 6 Months @ R15.58 R 1,869.60 R 37,392.00
    • 91. How does the Client pay for this?• R220,238 (for 2.4kw system) at 10% for 20 years is R2,125 per month• R2,125 / 1200 kwh is R1.77 per kwh– R1.77 is fixed for 20 years!• 2010 mid-tariff in CoCT is R1.06; 2011: R1.33; 2012: R1.66; 2013: R1.83(25%x2; 10%x1)• Cost of nuclear is R60 per watt: ie govt avoids paying 2400w*R60pw = R144,000.• OR govt avoids building 5,523 W of power stations = R331,380• Germany: 50% rebate = R110,119• Zero VAT: VAT in R220,238 is R27,046 –> ie: zero VAT on RE investments– VAT=5% on RE equipment in UK• Total refunds: R110,119 + R27,046 = R137,165• i.e. R137K, compared with R144K for nuclear– Takes 1 month to design, install and commission the RE system; 12 years (+) for nuclear• Further incentives:– 1) Net Metering; 2) Feed In Tariffs; 3) Bigger battery bank so that more off-grid availability– Give incentives for electricity draw outside peak periods– Smart grid so that private “IPPs” can disconnect from grid when required or even supply the gridwhen required(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 96
    • 92. What We do• Please call us if you need help– Getting EE & RE into your business– Training / awareness programs– Energy Management– Electricity Measurement and Control– Designing Renewable Energy Systems– Installing Renewable Energy Systems(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 97
    • 93. Companies with which MPST works• Electric Assemblies: Electrical Engineers• SolarSells: Design and Install PV Systems• Silver Solutions: Solar Water Heating• MPST: Sales, Support, Finance, ProjectManagement(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 98
    • 94. Electrical Engineering• Doug Young: Electrical Engineer• Energy Management• Electric Assemblies– Power Factor Correction– DB Boards up to MW– Transformers and Mini-Subs(switchgears low and high voltage)– Generators and Co-Generation– Load Shedding– Infra red Surveys• Contact: 021 552 3023; 083 658 2983; doug@electrica.co.za(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 99
    • 95. SolarSells• Peter Burden• RE Design, Install• Inverter Expert• 57 Projects from May 2008 till August 2011– 200 Watts to 36 KW– Grid Tie, Roof Top, Ground Mounted, WaterPumping, Micro-Hydro, Wind Turbines• Contact: 011 794 3551; 071 686 5086; peter@solarsells.co.za(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 100
    • 96. Silver Solutions• Klint Munton• Solar Water Heating Systems• Heat Pumps• Solar Cookers• Kits• Water Saving Systems• Lighting• Contact: 021 790 5193; 082 463 7881; klint@renewedenergy.co.za(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 101
    • 97. David Lipschitz• BSc (Honours) MBA• ESX Energy Saving Experts (Pty) Ltd CEO• My Power Station Technology cc: Energy Expert, Software Developer• Grid-Tied Photovoltaics Course: Feb 2009, Phoenix, AZ, USA• NABCEP Level 1 Certification– North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners• Additional related technical training• Spoke / Chaired Energy Efficiency conference 2010• Spoke at Various other Energy Conferences• Presented in Parliament re. Climate Change Hearings• Presented to Parliament re. IRP2010 Hearings• Presented at Powering Africa Strategy Summit in November 2011• Contact Details:– 021 551 9935– 082 900 5903– david@energysavingexperts.co.za(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 102
    • 98. Appendices:• Appendices consist of:– Further definitions– Calculations– Quoting and design process(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 103
    • 99. The Cost Unserved Electricity• A company with a turnover of R100m per annumworking 24 hours per day 7 days a week has anhourly turnover of R11,415.• If that hour is lost, the possible loss is R11,415.• This is the cost of unserved electricity.• If the co works working hours 200 days a year, thecost is R62,500 per hour• The cost might be lower than this, as you might wantto only look at profit, or you might be able to catchup, but at what price?(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 104
    • 100. Energy Efficiency• 1) Tariffs– Maybe most people don’t consider this to beefficiency, but anything that saves the clientmoney is efficiency– Checking that the client is on the right tariff cansave significant Rands and Cents and makes sense– If the client is a factory, then considering peakdemand and moving it into an off-peak period canalso save significantly(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 105
    • 101. Energy Efficiency• 2) Awareness– Something for nothing?– Measure, become aware– Reduce electricity consumptionby 15% to 20%– If 15%, then 14,400 kwh per annum * .85 = 12,240 kwh per annum /365 / 5 = 6.7 KWH per day– At R60 per watt = R402,000, so we’ve just gone from R480,000 toR402,000.– The client can buy a single phase electricity meter for R899 or threephase for R1199– So for an RE system, an investment of R899 could provide a saving ofR78,000– An excellent investment, and even if they don’t buy an RE system, theycould still save R15,552 per annum (at R1.08 per kwh) * 15% =R2332.80 per annum.(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 106Master = InverterInstant Readings
    • 102. Energy Efficiency• 3) Insulation• Insulation for a 100 square meter house might cost R3000– One of the SA web sites says that heating and cooling bills might be reduced by between 40%and 70% with insulation• Not insulation– normal uninsulated ceiling has an R-value of 1– R-38 will have an R-value of 39 (ie 38+1), and will let through 1/39 (2.5%) of the amount ofheat or cold• Loft stairs– R-38 in 99 m2 of 100 m2 ceiling– Ie 90 m2 at R-38 and 1 m2 at R-1– Plug into formula, gives ave. R-value of R-36– Because 1% of the attic is uninsulated, the average R-value of the entire attic drops by 27%.– See appendix for formula• If 20% of your electricity bill is heating and cooling, then a 50% saving is 10% ofyour bill which R120 per month. 10% of R480,000 is R48,000.(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 107
    • 103. Energy Efficiency• 4) Pool Cover– A pool pump might run for about 9 hours a day in summer and 2 hoursa day in winter.– A pool cover can halve this and reduce evaporation by 90% andreduce chemicals by 60%.– With RE: Let’s assume a 900 Watt pump. 9 hours a day for 3 months, 6hours for 6 months and 2 hours for 3 months = 1872 kwh per year / 2 =936 kwh per year saved => .5 kw = R32,500 and a pool cover for a 10meter by 4 meter pool including wind up mechanism is about R12,000.Unfortunately the pool cover might only last 5 years, so that means 4pool covers in this time making R12,000 + R8,000 * 3 = R36,000.– No RE: 936 kwh = R1010 per annum, so on an electricity only basis itdoesn’t make sense, but if you add water, then 20 kilolitres per monthfor 6 months = 120 kilolitres at the highest rate of R15.58 is R1869 perannum. So R1010 plus R1,869 = R2,879 which makes it look moreaffordable. R36,000 is R1,800 per annum. Prices exclude increases.(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 108
    • 104. Energy Efficiency• 5) Pool Pump– One pump on for 9 hours per day in summer– At 1kw = 9 KWH (with sand filter)– Second pump at 150 Watts (with paper filter)– 1kw for 3 hours and 150 watts for 6 hours = 3.9 KWH– Saves R4.20 per day -> R1537.38– Pump costs R1,500 plus fittings. Pays for itself in twoyears– Reduces grid tie cost from R81,000 to R35,000(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 109
    • 105. Energy Efficiency6) Fridge• 15 year old fridge: 2.4 kwh per day and battery backup at night ifnecessary; 4 hours if working based on load shedding / powerfailures• new fridge: 1 kwh per day• Remember: 5 kwh per day -> 1kw system -> R45,000 for grid tie• 2.4 kwh production needs R21,600 with grid tie• 1 kwh production needs R9,000• New AC Fridge costs R5,000 upwards• With grid-tie we use the grid like a battery• new 115W when running; old fridge 200W– changes inverter size(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 110
    • 106. Battery Sizing re FridgeOld Fridge: 2.4 kwh per day• 5 ave. peak sun hours• Fridge on 24 hours a day• Uses 100 watts per hour• 876 kwh per annum = R928 per annum (Mar ‘10)• 500 wh during day• 1900 wh at “night”• 24 volt batteries• 1900wh / 24 v = 79 AH at night• 79 / 5 = 15.8 Amps charging required + 100 w / 24 =4.2 for during the day -> 20 Amps of Solar PanelsRqd• PV: 480 w * R25 per watt = R12,000• 158 (79*2) AH battery (R4624 for 4 x 12 V @ 100AH)• Plus MPPT / Regulator: Phocos 30 Amp R2,218• Fridge cost: R3,000• PV Cost: R18,842 (1 day of “autonomy”) -> R22,610• Fridge + PV: R25,610• 10 years Electricity Cost: R20,850 (25%*2; then 10%)• Calculations exclude inefficienciesNew Fridge: 1 kwh per day• 5 ave. peak sun hours• Fridge on 24 hours a day• Uses 42 watts per hour• 365 kwh per annum = R387 per annum (Mar ‘10)• 208 wh during “day”• 792 wh at “night”• 24 volt batteries• 792wh / 24 = 33 AH at night• 33 / 5 = 6.6 Amps charging required + 42 w / 24 =1.8 for during the day -> 8.4 Amps of Solar PanelsRqd• PV: 200 w * R25 per watt = R5,000• 66 (33*2) AH battery (R2312 for 2 x 12 V @ 100AH)• Plus MPPT / Regulator: Phocos 30 Amp R2,218• Fridge cost: R5,000• PV Cost: R9,530 + 20% for cabling, etc: R11,436• Fridge + PV: R16,436• 10 years Electricity Cost: R8,695• Calculations exclude inefficiencies• Or fridge + electricity = R13,695 (no PV)“PV Cost” + 20% gives all equipment cost (uninstalled); if your fridge was made before 2001, you should consider replacing it(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 111
    • 107. Energy Efficiency• 5) Solar Water Heating• Typically ¼ to 1/2 of electricity is water heating• 1200 kwh per month -> 39.5 kwh per day / 5 sun hours = 8 KW system required• 39.4 kwh / 4 = 10 kwh of electricity rqd for water heating• OR ¼ of 8 KW = 2 KW• 10 kwh of PV = 2 kwh of electricity = R120,000 (R90,000 for Grid Tie)• 10 kwh of SWH = R30,000 (2 x 150 litre R15,000 systems)• Saving = R60,000 to R90,000; saving is higher if half of electricity use is SWH• Note: 4 people * 50 litres per day = 200 litres of hot water per day, but mostsystems are undersized, hence I suggest two 200 litre systems• No batteries in SWH! Backup with electricity or gas.• One can also look at heat pumps, eg where solar panels cannot be fitted or inareas where it makes more sense to have a heat pump(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 112
    • 108. Battery System Sizing• AC Average Daily Load / Inverter Efficiency + DC Average Daily Load / DCSystem Voltage = Average Amp-hours/Day• Average Amp-hours/day * Days of Autonomy / Discharge Limit / BatteryAH Capacity = Batteries in Parallel• DC System Voltage / Battery Voltage = Batteries in Series * Batteries inParallel = Total Batteries• Eg: Computer on for 4 hours; lights 4; TV 4; Garage, etc 1 hour (Assuming12 Volt 100 AH batteries are used in “battery backup configuration”– ((2520 wh / 0.9) + N/A) / 12 = 233 AH/day for 4 hours per day– 233 * 1 / .5 / 100 = 5 batteries in parallel– 12 / 12 = 1 * 5 = 5 batteries, 5 x 12 Volt batteries in parallel, but we shouldnever have more than 4 batteries in parallel, so change to 24 Volt system– 2520 / 0.9 / 24 = 116 AH/day– 116 * 1 / .5 / 100 = 3 batteries in parallel– 24 / 12 = 2 * 3 = 6 batteries; ie 2 x 12 Volt in Series @ 100 AH with 3 inparallels gives us 24 Volts * 300 AH = 600AH with 300AH available.(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 113
    • 109. Energy Consulting• Two processes:– Process 1:• Someone who is off grid, doesn’t know what theirelectricity consumption is or will be• We estimate their consumption by looking at eachappliance they will use and then calculate their needs– Process 2:• Someone who is connected to the grid• Process 1 is important because that is whereRenewable Energy really started and is pretty muchwhere South Africa is today.(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 114
    • 110. Designs• We charge R5,000 plus VAT for a design for a private houses and for systems up to10KW. Above 10 KW we charge R29,750 plus VAT, excludes EIAs, Engineering orArchitect Fees.• Why we charge for designs?– A design includes a site visit, a formal design with a parts list, an Efergy electricity meter so thatthe client can become aware of their electricity use and reduce it, and an energy efficiencyexercise– If the client buys a system from us and the value of the system is over R80,000, we discount theirinstalled price by the fee.– This is fair as the design requires experience and designs in IT, Architecture, etc, aren’t free.Designs can take up to 3 days. All prices and equipment needs to be checked. If we do 10 designsand then someone buys from us, we need to constantly increase the prices of the systems torecover our sales cost investment; this means that we either go out of business or run at aloss, which isn’t in our or our clients bests interests– We need to recover our educational investment of over R2 million so far in ensuring that we installsystems that meet electricity needs, are properly grounded, cable sizes are correct, the propercircuit breakers and fuses are used, etc. At the moment we follow the USA NEC article 690 REguidelines as far as possible as there aren’t guidelines in South Africa, although there are DCguidelines.– Update November 2011: NERSA have published RFD Embedded Generation which refers to NRS097-2-1:2010 (Grid Interconnection Of Embedded Generation). We are now waiting forimplementation by Eskom and the Cities.(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 115
    • 111. Research(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 116
    • 112. Do wind turbines kill birds?(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 117
    • 113. Energy Efficiency Labeling(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 118
    • 114. Bibliography - Mindmaps• Renewables and Sustainability Mindmap by DavidLipschitz:https://www.mindmeister.com/maps/show/13046747• Domestic Energy Independence by David Lipschitz:https://www.mindmeister.com/maps/show/47331785• Living Without Grids – a survival mechanism by DavidLipschitz:https://www.mindmeister.com/maps/show/14204830(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 119
    • 115. Bibliography - other• Insulation– http://blog.mapawatt.com/2011/01/10/insulate-your-attic-stairs– http://ths.gardenweb.com/forums/load/remodel/msg1016555621901.html– http://www.energyvanguard.com/blog-building-science-HERS-BPI/bid/34932/Attic-Stairs-A-Mind-Blowing-Hole-in-Your-Building-Envelope(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 120
    • 116. Bibliography - SWH• SWH Check List:http://www.interactmedia.co.za/images/stories/downloads/solar%20checklist.pdf• The Story of Stuff (linear vs circular systems):http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLBE5QAYXp8(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 121
    • 117. Project Video and Example• Gecko Rock– Specification:http://mypowerstation.co.za/2010/09/16/my-power-station-completes-installation-of-power-station-at-gecko-rock-press-release-16th-september-2010/– Video:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LT1AF4ycAQY(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 122
    • 118. Other Resources• Total Installed Electricity Capacity Worldwide:http://www.steamtablesonline.com/electricity/electricity-installed-capacity.aspx• Eco Economy Indicators: http://www.earth-policy.org• Insolation Map: http://www.earth-policy.org/indicators/C49/wind_power_2012(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 123
    • 119. Other Resources• Books– Hot, Flat and Crowded by Thomas Friedman• 2008– Bending the Curve by Robert Zipplies• 2008– Screw Business as Usual by Richard Branson• 2011– Breaking the Code of History by David Murrin• 2010(c) My Power Station Technology 2012 124