Community (Virtual) Power System (Station) Workshop By David Lipschitz

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This is my full one day Virtual Power Station Workshop.

In English, this is called a Community Power System.

Although there is a lot of technical information, there are also a lot of reference videos to help the audience get a better understanding of the issues.

The best thing about a Virtual Power Station (Virtual Power Plant) is that the benefits that only the very biggest electricity users in a country can (usually) get are available to a group of small users working together.

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  • ----- Meeting Notes (2013/03/30 14:50) -----Wind 1324 wh / w per annum, ie 3.6 wh per day.Nuclear/Coal, assuming up time of 85% = 20.4 wh per day.Coal at R25 per watt plus supplying it;Wind at R18 per watt?
  • Watch Micro Grid Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mwfIVhzn-_8&list=FL0_qrrfdG4Dchd6SYUMLmsg&index=3&feature=plpp_video
  • See http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LT1AF4ycAQY and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oZFd6_0iIg4
  • In City of Cape Town:Current ex VAT price is in March 2012 is R1.14 per kwh; R1.29 per kwh incFor business: Current price is R1.02 ex VAT; expected R1.31 ex VAT.
  • Riverside-Renewable-Energy 9MW; $42m, 110,000 square meters
  • Costing per watt or per kwh?
  • PV, Grid Tie Inverters, etc, can use Moore’s Law in ICT to reduce their costs, after all they are ICT!
  • If we don’t take responsibility for our own energy provision, we will not have enough electricity.
  • Show photos
  • Presentations available on request
  • Community (Virtual) Power System (Station) Workshop By David Lipschitz

    1. 1. Building a Virtual Power StationOne Day WorkshopBy David LipschitzMy Power Station Technology8th April 2013Phone: 021 551 9935; 074 119 3246Email: david@mypowerstation.biz; skype: MyPowerStation(c) My Power Station Technology (Pty) Ltd 2013Permission is given to copy parts of this presentation as long as the Author is referenced 1
    2. 2. Wildpoldsreid• Make twice as much energy as you need• Clever Energy– How?• Work together• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tzc77Lqkldk (aa1)(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 2
    3. 3. Wildpoldsreid• A city wide learning centre that makes thecitizens money and helps everyoneunderstand the technology and its socialimpact• Storage– Hydrogen (H) + CO2 = Methane CH4 & Oxygen(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 3
    4. 4. Work Smarter• Smarter Grid• Distributed Storage• Active Participation• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5_J97qpF0I4 (aa2)(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 4
    5. 5. IntroductionSetting the contextDeveloping the framework for a Virtual Power StationSystems Thinking(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 5
    6. 6. Virtual Power Station• Power Station (Plant): Producing electricity(and heat)• Virtual: Simulated(not in one place)• Power Station– Centralised• Virtual Power Station– Decentralised; integrated; smart(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 6
    7. 7. © Orbital Renewable Energy2009Power Supply Today: A Few Power Plants For Many UsersDownsides:Use of un-renewable resourcesAir pollutionOzone holeGlobal warmingMore natural disastersHealth risksLoss of life qualityDependence on OPEC,governments and corporationsNuclear dangerNuclear wasteHigh costs for governmentsand end-users due to results ofnatures’ abuse
    8. 8. © Orbital Renewable Energy2009Power Supply Tomorrow: Many Private Power ProducersBenefits:Use of renewable resourcesNo air pollutionTurn around of global warmingHealing of the planetCreating a futureNo health risksEnhancement of life qualityNo dependence on OPEC,governments & corporationsNo nuclear dangerNo nuclear wasteAffordable, healthy andenvironmentally friendlyenergy for everybody,everywhere
    9. 9. My Power Station• My Power Station helps you power your life,internally and externally• Software, Energy, Power• Internal Energy– What keeps us going internally– Sport, Exercise, Learning, Health, Family– Power comes from sharing, trusting and workingtogether• External Energy– External inputs to ourselves; Money, Work, Jobs(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 9
    10. 10. Eskom 49m Energy Saving Campaign(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 10
    11. 11. Why are you here?• What would you like to get out of thisworkshop?• Why?(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 11
    12. 12. Why I’m here• I’d like you to leave here with the essentialtoolset to convince yourself and your board ofdirectors and customers of the possibility ofsolving our electricity crisis– And reducing our cost of living• For ourselves• For our home, planet earth– And making money and profits, sustainably• What electricity crisis?(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 12
    13. 13. We’re in trouble!!• South Africa– No new base load power station build in the past20 years– vs: China: >1 GW per week added to their grid!!!– China installed 18 GW of Wind in 2011; 40 GWwas installed worldwide. Zero in South Africa– By end of 2012, China had 75.5 GW of Wind(growing 80% per annum since 2007)– In 2012 China produced more wind energy (100TWh) than Nuclear (98 TWh)(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 13
    14. 14. We’re in trouble!!• Can you see where South Africa’s going?• New Coal Power Stations: only 10 GW– Electricity is already sold!!– 10.5 GW will be decommissioned in 2020’s(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 14
    15. 15. Electricity Build andDecommissioning(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 15From White Paper on Renewable Energy, 20032008 Load SheddingSpare Capacity
    16. 16. Money• Existing or New?• Can’t we use existing money to finance ournew build?(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 16
    17. 17. News on 15th May 2012• “Work to begin on 68km R5.2 billion in Nov2012 (R5,200,000,000) railway line to supplyMajuba Power Station with 14 million tons ofCoal per annum” (Actual Start March 2013?)– http://www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/work-on-r52bn-majuba-rail-line-to-begin-in-nov-eskom-2012-05-14• R100 billion being spent on new coal mines• At least R2 Trillion on New Power Stations– & R166 bn on The Grid (Eskom Transmission Plan)• 5,000 x 1,200 kWh per month houses can bepermanently “removed” from the grid per R1bn, soR2 Trillion is at least 10 million houses(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 17
    18. 18. What happened at Majuba?• Majuba built in 1980’s. Majuba coal mine hadcertain geological deficiencies, so coal istrucked in from up to 68 km away.(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 18Photo from Bloomberg
    19. 19. BRICSBrazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa• Page 69: NPC Report (Nov 2011): “Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, SouthKorea and Russia will account for more than half of all global growth,growing by an average of 4.7% a year to 2025, by which time their share ofglobal GDP will have grown from 36% to 45%.”– My Comment: [It is time for South Africa and Africa toshed its association with its colonial masters, England,France, Germany, Portugal, Spain, and the USA, which arepart of the dying Western Empire, and change to a muchcloser association with the Asian Tigers, BRICS (China(9.5%)), Indonesia, South Korea, and of-course the AfricanTigers: Ghana (13.5%)(2nd highest), Mozambique (7.2%),Ethiopia (7.5%), Nigeria (6.9%), Botswana (6.2%), South Africa(3.4%). 36 Africa countries growing faster than the RSA.– Qatar (18.7%), India (7.8%), Russia (4.3%), Brazil (2.8%), Germany(2.7%), USA (1.5%), UK (1.1%), Portugal (-2-2%), Greece (-6%)]– Growth rates in % are net growth after inflation.(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 19
    20. 20. China’s 12th 5-year plan tabled in 2011• “Has a striking change from the past”• “From– A focus on investment-driven, high energy andlow-cost manufacturing”• “To– Low-carbon industries, new energy, nextgeneration information technology and high-endmanufacturing– China’s goal is to achieve 15% global share ofthese industries, compared with 3% now (in 2011)”(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 20South Africa is still stuck here!Note that the Chinese quote comes fromthe NPC document! Page 69, NPC Plan 2020
    21. 21. Money will be borrowed• Reason for the BRICS Development Bank!• The BRIC will lend money to the S!• The BRIC needs South Africa’s resources• A no-brainer for them• But the resource curse for us:– The resource curse (Paradox of Plenty) refers to the paradox that countriesand regions with an abundance of natural resources, specifically point-sourcenon-renewable resources like minerals and fuels, tend to have less economicgrowth and worse development outcomes than countries with fewer naturalresources.– https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resource_curse(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 21
    22. 22. News on 28th March 2012; and 27th March 2013• President Jacob Zuma at the BRICS conferenceseeking R1 trillion for the next 20 yearsinfrastructure expansion program• Other BRICS countries growing at 10% perannum after inflation; SA at 2%– 10% + 5% inflation = R450 billion this year!• Does government need to borrow this R1trillion with us citizens (and countryside) as surety?– 1 million new jobs; R1,000,000 debt per job!– 50 mil to 57 mil people by 2020: need 3.15 mil jobs!• Is there a better way? Using VPS Ideas?(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 22
    23. 23. R1 bn = 5,000 houses(VPS & Jobs)• What is R1 bn anyway?– Electrify 5,000 * 1,200 kWh per month houses– 5,000 Smart Electricity Meters– 5,000 inverters– 5,000 solar water heaters– 200,000 solar panels (Photovoltaic PV)– Circuit Breakers; Cable; Fuses; Grounding Rods– People• 250 installers per year for the PV– 25,000 installers employed for at least 20 years for entire country• Manufacturers; designers; support people; etc(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 23
    24. 24. AndOnly govt loan guarantees are required– Supported by the Trevor Manuel and NationalPlanning Commission (NPC Plan 2030)No subsidiesNo government borrowingNo new regulations, in fact deregulation isrequiredAnd best of all:– Electricity plus People plus Resources enables:• Clean Economic GROWTH -> more money for govt• Massive Employment(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 24
    25. 25. “Breaking the Code of History”• Eskom have said (email) that they “willsupport private people working together tolook like a big customer to Eskom.” Thiscustomer can be called a Virtual PowerStation.• For fast growth, an economy needs:• By David Murrin in “Breaking the Code of History” book– Population Growth– Resources– Electricity– South Africa has the first two, but the 3rd isstagnant (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 25
    26. 26. Our Environment: GDP• World GDP Growth(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 26
    27. 27. Our Environment: Wind(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 27In 2011 Capacity Installed: China 18GW; Doubled every year 2005 to 2009;Total Installed Wind Capacity Worldwide in 2011: 41,000 MW!World Wide Wind Total Installed Capacity: 238,000 MW (238 GW)
    28. 28. Our Environment• Photovoltaic (PV) Production(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 28
    29. 29. VideoWe Live in Exponential Times• 5 minutes• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lUMf7FWGdCw• This exponential growth depends onexponential availability of inexpensiveelectricity– For reference: watch later(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 29
    30. 30. The Virtual Power Station / Plant• "Virtual power plants represent an ‘Internet of Energy,’" says senioranalyst Peter Asmus of Pike Research. "These systems tap existing gridnetworks to tailor electricity supply and demand services for a customer.VPPs maximize value for both the end user and the distribution utilityusing a sophisticated set of software-based systems. They are dynamic,deliver value in real time, and can react quickly to changing customer loadconditions.”– http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_power_plant• Estimated growth $5.2 billion worldwide in 2010 to between $7.4 billionand $12.7 billion by 2015• IT + ET = EI (Information Technology + Energy Tech = Energy Internet)– Thomas Friedman, in Hot, Flat and Crowded (pg 224 onwards)(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 30
    31. 31. The Smart Grid• vs The Dumb Grid– Doesn’t know what its customers are doing andwhen they will need something– Uses historical information gathering• The Grid interacts with its stakeholders– “knows” the future• Re customers• Re suppliers• Re pricing(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 31
    32. 32. Systems Thinking• What exactly is a system? A system is a groupof interacting, interrelated, andinterdependent components that form acomplex and unified whole– http://www.pegasuscom.com/systems-thinking.html• We need to consider the big picture, not justparts of it(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 32
    33. 33. Video: A bigger System• a: Amory Lovins: a new fire (first 5 mins of 27)– We can watch more later in the day if there is time– Video available on TED• http://www.ted.com/talks/amory_lovins_a_50_year_plan_for_energy.html(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 33
    34. 34. What benefits do big electricityusers get?(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 34
    35. 35. What benefits do big electricityusers get?• Member of Electricity Intensive User Group• High Level Meetings with Eskom• Involved in Daily Eskom Scheduling• Time of Use Tariffs• ESCO Rebates; Demand Response• Lower Electricity Charges• Ability to export energy to the grid (Mondi)• They are taken seriously by Eskom. They havepower (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 35
    36. 36. How can these benefits be madeavailable to small / all electricityusers?(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 36
    37. 37. How can these benefits be madeavailable to small / all electricityusers?• Build a Virtual Power Station– a cluster of small users which looks like a bigcustomer to Eskom• The Nine Dots Model– Solving the “Reverse Feed Problem”– EV’s to “soak up” excess production and toprovide electricity at peak time(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 37
    38. 38. Virtual Power Station Videosb: conEdison Smart Grid 5 minshttp://youtu.be/QPWCCz_OTGUc: GE 8 mins (perhaps later)http://youtu.be/ztw3aYLX4_Ud: Duke 4 minshttp://youtu.be/E1Jrdt1OV8s(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 38
    39. 39. End of IntroductionBeginning of Technologies(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 39
    40. 40. Our workshop• Looking at electricity as the core missingenabler to get our economy moving• What tools do we need?• What types of technologies are available?• How can benefits that big business get bemade available to small business?(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 40
    41. 41. Riaan Smit@ Wind Energy Conference, Cape Town, Tuesday 29th May 2012• South Africa needs a– “New Future Vision”• Riaan is Chief Engineer in National Planning at Eskom(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 41
    42. 42. Thinking Differently• Should we think differently?– Do we need cars? How many? What sort? Canthey be shared?– Do people need to go to work or can theytelework?– Should our systems stay centralised or can they bedecentralised?– How would we design the system if there was nocoal or nuclear energy?(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 42
    43. 43. Our problems• Everything going UP• Government taxing infrastructure instead ofgrowing the economy and getting money fromtaxation• Infrastructure– Electricity; water; rates; fuel taxes; transport– E-tolls; carbon taxes; electricity levies– Exporting raw materials; importing finished goods• Bad balance of payments / rand depreciation / inflation(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 43
    44. 44. Petrol Price Increases since 2002(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 44Petrol price at pump; Oil = Rand $ in January each year * Brent Crude Converted to litres
    45. 45. Buying and Producing ElectricityGraph in Rand per kwh ex VAT(c) My Power Station Technology 2013
    46. 46. Government’s Problem• Get’s large amounts of revenue fromelectricity generation• Electricity makes a loss at peak time– Eg Ankerlig: R4 to R13 per kWh– Eg City of Cape Town Peak Demand: 72c (to R2.47)per kWh + Demand Charge– Means all Eskom’s rebates are based on removingpeak load so that they can be more profitable– PV doesn’t fit into this! Or does it?(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 46
    47. 47. Ankerlig• Near Atlantis• 9 x 150 MW Combined Cycle Turbines– Can use Diesel or gas; currently diesel• 25,000 litres of diesel per minute– X 60 minutes * R12 per litre = R18 million per hour• R18 million / 1,350,000 MW• = R13 per kWh!(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 47Photo: ESBi Engineering
    48. 48. What knowledge do you have?• Technical Terms• Quick Recap?(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 48
    49. 49. This is what a Renewable EnergySystem (without batteries) Looks Like …(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 49PV ArrayCombinerBoxGrid Tie InverterDB BoardMainsUtility[Schematic excludes Grounding Systems; DC & AC Disconnect; Fuses; etc.]Start here …The grid is the “battery” (backup)Eskom say Grid Tie is unsafe becausewhat if there is load shedding or if thegrid is switched off?
    50. 50. Anti-Islanding• Used when the grid supply is shut off:– “Since 1999, the standard for anti-islandingprotection in the United States has been UL 1741,harmonized with IEEE 1547. Any inverter which islisted to the UL 1741 standard may be connectedto a utility grid without the need for additionalanti-islanding equipment, anywhere in the UnitedStates or other countries where UL standards areaccepted.”(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 50http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_inverter
    51. 51. This is what a Renewable EnergySystem (with batteries) Looks Like …(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 51PV ArrayCombinerBoxSolar ChargeControllerBattery BankInverter / Charger(Island System)DB BoardMainsDB BoardBackup LoadsUtility[Schematic excludes Grounding Systems; DC & AC Disconnect; Fuses; etc.]Start here …Generator
    52. 52. Grid Tie Island Schematic(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 52
    53. 53. Battery Only System(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 53Watch Battery System Installation Videohttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LT1AF4ycAQY
    54. 54. Terminology• Grid Tie: an electrical system that is connected to thegovernment electricity grid• Reverse Feed / Embedded Generation: where someonebesides Eskom sells electricity to the Grid• Net Metering: where the consumer buys and sellselectricity at the same price• Feed In Tariff: where the Grid Operator / Utility pays the“Embedded Generator” a higher rate to feed the grid• Time of Use Metering: where electricity is bought (andsold) at different rates depending on grid demand (during off-peak, standard time, and peak-time, or in the future on a second by second basis)• Inverter / Grid Tied Inverter: Changes DC to AC electricity• Island: allows a grid-tie inverter to operate during a powerfailure, whilst isolating it from the grid(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 54
    55. 55. The Toolset(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 55
    56. 56. “Night” and Peak Demand• Start with “the battery”, the most difficultcomponent– Because Eskom doesn’t want us to export energy– They and the Cities allow “Parallel Feed” which isessentially what Solar Water Heaters (and heatpumps) do, except that Solar Water Heatersremove peak demand. Same for Timers andDemand Response (DR).(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 56
    57. 57. “Night”• What does it cost to build more generation (tooversupply) vs how to store and manageenergy?– Ie over generation vs energy storage– This might change due to storage costs comingdown, carbon taxes, environmental legislation– http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/04/energy-storage-series-why-we-need-it-and-why-we-dont(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 57
    58. 58. “Night”?• For Night and Cloudy Days customers willneed batteries, energy storage, and will needto import electricity from the Eskom /Munipalities, preferably at “off peak time”• We need Behaviour Change (Toolset)• AND we need Energy Efficiency (Toolset)• Customers can save up to 77% of theirelectricity requirement – and Eskom has incentives forthis(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 58
    59. 59. Toolset: EV – Nissan Leaf• Available for $200 a month in Austin, Texas onrental• Battery pack should last 5 to 7 years in Austin• 4.7km per kWh at R1.50 per kWh or 31 centsper km in Cape Town• 14 km per litre for 1.4 litre car at R12.73 perlitre or 91 cents per km• Nissan Leaf is 1/3rd of the cost to run.Repayments are about the same per month.(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 59EV = Electric Vehicle (there are also Hybrids)
    60. 60. Toolset: Pumped Storagea large scale battery(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 60http://www.eskom.co.za/c/article/207/pumped-storage/
    61. 61. Pumped Storage Potential• Lesotho Highlands– 3GW Pumped Storage Potential• USAID Electricity Supply Industry of Lesotho GeneralInformation for Potential Investors report in May 2008• Palmiet / Steenbras Dam (near Cape Town)– 2 x 200 MW reversible Francis pump/turbines• Generator manufactured by Fuji of Japan• Turbine manufactured by Voith of Germany– Construction started 1983– Commissioned 1988(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 61
    62. 62. Toolset: Battery• CSP (Concentrated Solar Power)• Solar Tower• Storage:– In Salt or Sulphur– Electricity produced in the normal way via steamand turbines• From sun during the day, or molten salt at night• Needs external energy to keep the salt “wet” (liquid)– Runs for 16 hours a day in Spain, eg 5am to 9pm,covering the morning and evening peaks in SouthAfrica (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 62
    63. 63. Solar Towers(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 63http://designbuildsource.com.au/worlds-largest-solar-towers-take-to-the-sunAbengoa and Brightsource’s Palen Solar Tower Project, California
    64. 64. Solar Towers(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 64http://designbuildsource.com.au/worlds-largest-solar-towers-take-to-the-sunAbengoa and Brightsource’s Palen Solar Tower Project, California
    65. 65. Toolset: Large Scale Batteries• XTremePower– eg 36 MW• http://www.duke-energy.com/news/releases/2013012301.asp• Flywheel• Ultra-capacitors• Global Key Players– Generalists: ABB, Alstom, GE, S&C Electric,Schneider Electric, Siemens– Purists: A123, BYD, Panasonic, Toshiba, XtremePower, ZBB Technologies, etc(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 65http://zpryme.com/news-room/asian-grid-scale-energy-storage-market-364b-by-2020-zpryme-smart-grid-insights-reports.html
    66. 66. Toolset: Water• Hydro– Large Scale and Micro-Hydro• Tidal– Eg Siemens 1.2 MW for 1,500 households inNorthern Island• Wave• Ocean Currents– Benguela and Agulhas Currents flowing at up to3m/s (10km/h), 24 hours a day, 7 days a week(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 66Also: Desalination
    67. 67. Toolset: Biogas(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 67e.g.: GE Jenbacher Gas Engines
    68. 68. Toolset: BioGasGE Jenbacher• Landfill gas– 1 million tons of waste power 1MW plant formore than 15 years– Waste from US city of 1 million can power 8MWplant• Sewerage– Waste water from city of half a million powers1MW plant; 100% of energy needed for the plant!• BioGas– 5000 cows can power 1 MW plant(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 68
    69. 69. Toolset: Local Storage• “Municipal Energy Companies”– Dr Hermann Scheer in The Solar Economy– Every industrial business is also an energybusiness– Local integration• Local jobs & a stronger local economy– Lower costs with decentralised systems– CHP: Combined Heat and Power, easier because oflocal electricity production(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 69
    70. 70. Toolset: “Summer time”• Windhoek 1 sun hour West of Durban. Couldbuild Solar Tower and PV plants there toprovide energy to Durban for the eveningpeak.• Worlds largest solar towers being built: 2 at 250 MW each inthe Californian Desert. Currently the largest tower is in AbuDhabi and it is 100 MW. The new design uses 50% less waterand 13% less land for a similar Solar Tower plant, and 33% lessland than a PV plant. Solar Towers also provide for energystorage and already run for 16 hours a day in Spain.(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 70
    71. 71. Toolset: Behaviour Change(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 71
    72. 72. Toolset: Energy Efficiency• Examples• Calculations(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 72
    73. 73. Energy Efficiency Examples• Energy Efficiency is all about not using orneeding electricity in the first place• Eg:– Electricity Meter– Insulation• Ceiling, window, pool cover– Heating / Cooling• Solar Water Heater; Ice Cooler– Energy Efficient Appliances(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 73
    74. 74. Simple Electricity Meter(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 74
    75. 75. NegaWatts, not MegaWatts(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 75PV = Photovoltaic SystemEE = Energy Efficiency: Spend to saveER = Eskom ESCO Rebate (approximate)Price Per Total Monthly%tage watts watt Price Repayments kwh price per kwh Inc VATPV 100% 8,000 R20.00 R160,000.00 R1,600.00 1,200 R1.33 R1.52EE 0% 8,000 R20.00 R0.00PV 30% 8,000 R20.00 R48,000.00EE 70% 8,000 R12.00 R67,200.00R115,200.00 R1,152.00 1,200 R0.96 R1.09ER R290.00R862.00 1,200 R0.72 R0.82NegaWatts = Negative Watts
    76. 76. RE Example and Effect of EEFigures as at July 2011(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 76House Loads 1200 kwh/month Ball Park Number for Grid Tie Rand per kwhPeak Average Sun Hours 5 h with Battery Backup R 60.00 R 1.06Estimated W installed 7890 Electricity Cost pa R 15,264.00Estimated Rand Value R 473,424.66 kwh/pa 14400New Electricity Use Efficiency ElectricalCost Saving Equipment Savings Water Savings Savings paAwareness R 899.00 15% R 71,013.70 pa R 2,289.60Insulation - roof / ceiling R 3,000.00 10% R 47,342.47 R 1,526.40Insulation - pool cover R 36,000.00 7% R 30,772.60 R 1,869.60 R 992.16Pool Pumps R 3,000.00 10% R 46,800.00 R 1,508.91Fridge R 5,000.00 4% R 16,800.00 R 541.66SWH R 30,000.00 25% R 118,356.16 R 3,816.00Gas cookingTotals R 77,899.00 70% R 331,084.93 R 10,674.73New Rands New W RqdNew Estimate 473-331k+78k R 220,238.73 R 142,339.73 2372.3New pool cover every 5 years; Pool Size: 50 sq m; Roof Size: 100 sq m; Elec savings higher if inflation includedInverters life expectancy is 15 yrs. Replacement Not included.Gas Cooking: probably no savings, but reduces peak electricity demand.Battery Inefficiency = 20%; Grid Tie Inefficiency = 6%. R60 per watt incl inefficiencies. For 20 years20kl Water Usage for Pool Per Month for 6 Months @ R15.58 R 1,869.60 R 37,392.00
    77. 77. Haven’t taken into account• Potential sales to the City of Cape Town• Net Metering through the transformer• Retail Wheeling• Time of Use Tariffs• Carbon Credits• Eskom ESCO rebate• DR (Demand Response)(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 77
    78. 78. Toolset: Time of Use Tariffs• Give the member of the Virtual Power Stationthe opportunity to get paid to move theirloads outside Peak Time• The member also gets the opportunity to sellelectricity at peak time– We’ll see this when we discuss Net Metering(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 78
    79. 79. Cape Town Time of Use Tariffs(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 79
    80. 80. Cape Town Residential Stepped Tariffs(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 80http://www.capetown.gov.za/en/electricity/Pages/ElectricityTariffs.aspx
    81. 81. Toolset: Computers• Computers and the Internet• Allowing the move:– ET + IT = EI– Energy Technology– Internet Technology– The Energy Internet• Eg: Homeowner tells the utility that she needs the ovenfor 1 hour during the day• Work Smart(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 81
    82. 82. Computers: The ISP Model• The Backbone– Telkom, BCX, Internet Solutions– Sells to ISPs• The ISP: Internet Services Provider– Sells to the public• A relatively small number of backbonesuppliers• A large number of public users(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 82
    83. 83. The ESP Model• ESP = Electricity Services Provider• Based on the ISP model• Other examples:– Railway grid in Europe– Aviation grids– Telecommunications grid– All shared. Paid for by whom?• Capex payments• Utilisation payments(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 83ISMO: Independent Systemand Market Operator= electricity middleman1998 Electricity White Paperre ISMO & Competition2003 RE White Paperre CompetitionISMO Bill Update in Business Report on 27th March 2013:http://www.iol.co.za/business/business-news/new-electricity-middleman-nears-lift-off-as-ismo-bill-is-finalised-1.1492346#.UVlfEGnlw9B
    84. 84. Smart Metering and Control(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 84
    85. 85. Measure - SMART energy"If you can not measure it, you can not improveit.", Lord Kelvin(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 85
    86. 86. What your electricity measurementshould do• Real time reporting• Onboard reporting• Long term data collection• RS-232 communication todatabase via GSM, Wifi orEthernet modules• SMART control for geyserheating and pool pumps• Load shifting and DR• SMART geyser elementmanagement(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 86
    87. 87. ESCO Rebates(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 87
    88. 88. ESCO Rebates• Standard Product (specific products)– Lighting– Solar Water Heater (homes)– Showerheads– Timers• Standard Offer (projects)– 70c per kWh deemed rebate for SWH– R1.20 per kWh for first 10MW of NM PV– Eskom IDM Web Site• Other (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 88
    89. 89. Demand Response• http://www.eskomidm.co.za/demand-response• It is a dynamic energy infrastructure management programme designed tosupport the stability of the national electricity grid, and meet SouthAfrica’s growing demand for energy with the assistance of large and verylarge energy users – in both the industrial and commercial sectors – whoagree to switch off certain production processes or turn down certainelectrical loads during periods of peak demand.(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 89
    90. 90. Demand Response• Demand Response is a highly flexible programme that can be customizedto the individual financial and energy usage objectives of participatingcompanies. The programme offers:– Energy and capacity incentive payments;– Seamless business continuity;– Information on energy cost reduction; and– Recognition for supporting the national grid and, therefore, the stability of electricitysupply to South Africa and its people.• Utilising ground breaking software, hardware and support services thatreduce the demand for energy of participating companies, DemandResponse allows large and very large energy users to participate for freeand, most importantly, without operational interruptions.(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 90
    91. 91. Demand Response• Eskom pays customers to reduce load oninstruction to balance supply and demand• 3 types– 1 second notice: up to 10 mins– 10 min notice: up to half an hour– 30 min notice: up to 2 hours• Needs “Aggregator” & Customer Services Provider• Eskom pays for measuring and otherequipment plus monthly fees• Eskom looking for 500 MW short term and 2GW long term (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 91
    92. 92. Some Eskom DR / ESCO Rebates• ESCO Incentives– 42 cents per kwh for reducing electricity at peaktime– 10 cents per kwh for reducing electricity at off-peak time– 70 cents per kwh for water heating– For customers with more than 100 kW to save– Note that I am unsure what the latest numbersare for these rebates (as at 3rd April 2013)(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 92
    93. 93. Demand Response(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 93
    94. 94. Homeowner DR• Is it possible?• How?• TOU and DR• PV and DR• Taking DR to the people(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 94
    95. 95. My Suggestion for the VPS DR• Standard Time Rate: R1.50 per kWh• Peak Time Rate: R3.00 per kWh• Off Peak Rate: 20 cents to 75 cents per kWh• Prices including VAT• And• Using Net Metering– Incentivises people to minimise use at peak timeand to try to sell at peak time.(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 95
    96. 96. Homeowner VPS DR• ESCO Rebate– 53 cents per kwh for reducing electricity at peaktime– 10 cents per kwh for reducing electricity at off-peak time• Homeowner assumption(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 96
    97. 97. Carbon Credits(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 97
    98. 98. Carbon Credits• Electricity Producer in “developing” countryearns carbon credits• Paid for by polluter in “developed” country• ETFs (Exchange Traded Funds)– Allows one to trade Carbon Credits(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 98
    99. 99. Net Metering (NEM)• Normal– Buy and sell at the same rate, eg R1.50 per kWh– Bank excess electricity used during the day– Buy back at night• Other– 1: Buy at the normal rate; Sell at a lower rate• In South Africa, this would get NEM going– 2: Sell at the normal rate; Buy at a higher rate• Great for users who can make more electricity thanthey need.(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 99The Jargon: http://www.thegreentimes.co.za/stories/energy/item/1130-net-metering-buzz-words
    100. 100. Net Metering (NEM)• Avoided Costs• Incl: the sum of all costs that the utility avoids as a result of customer generation to the grid,including: energy purchases; generation capacity or resource adequacy; line losses;transmission and distribution capacity; air pollution permits and offsets; ancillary services;renewable energy purchases (E3, Net Metering Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation, Jan 2000,California Public Utilities Commission)• Facilities Private Investment• If we are at Grid Parity it makes sense• Facilitates Job Growth which in the USA is 10xfaster than the economy as a whole; 75% areinstallation Jobs which are local and cannot beexported(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 100
    101. 101. Countries with Net Metering• 13 Countries + 42 USA States• More than 20 years experience– Were already running in 1991• Government’s White Paper on RE – Nov 2003– “Government is committed to the introduction ofgreater levels of competition in electricity markets– The production and distribution of energy shouldbe sustainable and lead to an improvement instandard of living of citizens– Barriers to entry should be lowered”(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 101
    102. 102. The Grid(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 102From Eskom AnnualReport 2009
    103. 103. Quick Summary• We can do all of this without residential andother end user PV• Although we should allow the utility to buyenergy at peak time, eg from battery backupand/or EV’s and/or generators, etc• And the utility and municipality should makeTOU tariffs available to small users(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 103
    104. 104. Renewable Energies• Solar: SWH, PV, CSP, Solar Tower. + with storage• Water: ocean, tidal, river, wave, pumped storage• Other: Wind, Geo-thermal, Biogas, Sewerage to Gas• Storage: battery, fuel-cell, water, salt, Sulphur, Hydrogen• Non-renewable: coal, oil, gas, nuclear(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 104Riverside Renewable EnergyHolt LogisticsGloucester Marine TerminalNew Jersey, USA• 9MW Roof Top PV• $42m• ~ 110,000 square meters• 80% of energy requirement
    105. 105. What is PV?Photovoltaic Panels(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 105
    106. 106. Can we produce electricity cheaperthan we can buy it?Whiteboard / Word• Assumptions:– City of Cape Town– Borrowing at 10% interest rate over 20 years– Rooftop PV Systems– 3 bedroom, 4 person household using 1,200 kwh per month• Homeowner– R1.29 per kwh 16% R1.50• Business owner– R1.02 per kwh 16% R1.18 + 1 cent (additional) levy + R120 perton carbon tax, ie 12 cents per kwh R1.31 28%• More Info: R1,800; R182,400; 8 KW; R22.80; R182,400; R20 per watt?How?(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 106
    107. 107. The real savings in being energyindependent (kw vs kwh)• If you spend R1m a year on electricity• And you can install your own system forR900,000 per year• What would you prefer?• If you buy your own system, then at 10% perannum over 20 years, the R900,000 equates toa capital cost of R7.5M(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 107
    108. 108. The Cherry on Top• Once you’ve paid off the system, it is YOURS• Your electricity cost doesn’t increase everyyear …☞ … which means that you can plan for the future!• And: you can save 70%+ of your electricitycost over 20 years(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 108
    109. 109. Buying and Producing ElectricityGraph in Rand per kwh ex VAT(c) My Power Station Technology 2013
    110. 110. Fix your price and save(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 110
    111. 111. Discussion(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 111
    112. 112. Trust & Expectations• Can we rely on the system?• Should we rely on the system?• What is “the system”?• Customers expect– The system to be up– Maybe we expect “load shedding” because ofwhat happened in 2008– Many private people and businesses installedgenerators to give themselves security of supply(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 112
    113. 113. Opportunity to sell electricity• To Cities, Eskom, other users• Especially at peak time– Average electricity cost to City of Cape Town is 55cents per kwh– E.g.: Ankerlig near Atlantis produces 1,350 MW,uses 25,000 litres of diesel per minute, at a cost ofbetween R4 and R13 per kwh– So, we can produce at R1.32 per kwh and sell atR3 per kwh!(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 113
    114. 114. How to get started?• “Mandelaton” CID– Community Improvement District• Milnerton Proper; Woodbridge Island; Lagoon Beach; Joe Slovo /Phoenix; Sunset Beach• Measure: 2,000 meters * R6,000 each installed– Incl, Voltage, Current, Peak Demand,– Can tell what’s running by looking at “profiles”– Can control Geyser– Can switch loads on and off (DSM and rebates)– Is Wireless, so user needs internet connection• Design, Finance, Implement, Insure, Maintain(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 114
    115. 115. Mandelaton CES(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 115
    116. 116. VPS Mandelaton Prezihttp://prezi.com/p0j3paibfy6j/echo-2/?auth_key=20848266276fdb23f7d16535f3ceb50b9136f3f0&kw=view-p0j3paibfy6j&rc=ref-15959272(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 116
    117. 117. Discussion(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 117
    118. 118. Social and Technical Factors(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 118
    119. 119. Social and Technical Factors• Social– “Belief”– “Myth”• Technical– Prices are dropping 10 to 20% per annum– Energy Storage is possible; cheaper than runningpeaking power stations– RE allows non-degreed installation andmaintenance personnel, appropriate for RSA(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 119
    120. 120. Energy Literacy• How literate are South Africans about theirenergy choices?• The USA hashttp://www1.eere.energy.gov/education/energy_literacy.html and http://www.need.org/(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 120
    121. 121. Do we know the risks & costs?• Of Fossil Fuel Energy– No, even after 150 years of building powerstations– Kusile and Medupi: budgetted to cost R79 billionfor 4.8 GW each; now R125 billion each and rising– Coal and other fossil fuel costs rising faster thanexpected• Of Renewable Energy– Yes, and they are decreasing(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 121
    122. 122. The Risks• Mainly our 20th Century assumptions• Compare wind and nuclear risks• Donor assistance risks(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 122
    123. 123. Assumptions• Our economy has an assumption built into it– Cheap and reliable Electricity ??• But 150% increase over the past 5 years– Cheap build ??• But R79 bn quote: R125 bn now; 12 months behind schedule– Cheap raw materials ??– Reliable Distribution Systems ??• Transformer life: was 35 years -> now 12.5 years• Decreasing Costs works for IT ✔– Lets find out if it can work for electricity?• How risky are our assumptions?(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 123
    124. 124. Riskscontinued• Environmental Risks– Water, health, pollution, jobs, GDP growth• Security of Supply– Coal, oil, nuclear: Wind, sun:• Cost of Supply– Coal, oil, nuclear: Wind, Sun:• The Cost of Unserved Energy– Energy Security; what is the cost of being out of action?• For a business; for a homeowner who doesn’t know they are off?– R75 per kWh• Nuclear Waste Management(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 124
    125. 125. Risks(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 125IRP2010 v8 (nothing re PV; nothing re Net Metering)Cheap?Reliable?
    126. 126. Risks: The “Nuclear Fleet” Cost• 9.6 GW• What’s it goingto cost?• With such widelyvarying costs, wouldyou do this project?• Can we remove9.6 GW from thegrid at peak /any time?• How? (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 126
    127. 127. Risk of “old thinking”• South Africa might miss out on the 21stCentury “Gold Rush”(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 127
    128. 128. Risks Section – New Build(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 128
    129. 129. World Energy Growth Rates by SourcePercent Annual Average Growth(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 129
    130. 130. Solar Insolation Map(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 130Germany: 2.4 ave peak sun hours per day; SA 5.9 (5 after derate factor)
    131. 131. Risks Section - Wind Power(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 131http://www.earth-policy.org/data_highlights/2013/highlights37
    132. 132. Risk Section – Chinese Wind vsNuclear Generation(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 132
    133. 133. Risk Thinking – Chinese WindPower Potential(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 133
    134. 134. The Big Energy Myth• From Dr Hermann Scheer’s Book– “The Solar Economy” pp 169 to 170– “Once the fear of the small scale has been dispelled,once RE has demonstrated that it can replace fossilenergy in its entirety, then the aura of the centralisednuclear/fossil industry will quickly fade. While fossilmythology remains unchallenged, humanity is facedwith the absurd prospect of choosing death over asolution it is afraid to embrace. … Ordinary people arecaught up in the myth of big technology … We needan active and engaged society”(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 134
    135. 135. Seven Crises(video)- caused by our energy system• Climate crisis• Fossil fuel availability crisis• Social (3rd World) crisis• Health crisis• Nuclear crisis• Water crisis• Food (agricultural) crisisDr Hermann Scheer, Member of the German Government, President of EUROSOLAR,General Chairman World Council for Renewable Energy (WCRE)Photo: “For Work and Environment”, from Dr Scheer’s Facebook Page.(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 135
    136. 136. Show Dr Scheer Videohttp://youtu.be/w_KZ01ps6gI(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 136
    137. 137. Crises / Risks of the Fossilised Fuel IndustryDr Scheer at Retech Conference, February 2009, Las Vegas, USA• [3rd world]:– 40 countries are unable to pay their energy bill– Their oil import bill is more than their total exportearnings• COP 17 and global treaties– How do we organise the technological revolution?– Which technological revolution happened as aresult of a global treaty? Not One!• We should do it because it is an advantage ofus(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 137
    138. 138. The [3rd world]My brackets ([])• The so called “third world” is where the newempires are starting– Where development is happening• The “third world”– Has population growth– Has resources• Most of the Developed World is stagnating– Has growth potential• The Developed (1st) world– Stuck in an old paradigm?(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 138
    139. 139. The “Downturn”• Is it possible that we’re creating it ourselves?– By focusing on cost savings instead of growth?• Just something to think about– I’m not saying we’ve created our recession, but Iwonder if its in our minds, as a self-fulfillingprophesy– Also in South Africa:• One has to do the same thing over and over again• A huge waste of resources, time and energy(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 139
    140. 140. What’s electricity for anyway?• It’s like ICT, except ICT depends on Electricity• It’s an enabler to get the country moving• Fast, cheap, reliable pathways from a to b willget our economy going– Communications (Infrastructure)– Electricity, Population Growth, Resources• David Murrin: “Breaking the Code of History”• Can the “Energy Internet” finally happen?– Thomas Friedman in “Hot, Flat and Crowded”(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 140
    141. 141. Donor Assistance Risks (DAR)BRICS Dev Bank?• What are the risks?– Dependence on outside funding– If the exchange rate weakens, repayments gethigher– Little capacity building– An expected “repayment” for donor assistance• What chance is there that we can build ourfuture infrastructure needs without DAR?(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 141
    142. 142. Some of the Rules• See application Form – Embedded Generation forCity of Cape Town’s rules(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 142
    143. 143. Government and Citizens• Is making our own electricity legal?• “Embedded Energy” Generation LegislationAlready Exists• SABS: NRS 097-01-2010 (December, 2010)• NERSA: Embedded Generation (2011)• Waiting for:– Eskom adoption– City adoption– Business and Homeowner adoption(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 143
    144. 144. Red Tape• City of Cape Town– Red Tape to Red Carpet Process• South Africa– 15 laws; 10 standards; 10 documents– Just for “parallel feed”!• USA– 2 laws; 3 standards; 1 document• Germany– Install; inspect; FITs 8 days later(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 144
    145. 145. How to convince Govtof The Five Winners?• The Five Winners http://youtu.be/I7W6kn9M8pI– Customers• eg the homeowner (electricity generator & consumer)• Eg the business owner (and employees)– Suppliers• Installers; Designers; Maintenance People; Call Centres;Inspectors; Manufacturers– Cities– Eskom– The Environment• Fast economic growth. “Base Load” can’t keep up!(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 145
    146. 146. Reaching Grid Parity(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 146
    147. 147. Reaching Grid Parity• Feed in Tariffs and their purpose• Rebates and their purpose• Net Metering(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 147
    148. 148. Why FITs? Why any kind of incentive?• Introduced in Germany in 1991– In 1993, the FIT was $1.34 per kWh– In 1993 Rands, this was R4.57 per kWh– In 2012 Rands, this was R11.32 per kWh– In 2001 in South Africa:• Per kWh: Domestic 24.59c; Manu and Mining 12.32c• The FIT had three principles– The Utility must connect anyone to the grid– They must buy all the energy that is produced– They must buy at a fixed price for the length of thecontract, ie 15 to 20 years(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 148
    149. 149. So what did FITs do?• Brought down the cost of Renewable Energy• Note that the FIT contract is similar to thecontract the government signs with Eskom tobuild a power station– An agreement to buy a certain amount ofelectricity– At a certain price– For a certain period of time• There are “FITs” in our car production system– Government gives R5 billion of incentives to car companies annually– The Joule needed R9.5 billion. And South Africa would have had itsown electrical car!(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 149
    150. 150. What do Rebates do?• Kickstarted Renewable Energy• Benchmark: 30%– A utility’s “avoided cost”• Germany: 50%– Higher incentive• Different kinds– Rebate– Tax Credit(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 150
    151. 151. EQUALITY• How did we get to Equality (Grid Parity)?• Who helped?– Germany (G): Feed In Tariffs since 1991– Still the largest installed base of PV panels (rooftop, building integrated, farm, etc)– 370,000 people employed in RE in G in 2010– Targeted 20% RE by 2020• Achieved this in 2011!• Now targeting 35% by 2020• Solved the “Grid Destabilisation” problem in 2011(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 151
    152. 152. Retail Wheeling(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 152
    153. 153. Retail Wheeling• Selling electricity across the grid• Similar to– Airways– Railways– Telecommunications• Pay the Grid Operator a Wheeling Tariff forusing the grid• Needs an Independent System Operator?(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 153
    154. 154. Next Steps• Contact me for training, consulting and to setup Virtual Power Stations• Contact me for Financial ICT Solutions(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 154
    155. 155. Contacts• David Lipschitz, My Power Station– Phone• 021 551 9935 (W); 074 119 3246 (C)– Email• david@mypowerstation.biz– Web• http://www.mypowerstation.biz(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 155
    156. 156. • End of presentation• The rest is for reference(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 156
    157. 157. Virtual Power Station Agenda• See hand out• I’d like us to brainstorm and develop a solution• We will consider:– Systems Thinking– What benefits do big electricity users get?– How can these benefits be made available to small/ all electricity users?– Reaching Grid Parity – how did we get here– Feed In Tariffs and their purpose(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 157
    158. 158. Agenda continued– Rebates and their purpose– Net Metering– Time of Use Tariffs– Demand Response– Energy Efficiency– Smart Metering– Social Factors– Technical Factors(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 158
    159. 159. Agenda Continued– Types of technologies that can be used in a VirtualPower Station• Photovoltaic Systems; Concentrated Solar Power; CSPTower; BioGas• Pumped Storage• Battery, ultra-capacitors, hydrogen storage, fuel-cell– Dealing with peak demand– What about rainy days and night?– Government’s role. NRS 097-2-1:2010 and NERSA.Embedded Generation and its Rules. Laws, Policy.(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 159
    160. 160. Agenda• Electricity Generation; Assumptions & Risks• Electricity and Infrastructure Challenges• Some Questions & Myths• Our Environment– We live in Exponential Times• Electricity & “The Grid”– Can we rely on The Grid?– Can we make electricity ourselves cost effectively?• How to get started?• Q&A (c) My Power Station Technology 2013 160
    161. 161. The Numbers• How to understand the really big numbers?• Should we think differently?– Do we need cars? How many? What sort? Canthey be shared?– Do people need to go to work or can theytelework?– Should our systems stay centralised or can they bedecentralised– How would we design the system if there was nocoal or nuclear energy?(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 161
    162. 162. R2.3 trillionR2,300,000,000,000• Repayments– At 10% over 20 years– R23,000,000,000 per month• R23 billion per month is what the people of SouthAfrica will be paying for their new electricity fleet if wefollow the old 20th Century technology path– 50 million people; 7 million taxpayers• R3,285 per taxpayer per month– for capex repayments only(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 162
    163. 163. R125 billion for KusileR125,000,000,000• 12,500,000 * R10,000 Solar Water Heaters– i.e. : 12.5 million R10,000 Solar Water Heaters• Kusile– 4.8GW– 12,500,000 SWH need 20 GW of electricity• SWH can be used to– Heat water & air– Cool water & air– R46 billion (58%) over budget already(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 163
    164. 164. Electricity Challenges• For City Dwellers without electricity, NO:– Water, Banking, Petrol, Transport, Food, Life– Only 4 days of food in the supply chain• Everything we do depends on electricity– We need security of supply– We need price certainty• Therefore we need a game plan to make this areality(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 164
    165. 165. Some Questions• http://www.surveymonkey.com/s/NetMetering-2012-12-22• If you could make your own electricitycheaper than you could buy it, would youwant to do this?• Do you know what Net Metering is?• Do you want to make money and conserve the environment?(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 165
    166. 166. Global Energy Resources(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 16630 TWH in 203010 TWH in 1990The sunprovides5,000 timesthe amountof energyrequired bythe entireplanet
    167. 167. How long do we have?At 3% electricity consumption growth(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 167
    168. 168. Buying and Selling Electricity• Normally– We buy electricity• From Eskom• From the Cities, who buy from Eskom• Now– We can produce electricity• We can use it ourselves• We can sell it to The Grid• We can sell it to our own customers!(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 168
    169. 169. Producing Electricity (Energy) 1• History– Before Electricity• Windmills; Pumps; Water-Mills; Steam– “Base Load” (after electricity “invented”)• Coal, Nuclear, Hydro-electric (3)– Now• Sun, wind, river, tide, ocean-current, geo-thermal (6)• Sun: PV, CSP, Tower, Solar Water Heating (+3)– PV = Photovoltaics (like the leaves of a tree)– CSP = Concentrated Solar Power (with or without storage)(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 169
    170. 170. Producing Electricity (Energy) 2• History– Benefits and Costs• Base load electrical systems dramatically reduced ourcosts and allowed the industrial revolution to happen• But this assumed unlimited, cheap, supply ofequipment and raw materials (coal, etc)• But: population growth and industrial growth have puthuge constraints on the systems• And: at the same time, maintenance costs have beenrising rapidly for power stations, transmission anddistribution systems(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 170
    171. 171. Reliability of equipment• What happens when there is a problem?• Disruption in power supply– Unplanned and prolonged downtimes– Destruction of equipment– Sudden cut offs• No proper shutdowns• Customer dissatisfaction/frustration(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 171Uni of Joburg talk at Transformer and SwitchGear ConferenceJoburg April 2012
    172. 172. David Lipschitz• BSc (Honours) MBA• My Power Station Technology: Energy Expert, Software Developer• Grid-Tied Photovoltaics Course: Feb 2009, Phoenix, AZ, USA• NABCEP Level 1 Certification– North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners• Additional related technical training• Spoke / Chaired Energy Efficiency conference 2010• Spoke at Various other Energy Conferences• Presented in Parliament re. Climate Change Hearings• Presented to Parliament re. IRP2010 Hearings• Presented at Powering Africa Strategy Summit in November 2011• Contact Details:– 021 551 9935 (Office)– 074 119 3246 (Cell/Mobile/iPhone)– david@mypowerstation.biz– Mypowerstation (Skype)– http://www.linkedin.com/in/davidlipschitz (LinkedIn)(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 172
    173. 173. Designs• We charge R6,800 plus VAT for a design for a private houses and for systems up to10KW. Above 10 KW we charge R50,000 plus VAT, excludes EIAs, Engineering orArchitect Fees.• Why we charge for designs?– A design includes a site visit, a formal design with a parts list, an Efergy electricity meter so thatthe client can become aware of their electricity use and reduce it, and an energy efficiencyexercise– If the client buys a system from us and the value of the system is over R80,000, we discount theirinstalled price by the fee.– This is fair as the design requires experience and designs in IT, Architecture, etc, aren’t free.Designs can take up to 3 days. All prices and equipment needs to be checked. If we do 10 designsand then someone buys from us, we need to constantly increase the prices of the systems torecover our sales cost investment; this means that we either go out of business or run at a loss,which isn’t in our or our clients bests interests– We need to recover our investment of over R4 million so far in ensuring that we install systemsthat meet electricity needs, are properly grounded, cable sizes are correct, the proper circuitbreakers and fuses are used, etc. At the moment we follow the USA NEC article 690 RE guidelinesas far as possible as there aren’t guidelines in South Africa, although there are DC guidelines.– Update November 2011: NERSA have published RFD Embedded Generation which refers to NRS097-2-1:2010 (Grid Interconnection Of Embedded Generation). We are now waiting forimplementation by Eskom and the Cities.(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 173
    174. 174. Research(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 174
    175. 175. Do wind turbines kill birds?(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 175
    176. 176. Bibliography - Mindmaps• Renewables and Sustainability Mindmap by DavidLipschitz:https://www.mindmeister.com/maps/show/13046747• Domestic Energy Independence by David Lipschitz:https://www.mindmeister.com/maps/show/47331785• Living Without Grids – a survival mechanism by DavidLipschitz:https://www.mindmeister.com/maps/show/14204830(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 176
    177. 177. Project Video and Example• Gecko Rock– Specification:http://mypowerstation.co.za/2010/09/16/my-power-station-completes-installation-of-power-station-at-gecko-rock-press-release-16th-september-2010/– Video:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LT1AF4ycAQY(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 177
    178. 178. Other Resources• Total Installed Electricity Capacity Worldwide:http://www.steamtablesonline.com/electricity/electricity-installed-capacity.aspx• Eco Economy Indicators: http://www.earth-policy.org• Insolation Map: http://www.earth-policy.org/indicators/C49/wind_power_2012(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 178
    179. 179. Other Resources• Books– Hot, Flat and Crowded by Thomas Friedman• 2008– Bending the Curve by Robert Zipplies• 2008– Screw Business as Usual by Richard Branson• 2011– Breaking the Code of History by David Murrin• 2010(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 179
    180. 180. Country Production Graphs• Germany– http://www.agora-energiewende.de/service/aktuelle-stromdaten/stromerzeugung-und-verbrauch/• Portugal– http://www.centrodeinformacao.ren.pt/PT/InformacaoExploracao/Paginas/EstatisticaDiariaDiagrama.aspx(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 180
    181. 181. Germany Net Exporter ofElectricity• http://www.pv-magazine.com/news/details/beitrag/germany--power-exporter-even-with-fewer-nuclear-plants_100010756(c) My Power Station Technology 2013 181

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