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# Financial Performance Ratios

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### Financial Performance Ratios

1. 1. General Financial Performance Ratios CMG Commercial Finance, LLC  Northville, MI 48168  d/t: 248-773-7580  f: 888-622-1630 daveg@cmgcomfin.com  www.cmgcomfin.com 1 | P a g e Liquidity Ratios Current Ratio The current ratio measures the ability of the firm to pay is current bills while still allowing for a safety margin above their required amount needed to pay current obligations. Liquidity ratios (or solvency ratios) most often includes the current ratio, quick ratio and net working capital. Current ratio = current assets / current liabilities  Current assets include cash, marketable securities, inventory, and prepaid expenses  Current liabilities include accounts payable (12 months or less), current portions of long-term debt, and salaries payable Quick Ratio The quick ratio is similar to the current ratio but eliminates the inventory figure in the current assets section of the balance sheet. Generally, the quick ratio should be lower than the current ratio because it eliminates the inventory figure from the calculation. The inventory figure is thought to be the least liquid figure and should thus, be eliminated. The quick ratio can be calculated as follows: Quick ratio = (Current Assets - Inventory) / Current Liabilities Net Working Capital (Current Ratio) The Net Working Capital figure simply deducts the current assets from the current liabilities on the balance sheet. Net Working capital can be calculated as follows: NWC = Current Assets - Current Liabilities Cash Flow (see pg. 9 cash flow examples) Cash flow is a measure of how well current liabilities are covered by the cash flow generated from a company's operations. Formula: Cash Flow Ratio = Cash from Operations/Current Liabilities The operating cash flow ratio can gauge a company's liquidity in the short term. Using cash flow as opposed to income is sometimes a better indication of liquidity simply because, as we know, cash is how bills are normally paid off.
2. 2. General Financial Performance Ratios CMG Commercial Finance, LLC  Northville, MI 48168  d/t: 248-773-7580  f: 888-622-1630 daveg@cmgcomfin.com  www.cmgcomfin.com 2 | P a g e Asset Ratios Days Sales Outstanding Activity ratios measure the operating characteristics of the firm. Activity ratios include the inventory turnover rate, average collection period, average payment period, fixed asset turnover ratio, and total asset turnover ratio. The average collection period formula: DSO = Accounts Receivable / (Sales / 360 days) Total accounts receivable includes all outstanding credit obligations from customers. The sales figure includes sales for the prior four quarters of financial performance. The figure may also include amounts on a quarterly basis only. The accounts receivable period is a measure of a company’s ability to collect accounts receivable within a timely and reasonable period. The accounts collection period varies from industry to industry. The smaller the accounts receivable period, the more effectively a company is in managing and collecting money from customers. Average Payment Period The average payment period is calculated by the following formula: APP = Accounts Payable / (Purchases / 360) The accounts payable turnover ratio includes all outstanding obligations that a company owes its creditors. The average payment period is derived by adding all current accounts payable financial obligations from the latest four quarters of financial performance. The total purchases include a percentage of sales based on historical figures. Fixed Assets Turnover The fixed assets turnover is a measure of how efficiently a company uses its fixed assets to generate sales. Higher fixed asset ratios are preferable. The fixed assets turnover is calculated by adding all sales of the company and dividing the amount by net fixed assets for the latest four quarters of financial performance. The basic formula is as follows: FAT = ( Sales / Net Fixed Assets )
3. 3. General Financial Performance Ratios CMG Commercial Finance, LLC  Northville, MI 48168  d/t: 248-773-7580  f: 888-622-1630 daveg@cmgcomfin.com  www.cmgcomfin.com 3 | P a g e Total Asset Turnover The total asset turnover is a measure of how efficiently and effectively a company uses its assets to generate sales. The figure is similar to the fixed assets turnover but includes all assets. The higher the total asset turnover ratio, the more efficiently a firm’s assets have been used. Total asset turnover ratio is calculated as follows: Total Asset Turnover = Sales / Total Assets Inventory Turnover The inventory turnover ratio measures the number of times during a year that a company replaces its inventory. The turnover is only meaningful when comparing other firms in the industry or a company’s prior inventory turnover. Differences in turnover rates result from differing operating characteristics within an industry. The inventory turnover rate formula: Inventory Turnover = Cost of Goods / Total Inventory The higher the inventory turnover rate means the more efficiently a company is able to grow sales volume. Inventory turnover can be compiled by using the cost of goods figure in the numerator since inventories are usually carried at cost. Many other compilers of financial data use sales in the numerator. However, the sales alternative provides an inaccurate barometer of financial performance to determine the inventory turnover rate as sales reflects gross profit dollars.
4. 4. General Financial Performance Ratios CMG Commercial Finance, LLC  Northville, MI 48168  d/t: 248-773-7580  f: 888-622-1630 daveg@cmgcomfin.com  www.cmgcomfin.com 4 | P a g e Debt Ratios Debt Ratio Debt ratios measure the total amount and proportion of debt within the liabilities section of a firm’s balance sheet. These figures are normally appropriate for comparing a company’s performance from one period to another. Utilize the proportion of total assets provided by a company's creditors. The debt ratio is calculated by dividing the total liabilities by total assets. The greater the degree of outside financing by creditors, the higher this ratio. This ratio determines in part if the firm is more highly leveraged (debt) and therefore more of a risk to creditors. The basic formula is as follows: Debt Ratio = Total Liabilities / Total Assets Debt-Service Coverage Ratio In corporate finance, it is the amount of cash flow available to meet annual interest and principal payments on debt, including sinking fund payments. In government finance, it is the amount of export earnings needed to meet annual interest and principal payments on a country's external debts. In personal finance, it is a ratio used by bank loan officers in determining income property loans. This ratio should ideally be over 1. That would mean the property is generating enough income to pay its debt obligations. In general, it is calculated by: DSCR = Net Operating Income/Total Debt Service A DSCR of less than 1 would mean a negative cash flow. A DSCR of less than 1, say .95, would mean that there is only enough net operating income to cover 95% of annual debt payments. For example, in the context of personal finance, this would mean that the borrower would have to delve into his or her personal funds every month to keep the project afloat. Generally, lenders frown on a negative cash flow, but some allow it if the borrower has strong outside income. Higher ratios indicate high financial leverage. Ignore short term obligations or current liabilities when calculating debt ratios based on the prior four quarters of financial performance. Long Term Debt to Total Capitalization While the debt ratio considers the proportion of all assets that are financed with debt, the ratio of long- term debt to total capitalization reveals the extent to which long-term debt is used for the firm’s permanent financing (both long-term debt and equity). Long-Term Debt to Total Capitalization = Long Term Debt / Long Term Debt + Total Equity The higher the proportion of debt, the greater the degree of risk because creditors must be satisfied before owners in the event of bankruptcy.
5. 5. General Financial Performance Ratios CMG Commercial Finance, LLC  Northville, MI 48168  d/t: 248-773-7580  f: 888-622-1630 daveg@cmgcomfin.com  www.cmgcomfin.com 5 | P a g e Debt to Equity This ratio indicates the ratio of debt on a firm’s balance sheet to the amount of funds provided by its owners. Use only long term debt divided by total equity. The basic formula is calculated as follows: Debt to Equity = Long Term Debt / Total Equity A higher debt to equity ratio indicates a more capital intensive firm, i.e., it measures the percentage of debt tied up in owner equity. Times Interest Earned Times interest earned measures the ability of the firm to service debt. This figure will indicate how many times a company can cover its fixed contractual obligations to its creditors. The higher the times interest earned, the more likely the firm can meet its obligations. This basic formula is as follows: Times Interest Earned = EBIT / Interest This figure is determined from the income statement after deriving the operating profit margin. The operating profit margin is the profits of the firm before interest and taxes are subtracted. The interest figure is the interest obligations for the prior four quarters of financial performance from the use of long term debt funds. Fixed Payment Coverage Ratio The fixed payment coverage ratio indicates the ability of the firm to pay its fixed obligations for a specified period of time. This figure includes the principal plus interest amount owed to creditors. The figure is determined by the following formula: Fixed Payment = EBIT / Interest + (Principal + Preferred div). x [ 1/(1- Taxes ) ] The higher the ratio the safer creditors are of receiving amounts owed them.
6. 6. General Financial Performance Ratios CMG Commercial Finance, LLC  Northville, MI 48168  d/t: 248-773-7580  f: 888-622-1630 daveg@cmgcomfin.com  www.cmgcomfin.com 6 | P a g e Profitability Ratios Gross Profit Margin Profitability is a measure of the ability of the business to earn a profit from its operations through assets, sales, and equity. The gross profit margin indicates the percentage of each sales dollar remaining after a firm has paid for its goods. The basic formula is calculated as follows: GPM = (Sales - Cost of Goods Sold)/ Sales The higher the GPM the better pricing flexibility and cost management controls a firm has in its operations. USBR calculates GPM using the prior four quarters of financial performance. Operating Profit Margin The operating profit margin indicates the profits of the company before interest and taxes are deducted from a firm’s operations. The higher the operating profit margin, the greater pricing flexibility a firm has in its operations. However, it could also indicate the degree of cost control management a firm possesses. The figure is calculated as follows: Operating Profits = Operating Profits / Sales Net Profit Margin Similar to the operating profit margin, the net profit margin measures the amount of profits available to shareholders after interest and taxes have been deducted on the income statement. The higher the profit margin, the more pricing flexibility a firm may have in its operations or the greater cost control initiated by management. The figure is determined as follows: NPM = Net Profits /Sales Return on Investment Below is the DuPont method for deriving ROI. ROI is determined by multiplying the Total Asset turnover by the Net Profit Margin. The result is meaningful because it shows how well a company utilizes its assets to generate profits. The basic formula is as follows: ROI = Total Asset Turnover x Net Profit Margin The DuPont method allows the firm to break down its return on investment into a profit on sales component and an asset efficiency component. Typically, a firm with a low net profit margin would
7. 7. General Financial Performance Ratios CMG Commercial Finance, LLC  Northville, MI 48168  d/t: 248-773-7580  f: 888-622-1630 daveg@cmgcomfin.com  www.cmgcomfin.com 7 | P a g e have a total asset turnover. The relationship between the net profit margin and Total Asset turnover is largely dependent on the industry the firm operates. Return on Capital Return on Capital is a measure of economic performance within a business firm. This ratio is used to measure how much capital (e.g. debt and equity) was needed to produce a firm's earnings. This ratio is also an indication of how well a company uses its capital to generate returns to shareholders. This could also provide a clue to how a company will perform in the future with its capital. The basic formula is as follows: Return on Capital = Return on Equity (ROE) / (1 + Debt to Equity Ratio) ~ OR ~ Return on Capital = ROE x (1 - Debt to Capital) This ratio is similar to return on equity. Return on capital has a tendency to be more meaningful from heavily leveraged (debt-laden) companies. Return on Equity Return on equity measures the return earned on the owners equity. The higher the rate the better the firm has increased wealth to shareholders. The basic formula is as follows: ROE = Net Profits / Stockholders Equity Measure the ROE figure by adjusting for new equity infusion from the prior four quarters of a company. Earnings Per Share Earnings per share reflects the per share dollar return to the owners. The figure is calculated as follows: EPS = Total Earnings / No. of shares outstanding Add the sum of the prior year earnings and divide the amount by the weighted average of shares outstanding. This assumes the most accurate information if a company distributes new shares outstanding during the period which could substantially impact (or dilute) shares to current shareholders with lower per share earnings.
8. 8. General Financial Performance Ratios CMG Commercial Finance, LLC  Northville, MI 48168  d/t: 248-773-7580  f: 888-622-1630 daveg@cmgcomfin.com  www.cmgcomfin.com 8 | P a g e At a Glance Liquidity Ratios Current ratio = current assets / current liabilities Quick ratio = (Current Assets - Inventory) / Current Liabilities NWC = Current Assets - Current Liabilities Cash Flow Ratio = Cash from Operations/Current Liabilities Asset Ratios DSO = Accounts Receivable / (Sales / 360 days) APP = Accounts Payable / (Purchases / 360) FAT = ( Sales / Net Fixed Assets ) Total Asset Turnover = Sales / Total Assets Inventory Turnover = Cost of Goods / Total Inventory Debt Ratios Debt Ratio = Total Liabilities / Total Assets DSCR = Net Operating Income/Total Debt Service Long-Term Debt to Total Capitalization = Long Term Debt / Long Term Debt + Total Equity Times Interest Earned = EBIT / Interest Fixed Payment = EBIT / Interest + (Principal + Preferred div). x [ 1/(1- Taxes ) ] Profitability Ratios GPM = (Sales - Cost of Goods Sold)/ Sales Operating Profits = Operating Profits / Sales NPM = Net Profits /Sales ROI = Total Asset Turnover x Net Profit Margin Return on Capital = Return on Equity (ROE) / (1 + Debt to Equity Ratio) ~ OR ~ Return on Capital = ROE x (1 - Debt to Capital) ROE = Net Profits / Stockholders Equity EPS = Total Earnings / No. of shares outstanding
9. 9. General Financial Performance Ratios CMG Commercial Finance, LLC  Northville, MI 48168  d/t: 248-773-7580  f: 888-622-1630 daveg@cmgcomfin.com  www.cmgcomfin.com 9 | P a g e How to Calculate Cash Flow Ratios Step 1 From the balance sheet, locate current assets and current liabilities. Divide current assets by the current liabilities to find the Current Ratio. If the company has \$500,000 in current assets and \$100,000 in current liabilities, the current ratio (\$500,000 divided by \$100,000) equals 5.0 times, i.e., 5:1. Step 2 Derive the total of cash, cash equivalents and accounts receivable, line items to be found on the balance sheet. Divide this total by the current liabilities. The result will equal the Quick Ratio, a measure of a firm's solvency. If the company has \$200,000 in cash, \$150,000 in cash equivalents and \$300,000 in accounts receivable as well as \$500,000 in current liabilities, the quick ratio is ((\$200,000 plus \$150,000 plus \$300,000) divided by \$500,000) equals 1.3. Step 3 Find the cash flow from operations on the cash flow statement. Divide that number by the current liabilities on the balance sheet to find the Operating Cash Flow ratio. This number gives analysts an idea of how much cash the company can provide beyond its liability payments. If the company has \$900,000 in cash flow from operations as well as \$150,000 in current liabilities, the operating cash flow ratio is (\$900,000 divided by \$150,000) equals 6.0 times.