Ethical advertising, subvertising and the blogosphere


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Presentation on Ethical Advertising, Subvertising and the Blogosphere. Elements include Advertising Ethics,
Genderisation, Sexual Appeal, Advertising to Children, Stereotyping the Elderly, Racism, Subvertising, and The Blogosphere

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  • These techniques are often used to gain customers attention and are oftern not appropriate to the product being advertised. Stop youtube clip at 43 seconds
  • The branch of pscholoigy sues to change someones behaviour techniques is know as behabviourism and the techniques are called behaviour modification techniques. Conditionaning is a behaviourim modification technoque that advertisier use to get you to use to buy thier product. Russian psychologist named Ivan Petrovich Pavlov . The phrase "Pavlov's dog" is often used to describe someone who merely reacts to a situation rather than using critical thinking. Test was he would ring a bell and then feed the dogs, eventually the dogs associate the bell with feeding. Before the dogs were even fed when they heard the bell they would begin to salivate, pavlovs took these dogs, put a hole in there cheek and attached a devioce that would measure saliva. John watson expanded on this to see if you could condition humans and used the experament “Baby albert”. Took the baby and showed him a white rat when the rat would appear he would make loud noises behing the baby to scare him eventually the baby became scared of anything fury. John watosn left psychology and moved into advertising. These behavioural techniques arnt designed to give contol of your self, there designed to give a stimulous response basis.
  • Mental assoiciations – your mins will take certain thoughts, ideas emmotions and put these togethere on psychollogy we call these assoccations advertisiers want you to feel a certain way about thier product – they want you to create a certain emotional association , eg mc donalds im lovn it. Also want you to create an assoication with there product of something you already feel good about eg hot girls and beer guys already feel good about hot girls so they will do the same with beer. In pschology this is called conditioning conditioning is the proces where you create an automatic stimulous prespnse. Heres how this works, conditioning, girl in bikini which you already have the emotional association, basically you already have a certain way about the way you feel with this girl in bikini. Take your beer plus girl what the advertisiers want to do is transfer this emotion over to there beer. So advertisiers want you to think about beer girl and sex as all the same thing essentially each one is different but if you think about sex you think about the beer, so sex is exploited every day in adverting.
  • Try and see what sexual emotional attachments brands are trying to associate with there products.
  • Attitues: attitudes towards the use of sex in advertising is a polorizing issue as as opinions regarding its use vary depending on individuals values and religious orientation as well as across various demographics including age education and gender. Also note that this is not a product that is just for men. Extended cut was banned. Ad was for Carl's Jr. is an American fast-food restaurant chain,
  • A&F often criticized for distateful adds but its not only there print media – its also there online. Insert and talk about website compared to porno site.
  • Critics: the more we are using it the more shocking ads have to be to get attention – how far is too far?
  • Piars kelly response to this ad: In order to remain relevant, advertising has to stop being passive and must become more engaging. What I mean by that is that advertisers must communicate in a meaningful way with the target audience and explore new mediums to interact with the viewer. One of the best ads I’ve seen in a while is a Hunky Dorys outdoor campaign which features three beautiful women in a bed with a packet of crisps each along with the tagline ‘Which one would you kick out of bed for eating Hunky Dorys?’ There are three numbers above each model and the viewer is supposed to vote by text. The ad has taken on a life of its on and has been discussed on everything from radio shows to Internet forums. I dare anyone to tell me that a blog would have been more effective. I’m accustomed to seeing billboards on street corners and thirty second spots on TV, but when I spot advertising in unlikely spots I sit up and take notice. Who would have thought that putting an ad in a toilet would have been effective, but it’s placement is inspired. When you think about it, things like advertising in toilets is a bit like an art gallery for advertising. People are going to stand and look! Advertisers need to be more creative with an ad’s environment. I don’t understand why we don’t see more ads in lifts. It’s a hell of a lot more comfortable than making eye contact with someone you’re pressed up against Please note, I’m not saying that advertising is the best thing since slice bread. I just don’t think people should dismiss it so easily. The communications mix for every organisation will vary, advertising remains an effective tool for many companies. The Advertising Standards Authority of Ireland (ASAI),
  • Parents in the UK spend on average more then £7 extra when grocery shopping with children (Oates et al, 2005)
  • Oates....wanted to challenge the belief from some marketers who have used quantitative research that children by 10 are able to articulate the persuasive content of advertising (no 6 yr olds, minority of 8 yr olds, and by no means all 10 yr olds) they use focus groups for their qualitative research.
  • Moore, evaluate advertising children must first acquire at least 2 key processing skills...1. distinguish between commercial ad non-commercial. 2. ability to recognise advertisings persuasive intent and use this knowledge to interpret selling messages. Preston, 2004....use of celebrities and cartoons diminishes younger childrens ability to distinguish advertising from programme material.
  • 8-12 most vulnerable Nearly 900 ads studied...none for fruit and veg Taste 34%, website 20%, fun 18%, premiums/contests 17%,
  • Internet...again raises the topic of entertainment vs. advertising (program vs. ads) Barbie etc. Gathering detail on their consumers while still advertising their product
  • Does everyone here know what Subvertising means? in order to make a statement. 1 st point: This can take the form of a new image or an alteration to an existing image. 2 nd point: Subvertisements can also be referred to as; meme hacking is altering a meme to express a point of view not intended or inherent in the original, or even opposite to the original. A meme s are condensed images that stimulate visual, verbal, musical, or behavioral associations that people can easily imitate and transmit to others Culture jamming is the practice of critiquing mass media messages and their influence on culture by subverting their messages through artistic satire. Culture jamming, which views the media as a means of constructing a false reality, intends to challenge the frame of mind that internalizes media messages without thinking. For Kalle Lasn, one of the founders of Adbusters, the best culture jam is one that introduces a meta-meme, a two-level message that punctures a specific commercial image, but does so in a way that challenges some larger aspect of the political culture of corporate domination. This is one small example of how consumers turn advertisements from mainstream corporations back on themselves
  • Subvertising is not a new idea- the Billboard Liberation Front, which started in San Francisco in 1977, is one milestone -- but the battle between advertisers and subvertisers has intensified with the internet and the current craze for viral marketing. Mass advertising is one way communication and Subvertising is the peoples way of talking back. Magazines, the streets, TV. and in the last decade the world wide web, have been invaded by mass advertisers and people are under constant bombardment. These subliminal messages invade the sub conscience and Subvertising is a way to take back control of these messages.
  • If images can create a brand, they can also destroy one. It is important for advertisers to study consumer resistance movements – show McDonalds prayer specifically anti-consumerist media activism that directly attack the cultural products of advertising.
  • Many organisations including Parents of Murdered Children (POMC) organised petitions and demonstrations in opposition to Benetton and the advertising campaign. But there was a sudden downturn following the "We, on Death Row" campaign and it led to the resignation of Toscani three months later in April 2000.  Benetton made no effort to convince him to change his mind and officially both parties say that his leaving was not related to the controversy.
  • Subvertising can also create a reaction against a culture where the individual, rather than being politically engaged, is cast as a spectator in a parade of passive symbols. Ironically, the most potently subversive advertising images have been those created by Oliviero Toscani for Benetton. Toscani had spent over two years taking photos of prisoners on "Death Row" in American prisons and some of the photos were used in an advertising campaign launched in the year 2000.  The issue of the death penalty, like abortion, religion, sex and any number of other topics, is controversial.  It taps into the unresolved distress and emotional pain inside people and causes a disproportional emotional response.
  • Oliviero's intent was to raise the topic in the minds of many people in an unlikely setting and to provoke awareness and consideration of a controversial issue. 
  • The second ad is a professional culture jam, made by Greenpeace, that points out Doves hypocrisy from an ecological point of view rather than an ideological point of view. The two ads use the same song and the same style of filming, making them highly effective.
  • To summarise, Subvertising is a detournement, an inversion designed to make us forget consumerism and consider instead social and/or political issues.
  • Ethical advertising, subvertising and the blogosphere

    1. 1. Ethical Advertising,Subvertising and the Blogosphere Emer Keenan Eimear Murphy David Fox Conor Quinn Niamh Downey Laureen Morrissette
    2. 2. Agenda Introduction Advertising Ethics  Genderisation – Emer K  Sexual Appeal – Eimear M  Advertising to Children - David  Stereotyping the Elderly - Conor  Racism - Conor Subvertising - Niamh The Blogosphere – Laureen Conclusion
    3. 3. Introduction Advertising& Promotion the most visible marketing communications Prone to Scrutiny Regulations but not every issue is covered – what about ethics(Belch and Belch 2007)
    4. 4. Agenda Introduction Advertising Ethics  Genderisation – Emer K  Sexual Appeal – Eimear M  Advertising to Children - David  Stereotyping the Elderly - Conor  Racism - Conor Subvertising - Niamh The Blogosphere – Laureen Conclusion
    5. 5. Genderisation Doeseveryone know what we mean about genderisation? Mainstereotypes portrayed in advertisements…  Men -v- Women
    6. 6. Male Genderisation Male stereotypes do exist  Breadwinners, Lazy, Unemotional Oven Pride Ad - Male Stereotype  Seen as sexist & offensive  Company response highlights role of stereotypes in ads (Advertising Standards Association of Ireland).
    7. 7. Female Genderisation Female Stereotypes – falls into 8 categories  Traditional, Decorative, Non-Traditional and Neutral Roles (Plakoyiannaki et al 2008) Unethical Advertising – Traditional / Decorative  Sexist Coffee Ad
    8. 8. Female Genderisation Growing or Slowing?  Research shows it is moving to online channels  70% ads linked women to sexist roles 18% - traditional roles (2.8 dependant, 15% housewives) (Plakoyiannaki et al. 2008)
    9. 9. Dove Campaign for Real Beauty Launched in 2004 Reason:  Tochallenge beauty stereotypes and invite women into discussion on real beauty(Belch and Belch 2007)
    10. 10. Dove Campaign for Real Beauty June 2005 – 2nd phase of Campaign(Belch and Belch 2007)
    11. 11. Agenda Introduction Advertising Ethics  Genderisation – Emer K  Sexual Appeal – Eimear  Advertising to Children - David  Stereotyping the Elderly - Conor  Racism - Conor Subvertising - Niamh The Blogosphere – Laureen Conclusion
    12. 12. Sexual Appeals in Advertising “The advertising appeals that have received the most criticism for being in poor taste are those using sexual appeals and/or nudity.”(Belch and Belch, 2007) Sex In Advertising
    13. 13. Behaviourism and Conditioning Ivan Petrovich Pavlov Pavlovs Dogs •Carried out test where he would ring a bell then feed dogs •Eventually the dogs associated the bell with feeding •Over time, even without being fed dogs would associate the bell with being fed •The dogs became conditioned and were reacting to a situation rather then using Critical Thinking John Watson Baby Albert•John Watson wanted to see if you could condition humans•Showed baby white rat (stimuli one) at first Albert did not respond but when shown the rataccompanied with a loud noise (stimuli 2), Albert began to cry and draw away from the rat•After several pairings of the two stimuli Albert was shown the rat without the loud noisehowever he appeared distressed as the original neutral stimulus (now conditioned) with theloud noise (unconditioned stimulus) and was producing the fearful or emotional response•Watson moved from psychology to advertising
    14. 14. Conditioning Girl in Emotional Bikini association Beer and Girl( )
    15. 15. Sexual & Emotional Transfer To Products
    16. 16. Attitudes Towards Sex In Advertising – Men V’s WomenCarls Jr. - American Fast Food Restaurant(Belch and Belch, 2007)
    17. 17. Males In Advertising•Males dont live in a world where there bodies are routinely scrutinised•Males are more worried about living up to stereotypes: •Act tough •Compete at all costs •Hide their emotions
    18. 18. American Apparel – Online, Print and TV Advertising Website: American Apparel Print: •T.V: American Apparel - TV Commercial
    19. 19. What Do You Think,Has It Gone Too Far???
    20. 20. In Ireland Hunky Dory’s Ad  Year – 2005  About 60 complaints lodged with Advertising Standards Authority for Ireland (ASAI)  Described as “degrading to women, displaying them as commodities and sex objects”
    21. 21. Implications: Negative Social Effects1.Sets the unattainable image of the“ideal” women2. Increase in violence against women3. Promotes the sexualisation ofchildren4. Implies that women need to havemen in order to be happy5. Trivialisation of sex, pornographyhas become main stream
    22. 22. Advertisers Fight Back....1. “Need to use it to get noticed”2. Double standards that exist for advertisers V’s editorial television programmes... Ie Sex and the City
    23. 23. Agenda Introduction Advertising Ethics  Genderisation – Emer K  Sexual Appeal – Eimear  Advertising to Children - David  Stereotyping the Elderly - Conor  Racism - Conor Subvertising - Niamh The Blogosphere – Laureen Conclusion
    24. 24. So what are the facts?
    25. 25. Background on topic:Consuming Kids: The Commercialization of Childhood (Trailer) Media Education Foundation
    26. 26. 3 aspects of advertising and children:1. Use of children in ads  Children nowadays have a huge say in purchases by parents, including...  Everyday household products  Also expensive household products such as cars and computers
    27. 27. 2. Advertising childrens products to parents Designed to influence parents purchasing through different techniques;  Induce guilt/fear  Exploit over-protective/health-paranoid parents  E.g. Cow and Gate, and Actimel
    28. 28. 3. Advertising to children McNeal (1992) proposes that a child’s behaviour can be affected by advertising in three ways; i. Behaviour toward product ii. Behaviour towards their parent iii. Peer influence
    29. 29. Pester PowerDefined as “the repetitive asking/requests for a specific item and/or service” ‘NagFactor’ Simpsons pester power2 types Persistent nagging Importance naggingPester Power Vs Peer Power
    30. 30. Areas of debatea) Economic Growth of the next generation of consumers  Necessary to advertise to children maintain the cycle of consumer expenditure which economic health relies upon  Is it socially responsible to put the capitalist systems need for future expenditure ahead of children’s vulnerability?  Responsibility to shareholders vs. responsibility to society (Preston, 2005) Childrens TV stations rely on their advertisement revenue “Advertising to children remains an economic necessity in need of adjustment and regulation” (Preston, 2004)
    31. 31. b) Cognitive development
    32. 32. Childrens ability to distinguish between programmes(Lawlor and Prothero, 2002) and advertisements Authors Respondents age Ability to distinguish Wartella and Ettema Under 3 Yes (1974) Rubin (1974) 2-7 No Batter et al (1981) 4-5 Yes Gaines and 5+ Yes Esserman (1981) Levin et al (1982) Under 5 Yes Young (1990) 5-7 No Kunkel and Roberts Under 5 No (1991) Hansen (1997) 5-7 Difficulties Preston (2000) 5+ Yes
    33. 33. Children’s knowledge and understanding of advertisements [5 facets] (Macklin and Carlson, 1999)1. Distinguishing advertisements from programs2. Understanding advertisements persuasive intent3. Recognising bias and deception in advertisements4. Using cognitive defences against advertisement5. Knowledge of advertising tactics and appeals
    34. 34. c) Regulations and codes USA – very little regulations (FTC, FCC, CARU), although they are trying to introduce more. UK – use of film/TV characters banned from food ads, and junk food ads banned during kids programming Eu – Sweden ban all advertising to under 12’s, while Greece ban toy advertisements before 10pm
    35. 35. Most common advertisements directed at children1. Food Over half of ads shown during childrens TV are for food products (Preston, 2004) Young (2003) claims that there is a direct correlation between food advertising to kids and unhealthy eating habits
    36. 36. ‘Food for Thought: Television food advertising to children in the United States’ (2007)
    37. 37. Health IssuesObesity
    38. 38. 2. Toys Toy advertising evolution  Linked to fast-food ads  Linked to cartoon programs Study shows kids who watch less TV have less demand for toy products (Robinson et al, 2001) Predominantly gender-related  Boys Action man  Girls Barbie Christmas is coming.....
    39. 39. Immersive advertisementNot just television anymore Children are surrounded by a world of advertising  Macro audience for all advertisingInternet Interactiveadvertising Hard to control and regulate No watershed, no censorship! •Product placement •Video games •Advertising in schools
    40. 40. Advertising in schools example: ( school-board.html)
    41. 41. Agenda Introduction Advertising Ethics  Genderisation – Emer K  Sexual Appeal – Eimear  Advertising to Children - David  Stereotyping the Elderly - Conor  Racism - Conor Subvertising - Niamh The Blogosphere – Laureen Conclusion
    42. 42. Stereotyping In Advertising Ageism
    43. 43. Ageism In recent years, advertising industry has been criticised for neglecting older consumers Old age has been seen as “undesirable” and so younger people have been used and targeted through advertising. Elderly are either portrayed negatively or not portrayed at all. If run, ads usually convey stereotype Several reasons (Thomas and Wolfe 1995):  Age of advertising staff  Eagerness to use young characters
    44. 44. Specsavers Opticians2 adverts that have caused controversy Older couple and the roller-coaster Farmer sheering his sheep-dog
    45. 45. Christmas Campaign Ad was run prior to Christmas 2007 to highlight new range of phones. Scene shows a Christmas party with guests being met at the door. Hosts check each present using an x-ray machine before guest is allowed to party. Granny, of course, is asked to leave as her present is inferior
    46. 46. Meteor Controversy The ad had only been aired for a number of days before the ASAI were receiving numerous complaints Ad was pulled as it was seen to cause offence to the elderly
    47. 47. Ageism “unless they are talking about funeral plans or bus passes, only a very small proportion are directed at older people”. (Long 1998) Belief among marketing and advertising peers that elderly people do not want to see old people in advertising 27% of American spend on FMCGs is by over 50’s
    48. 48. Using Ageism Effectively Several Companies have used older people in adverts effectively Coca Cola  Used elderly people in a positive light to show that they too can have a great life IRN BRU  Use of old woman robbing the shop 
    49. 49. Agenda Introduction Advertising Ethics  Genderisation – Emer K  Sexual Appeal – Eimear  Advertising to Children - David  Stereotyping the Elderly - Conor  Racism - Conor Subvertising - Niamh The Blogosphere – Laureen Conclusion
    50. 50. Stereotyping in Advertising Racism
    51. 51. Racism in Advertising Racism in advertising can be seen back as far as the early 1900s Advancements in Printing Techniques led to Advertising Boom at the turn of the century Stereotyping began to creep in (Takezawa, Yasuko, “Racial Boundaries and Stereotypes: An Analysis of American Advertising”)
    52. 52. First Signs of Stereotyping Cream of Wheat  Rastus the Chef Coca Cola  Waiter was portrayed as a young black boy  At the time, only 20% of waiter roles were filled by black people
    53. 53. Fisk 1925
    54. 54. Modern Advertising Racial Advertising has continued to exist into today’s society Many examples of advertisers pushing the boundaries Italian Coloreria Ad:  Sony Japanese Ad 
    55. 55. Advertising to Different Ethnic Groups Many companies are now seeing the need not to neglect certain groups, and are looking for ways to advertise to everybody Head and Shoulders was one such company who aim their product at different groups. Troy Polamalu, Pittsburgh Steelers
    56. 56. Racist Advertising Racistadvertising has never been as big a problem here in Europe as it has been in America in the past. Things beginning to change in America  1987: 11% of characters African American  1995: 17% of all ads contained African Americans in Leading Roles
    57. 57. Agenda Introduction Advertising Ethics  Genderisation – Emer K  Sexual Appeal – Eimear  Advertising to Children - David  Stereotyping the Elderly - Conor  Racism - Conor Subvertising - Niamh Blogospheres – Laureen Conclusion
    58. 58. SUBVERTISINGSubvertising - defined through samples
    59. 59. SUBVERTISNG Subvertising refers to the practice of making spoofs or parodies of corporate and political advertisements memehack or social hacking - is altering a meme to express a point of view Memes are condensed images that stimulate visual, verbal, musical, or behavioral associations culture jamming - is the practice of critiquing mass media messages and their influence on culture by subverting their messages through artistic satire.
    60. 60. SUBVERTISING Subvertising is not a new idea BillboardLiberation Front started in San Francisco in 1977 Battlebetween advertisers and subvertisers has intensified - the internet and the current CRAZE for viral marketing
    61. 61. SUBVERTISING - is an attempt to turn theiconography of the advertisers into a noosearound their neck!McDonalds Prayer
    62. 62. Oliviero Toscani for Benetton Toscani had spent over two years taking photos of prisoners on "Death Row Thecampaign dealt with tough political issues such as the death penalty, Aids and racially and ethnically charged photos. However, on this occasion, there was a dramatic adverse reaction by a number of people which ultimately led to significant protests
    63. 63. OlivieroToscaniLooking Death inthe Face
    64. 64. SUBVERTISING Sohow does Subvertising continue to have an impact, when the advertising agencies co-opt the tactics that have been used against them? Dove - Beauty Pressure Dove - Greenpeace
    65. 65.  Its a detournement, an inversion designed to make us forget consumerism and consider instead social and/or political issues. Subvertisements are an excellent means of turning the commercial world around you upside down, make humorous or critical commentaries on consumer society, or even get rid of ads altogether. Subvertising can sneak up on you, Entertain you, And possibly lead to premature enlightenment.
    66. 66. “The world is a dangerous place to live, not because of the people who are evil, but because of the people who don’t do anything about it”. Albert Einstein
    67. 67. Agenda Introduction Advertising Ethics  Genderisation – Emer K  Sexual Appeal – Eimear  Advertising to Children - David  Stereotyping the Elderly - Conor  Racism - Conor Subvertising - Niamh Blogospheres – Laureen Conclusion
    68. 68. The Impact of the Web
    69. 69. The Blogosphere
    70. 70. The Power of the Blogo
    71. 71. Characteristics of a Blog Reverse chronological order Date-stamped entries Links Ability to retrieve old content RSS or XML feed Passion
    72. 72. Opinion Leaders “Diffusion of Innovation Theory” Reflects the opinions of the masses Spread their word down to the masses Helps understand the blogosphere
    73. 73. Top 5 Blogs1. is a celebrity gossip and news website, theresult of a collaboration between AOL and TelepicturesProductions, a division of Warner Bros2. Gizmodo is a popular technology weblog aboutconsumer electronics.3. Perez Hilton is known for posts covering gossip itemsabout musicians, actors and celebrities.4. Engadget is a popular, award-winning multilingualtechnology weblog and podcast about consumerelectronics5. Boing Boing is a publishing entity, first established as amagazine, later becoming a group blog
    74. 74. Reactive Approach Monitor blog activity The web doesn’t “just goes away” Respond ASAP Respond with a strategic post Ask friends to help Don’t go for a perfect score Pros Protection against future attacks business.aspx
    75. 75. Proactive Approach Blog appearance Service recovery process Develop a major incident database Create a customer advisory board Customers input has influenced improvement Positive testimonials on web site
    76. 76. Blogger SweatShop
    77. 77. Thank YouAny Questions?
    78. 78. References Belch, G. and Belch, M. 2007, Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective. {Chp 22 pg 715- 735} 7th ed. Boston:McGraw-Hill Irwin. Plakoyiannaki, E. Mathioudaki, K. Dimitratos, P. Zotos, Y. Nov 2008 Images of Women in Online Advertisments of Global Products: Does Sexism Exist? Journal of Business Ethics, [Online]. Vol. 83 Issue 1, p101-112. [Accessed 21st Nov 2009] Advertising Standards Association of Ireland: [Accessed 18th Nov 2009]
    79. 79. References (Belch and Belch, Advertising and Promotion Through Communications, “Evaluation the Social , Ethical and Economic Aspects of Advertising and Promotion”, {Chapter 22, pg 723}, Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 7th Edition 2007) About.Com Psychology, “How Ivan Pavlov Discovered Classical Conditioning”, Kendra Van Wagner (Accessed Nov 2009) Classics In The History of Psychology “CONDITIONED EMOTIONAL REACTIONS”, John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner(1920) (Accessed Nov 2009) Wikipedia, “Little Albert Experiment) (Accessed Nov 2009) (Belch and Belch, Advertising and Promotion Through Communications, “Evaluation the Social , Ethical and Economic Aspects of Advertising and Promotion”, {Chapter 22, page pg 725}, Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 7th Edition 2007)
    80. 80. References Wikipedia, “Opie and Anthony” (Accessed Nov 2009) American Apparel, Models of American Apparel, (Accessed Nov 2009) ml “Racy adverts for crisps not hunky dory with watchdog”, Shane Hickey (Accessed Nov 2009) crisps-not-hunky-dory-with-watchdog-227021.htmlYoutube: v=svpMan9cWyo&feature=PlayList&p=AFABCDC996E90362&playn ext=1&paynext_from=PL&index=2 v=ZrVGGCeh9yk&feature=PlayList&p=AFABCDC996E90362&index
    81. 81. References Moore, E. 2004. Children and the changing world of advertising. Journal of business ethics, 52 (2), pp161-167. McNeal, J. 1992. Marketing to children means communicating in a special language. Advertising Age, 63(35), pp21-21. Broadcasting Commission of Ireland 2002, Advertising and Children. [online]. Available from [Accessed 15 November 2009]. Sutherland, A. And Thompson, B. 2001. Kidfluence: Why today’s kids mean business, 1st ed. Canada: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited. Gunter, B., Oates, C., and Blades, M. 2005. Advertising to children on TV: Content, impact, and regulation, 1st ed. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    82. 82. References Preston, C. 2004. Children’s advertising :the ethics of economic socialisation. International journal of consumer studies, 28 (4), pp364-370. Preston, C. 2005. Advertising to children and social responsibility. Young consumers, 6 (4), pp61-67. Oates et al. 2003. Children’s understanding of television advertising: a qualitative approach. Journal of marketing communications, 9 (2), pp59-71. Lawlor, M. And Prothero, A. 2008. Exploring children’s understanding of television advertising – beyond the advertiser’s perspective. European journal of marketing, 42 (11/12), pp1203- 1223. Lawlor, M. And Prothero, A. 2002. The established and potential mediating variables in the child’s understanding of advertising intent: towards a research agenda. Journal of marketing management, 18 (5/6), pp481-499.
    83. 83. References Macklin, M. And Carlson, L. 1999. Advertising to children: concepts and controversies, 1st ed. USA: Sage publications. Story, M. And French, S. 2004. Food advertising and marketing directed at children and adolescents in the US. International journal of behavioural nutrition and physical activity, 1 (3). BBC News 2007. Junk food ad ban comes into force. [Online] Available from [Accessed 19 November 2009]. The Economist 2001. Kid Gloves. [Online] Available from 4240f2/7b07a00c06fe73c4802569d0003e17a1/$FILE/MUK0093.pdf [Accessed 18 November 2009]. Young, B. 2003. Does food advertising influence their food choices? A critical review of some of the recent literature. International journal of advertising, 22 (4), pp441-459.
    84. 84. References Kaiser Family foundation report 2007. Food for thought: television food advertising to children in the United States. [Online] Available from {Accessed 20 November 2009]. Progressive newswire 2001. Kids who watch less tv demand fewer toys. [Online] Available from [Accessed 20 November 2009]. Casse Weaver 1996. Toy advertising and the impressionable mind of youth. [Online] Available from [Accessed 20 November 2009]. BoingBoing 2008. Florida school board approves McDonalds report cards and school bus audio ads. [Online] Available from [Accessed 21 November 2009].
    85. 85. References Advertising Standards Authority of Ireland (23 Nov 2009) Advertising Standards Authority (UK) (23 Nov 2009) Meteor Mobile (20 Nov 2009) Takezawa, Yasuko, “Racial Boundaries and Stereotypes: An Analysis of American Advertising”, The Japanese Journal of American Studies, No. 10 (1999) Eleftheria et al, “Shades of Grey”, Adweek Carrigan, M, “The representation of older people in advertisements”, Journal of the Market Research Society, July 1999 v41
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