Multiparty Computation in 2029:
Boom, Bust, or Bonanza!
David Evans
mightBeEvil.org
University of Virginia
Microsoft Resea...
Why 2029?

2
Why 15 years?

3
4
PODC '97

5
MPC in 2014

62014
MPC in 1999

1999

72014
PODC 1997

8
MPC in
1984

1984

1999

92014
MPC in 1969

1969

1984

1999

102014
Non-free NOR gate (from Apollo Guidance Computer)
11
Where should
multiparty computation
be in 2029?

12
US Government Investment in MPC
NSF:
~$25M
DARPA: ~$25M
AFOSR: ~$15M
IARPA, NSA: ?

$100M?

National Endowment for the Art...
US Government Investment in MPC
NSF:
~$25M
DARPA: ~$25M
AFOSR: ~$15M
IARPA, NSA: ?

$100M?

Virginia Snow Removal Last Wee...
“Acceptable” Result (for “Us”)

Photo credit: Benny Pinkas

some significant papers
interesting intellectual problems

stu...
“Acceptable” Result (for Taxpayers)

Photo credit: Benny Pinkas

Multi-billion dollar industry
Things that make everyday l...
Where should
multiparty computation
be in 2029?

17
Claim #1
Secure multi-party computation
industry should be bigger than
malware industry in 2029.

18
$ 300B
$ 250B
$ 200B
$ 150B

Worldwide IT
Security Market:
~$70B/year,
growing 8.7%/year
[Gartner]

$ 100B

2012
2013
2014...
$ 300B
$ 250B
$ 200B
$ 150B

Worldwide IT
Security Market:
~$70B/year,
growing 8.7%/year
[Gartner]

$ 100B
$ 50B
2012
2013...
Claim #2
High cost is no longer the main
impediment to widespread use of
secure (two-party) computation.

21
(De)Motivating
Application:
“Genetic
Dating”
Bob

Alice
Genome Compatibility
Protocol

Your offspring will have
WARNING!
g...
1982

Genetic Dating

Progress in MPC!

Millionaires’ Problem

1984

1999

23
Link
24
25
26

Nov 2013

Apr 2013

Sep 2012

Feb 2012

Jul 2011

Dec 2010

May 2010

Oct 2009

Mar 2009

Aug 2008

Jan 2008

Jun 2007...
27

Nov 2013

Apr 2013

Sep 2012

Feb 2012

Jul 2011

Dec 2010

May 2010

Oct 2009

Mar 2009

Aug 2008

Jan 2008

Jun 2007...
Apr 2013
28

Nov 2013

[SZ 2013]

Pipelining, etc.
[HEKM 2011]

Free XOR [KS 2008]

From $100M to $0.001
in less than a de...
29

Nov 2013

Apr 2013

Sep 2012

Feb 2012

Jul 2011

Dec 2010

May 2010

Oct 2009

Mar 2009

Aug 2008

Jan 2008

Jun 2007...
30

Nov 2013

Apr 2013

Sep 2012

Feb 2012

Jul 2011

Dec 2010

May 2010

Oct 2009

Mar 2009

Aug 2008

Jan 2008

Jun 2007...
Costs that Still Matter
Many Parties: costs for > 3 parties are still way
off the charts (and interesting applications
nee...
Things That Really Matter
Understanding what outputs leak
Embedding auditing? Privacy models?
Meaningful end-user value
Ho...
Claim #3
We don’t yet know what the
“killer app” for MPC is.*
* Maybe we will after the Business Case panel today!
33
Claim #3
We don’t yet know what the
“killer app” for MPC is and its
probably not privacy.
34
36
Theory vs. Practice
My New
Theory of Computation
Book!
39
plug book

Illustrations by
Kim Dylla

A Tragicomic Tale of
Combinatorics and
Computability
for Curious Children of All
Ag...
dori-mic.org
“If only I had this book when I was
a young student, I might have
done something useful with my
life like dis...
Finding the “killer app”
for MPC…

42
“sending faxes
from the beach”

“tucking your baby in
from a phone booth”
43
WorldWideWeb
[Berners-Lee 1990]

multi-touch, pressure
interface
[Negroponte 1984]
David Evans
evans@virginia.edu

MightBeEvil.com
dori-mic.org
45
Multi-Party Computation in 2029: Boom, Bust, or Bonanza?
Multi-Party Computation in 2029: Boom, Bust, or Bonanza?
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Multi-Party Computation in 2029: Boom, Bust, or Bonanza?

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Applied Multi-Party Computation
Microsoft Research, Redmond
21 February 2014

Multi-Party Computation in 2014, 1999, 1984, and 1969
Where should secure computation be in 2029?
Decreasing costs of secure computation
Making Predictions
"Sending Faxes on the Beach" vs. "Making the WoldWideWeb"
Introducing "Dori-Mic and the Universal Machine!"

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Multi-Party Computation in 2029: Boom, Bust, or Bonanza?

  1. 1. Multiparty Computation in 2029: Boom, Bust, or Bonanza! David Evans mightBeEvil.org University of Virginia Microsoft Research Applied Multiparty Computation 21 February 2014 1
  2. 2. Why 2029? 2
  3. 3. Why 15 years? 3
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. PODC '97 5
  6. 6. MPC in 2014 62014
  7. 7. MPC in 1999 1999 72014
  8. 8. PODC 1997 8
  9. 9. MPC in 1984 1984 1999 92014
  10. 10. MPC in 1969 1969 1984 1999 102014
  11. 11. Non-free NOR gate (from Apollo Guidance Computer) 11
  12. 12. Where should multiparty computation be in 2029? 12
  13. 13. US Government Investment in MPC NSF: ~$25M DARPA: ~$25M AFOSR: ~$15M IARPA, NSA: ? $100M? National Endowment for the Arts $130M/year 13
  14. 14. US Government Investment in MPC NSF: ~$25M DARPA: ~$25M AFOSR: ~$15M IARPA, NSA: ? $100M? Virginia Snow Removal Last Week > $100M 14
  15. 15. “Acceptable” Result (for “Us”) Photo credit: Benny Pinkas some significant papers interesting intellectual problems students get good jobs 15
  16. 16. “Acceptable” Result (for Taxpayers) Photo credit: Benny Pinkas Multi-billion dollar industry Things that make everyday life better 16
  17. 17. Where should multiparty computation be in 2029? 17
  18. 18. Claim #1 Secure multi-party computation industry should be bigger than malware industry in 2029. 18
  19. 19. $ 300B $ 250B $ 200B $ 150B Worldwide IT Security Market: ~$70B/year, growing 8.7%/year [Gartner] $ 100B 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 $ 0B Microsoft $ 50B 19
  20. 20. $ 300B $ 250B $ 200B $ 150B Worldwide IT Security Market: ~$70B/year, growing 8.7%/year [Gartner] $ 100B $ 50B 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 $ 0B 20
  21. 21. Claim #2 High cost is no longer the main impediment to widespread use of secure (two-party) computation. 21
  22. 22. (De)Motivating Application: “Genetic Dating” Bob Alice Genome Compatibility Protocol Your offspring will have WARNING! good immune systems! Don’t Reproduce Your offspring will have WARNING! good immune systems! Don’t Reproduce 22
  23. 23. 1982 Genetic Dating Progress in MPC! Millionaires’ Problem 1984 1999 23
  24. 24. Link 24
  25. 25. 25
  26. 26. 26 Nov 2013 Apr 2013 Sep 2012 Feb 2012 Jul 2011 Dec 2010 May 2010 Oct 2009 Mar 2009 Aug 2008 Jan 2008 Jun 2007 Nov 2006 Apr 2006 Sep 2005 Feb 2005 Jul 2004 Dec 2003 May 2003 Oct 2002 Mar 2002 Aug 2001 $100,000,000 $10,000,000 $1,000,000 $100,000 $10,000 $1,000
  27. 27. 27 Nov 2013 Apr 2013 Sep 2012 Feb 2012 Jul 2011 Dec 2010 May 2010 Oct 2009 Mar 2009 Aug 2008 Jan 2008 Jun 2007 Nov 2006 Apr 2006 Sep 2005 Feb 2005 Jul 2004 Dec 2003 May 2003 Oct 2002 Mar 2002 Aug 2001 $100,000,000 $10,000,000 $1,000,000 $100,000 $10,000 $1,000
  28. 28. Apr 2013 28 Nov 2013 [SZ 2013] Pipelining, etc. [HEKM 2011] Free XOR [KS 2008] From $100M to $0.001 in less than a decade! Sep 2012 Feb 2012 Jul 2011 Dec 2010 May 2010 Oct 2009 Mar 2009 Aug 2008 Jan 2008 Jun 2007 Nov 2006 Apr 2006 Sep 2005 Feb 2005 $1,000,000 Fairplay [MNPS 2004] $10,000,000 Jul 2004 Dec 2003 $10,000 May 2003 $100,000 Oct 2002 Mar 2002 Aug 2001 $100,000,000 JustGarble [BHKR 2013] $1,000
  29. 29. 29 Nov 2013 Apr 2013 Sep 2012 Feb 2012 Jul 2011 Dec 2010 May 2010 Oct 2009 Mar 2009 Aug 2008 Jan 2008 Jun 2007 Nov 2006 Apr 2006 Sep 2005 Feb 2005 Jul 2004 Dec 2003 May 2003 Oct 2002 Mar 2002 Aug 2001 $100,000,000,000 $10,000,000,000 $1,000,000,000 $100,000,000 $10,000,000 $1,000,000 $100,000 $10,000 $1,000
  30. 30. 30 Nov 2013 Apr 2013 Sep 2012 Feb 2012 Jul 2011 Dec 2010 May 2010 Oct 2009 Mar 2009 Aug 2008 Jan 2008 Jun 2007 Nov 2006 Apr 2006 Sep 2005 Feb 2005 Jul 2004 $10,000 Dec 2003 $100,000 May 2003 Oct 2002 Mar 2002 Aug 2001 $100,000,000,000 $10,000,000,000 $1,000,000,000 $100,000,000 $10,000,000 $1,000,000 From $80B to $0.005 in less than a decade! $1,000
  31. 31. Costs that Still Matter Many Parties: costs for > 3 parties are still way off the charts (and interesting applications need millions of parties) Energy: MPC requires 10,000x (?) energy of unencrypted computation – Data centers today ~5M homes 31
  32. 32. Things That Really Matter Understanding what outputs leak Embedding auditing? Privacy models? Meaningful end-user value How do I trust the client code? (Human) cost to build MPC systems Easy integration/separation with standard computation 32
  33. 33. Claim #3 We don’t yet know what the “killer app” for MPC is.* * Maybe we will after the Business Case panel today! 33
  34. 34. Claim #3 We don’t yet know what the “killer app” for MPC is and its probably not privacy. 34
  35. 35. 36
  36. 36. Det er svært at spå, især om fremtiden. Robert Storm Petersen It is difficult to predict, especially about the future 37
  37. 37. Theory vs. Practice
  38. 38. My New Theory of Computation Book! 39
  39. 39. plug book Illustrations by Kim Dylla A Tragicomic Tale of Combinatorics and Computability for Curious Children of All Ages
  40. 40. dori-mic.org “If only I had this book when I was a young student, I might have done something useful with my life like discover a new complexity class instead of dropping out and wasting my life flipping pancakes, playing with basic blocks, and eradicating polo.” Gill Bates, Founder of Mic-Soft Corporation MiniLEGO [FJNNO 2013]
  41. 41. Finding the “killer app” for MPC… 42
  42. 42. “sending faxes from the beach” “tucking your baby in from a phone booth” 43
  43. 43. WorldWideWeb [Berners-Lee 1990] multi-touch, pressure interface [Negroponte 1984]
  44. 44. David Evans evans@virginia.edu MightBeEvil.com dori-mic.org 45

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