The Need for Speed in 4G and beyond

183 views
144 views

Published on

Mobile operators and wireless service providers alike are consistently under pressure to provide faster wireless data services, thanks to the proliferation of smart phones. The last decade has seen a phenomenal increase in the number of wireless subscribers connected via a wide range of wireless broadband technologies. In this talk the state of existing and future wireless broadband technologies in the Malaysia such as WiMAX, HSPA, LTE, WLAN/WiFi and their evolutions will be discussed. This talk will also introduce in layman terms some of the major technological breakthroughs in the antenna systems such as Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO), Space Time Coding (STC) and Beamforming (BF) that contribute to multiple folds increase in wireless data rate and range in recent years. The common questions or misunderstandings about wireless technology such as what is true 4G? Why am I not getting the speed as advertised? Why is my upload speed always lower than my download? etc, will be explained along the way. The talk will then look into the future of wireless broadband such as what is 5G? what are the expectations and how can we achieve them? Will futuristic wireless communication technologies or paradigms such as Cognitive Radio and Internet of Things be a big part of it?

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
183
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The Need for Speed in 4G and beyond

  1. 1. Wireless Need for SpeedDr. David Chiengdavidchieng@theiet.org
  2. 2. Content• Current Challenges of Mobile Broadband• Solutions, Technology comparison• Key Technologies• What is 5G?• What is 5G?IET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  3. 3. Wireless Broadband Growth (Malaysia)IET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  4. 4. Key Drives are:Key Drives are:1. DevicesLTE (Petabytes)3G (Petabytes)Broadband traffic has been doubling every year since FY07/08.Forecasts in the next 5 years estimates more than several folds increase in the data trafficinclude LTEWireless Broadband Traffic Tsunami>600>400Europe2. New applications3. Market driven – Flat Tariffs40FY07/08>10020FY14/15FY13/14FY12/13>300FY11/12>200FY10/11FY09/10>50FY08/09IET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  5. 5. Spectrum Alert!!Mobile operator O2 UK has revealed that it expects torun out of spectrum on its macro cell layer around2014.Telefonica UK’s chief radio engineer Robert Joyce saidthat, “As we see it, with the increasing demand fromthat, “As we see it, with the increasing demand fromtablets and smartphones the macro cell will not be ableto cope. We can take the macro cell grid to eight timesits current capacity and then we’ll run out ofspectrum.” – Telecoms.com June 26, 2012IET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  6. 6. Supply vs. DemandHow?• Capacity gap is increasing• 4% of subscribers are using about 68% of the bandwidth on agiven tower”Technologies?Regulatory?IET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  7. 7. Which apps are the culprit?Video and TV Streaming are the fastest growing traffic CategorySource: ABI Research Mobile Data Traffic Analysis , April 29 2011IET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  8. 8. Increasing Data Traffic Volumes ThreateningOperator Profitability• Voice ARPU continues to decline• Data ARPU reaching apex• Traffic continues to growSource: Heavy Reading Report: Ethernet Backhaul, Mobile Operator Strategies and Market Opportunity2009IET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  9. 9. Implications on Subscribers• Traffic tsunami, capacity gap, data sold and revenuenot correlatedImplications• Operators need to install more base stationsAND/OR invest in new technologies before ROI• Mobile broadband not getting cheaper NORgetting fasterIET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  10. 10. Solutions, TechnologiesComparisonComparison
  11. 11. Solutions• More spectrum– Get new spectrum e.g. TV spectrum (white space) by2015 in Malaysia• Higher spectrum efficiency– New wireless technologies higher– New wireless technologies highermodulation, advanced antenna systems, advancedcoordination techniques• New cell architectures/Heterogeneous Networks– Macro, Micro, Pico, Femto and Relay• Cognitive Radio – more efficient spectrum usageIET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  12. 12. Indirect Solutions• Self Organizing Networks (SON)– Reduce CAPEX and OPEX so that operator can invest onmore base stations• Traffic offloading– Mobile Network to offload data traffic to WiFiFaster backhaul• Faster backhaul– Fibre, Microwave, RelayIET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  13. 13. Technology Comparison4GMalaysiaMorespectrum,higherspectrumefficiencySource: Nokia Siemens Networks11n, 11ac, 11adDue to mobile traffic crunch, technologies naturally inclined towards capacityLTE-AWiMAX2 (16m)IET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  14. 14. Common Myth 1: Why am I notgetting the speed as advertised?IET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  15. 15. Why we are not getting data rate asadvertised?• Some advertise physical data rates and notactual usage speed SpeedTest– Road is build for 300km/hour doesn’t mean everycar can move at that speed….• Advertised only peak data rate (maximum• Advertised only peak data rate (maximumpossible), depending on– Supported data rate of user device– Optimal location (best signal)– No other users (or just a few) at that base station– No interferencesIET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  16. 16. Why uplink slower than downlink?• Higher overhead for uplink– need to contend for access,– avoid interference from other mobiles• Lower power from mobile device– Battery-powered– Battery-powered• Non symmetrical duplex configuration in sometechnologies– More transmission time allocated to downlink then uplinkIET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  17. 17. Key Technologies for Speed
  18. 18. What determine the speed?Spectrum/BandwidthEfficiency ofModulation andCoding SchemeAntennaTechniquesIET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  19. 19. Current Key Technologies• More efficient Modulation and CodingScheme (MCS)• Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex(OFDM/OFDMA)(OFDM/OFDMA)• Multiple Antenna Techniques– Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)– Beamforming (BF)IET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  20. 20. More efficient Modulation and Coding• Goal is to squeeze asmany bits into oneHertz of spectrumIET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  21. 21. OFDM/OFDMA• Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing/Multiple Access• Multiple carriers carrying multiple “mini” data stream inparallel• Adopted by all current and future wireless broadbandtechnologiesIET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  22. 22. Advanced Antenna Techniques(MIMO)• MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output)• Four common techniques:– Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC)– Space-Time Block Coding (STBC)– Space-Time Block Coding (STBC)– Spatial Division Multiplexing (SDM)– Transmit Beamforming (TBF)IET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  23. 23. Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC)• Signals received by more than one antenna.• Signals received by more than one antenna.• Signal then combined to produce a higher signalquality (SNR)• Doesn’t increase the peak rate but increase thedistance where you can get it.IET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  24. 24. Space Time Block Code (STBC)• Different transmit antennas transmit copies of codeddata in different space and time• Even in strong presence of noise and distortion, receivercan reconstruct back data• Also increases the distance where higher data rate can beachievedIET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  25. 25. Spatial Multiplexing (SM)• Transmit multiple “parallel” data streams.• Best case– ~ 2x transmission rate with 2x2 antennas– ~ 3x rate with 3x3 and so on…IET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  26. 26. Transmit Beam Forming (BF)• Signal direction to a location• Receive stronger signal at a specificlocationIET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  27. 27. What is 5G?
  28. 28. What’s 5G?• No clear definition just yet. More questions thananswers (likely need to wait till 2020?)• It has to be faster but can we actually go any faster?Have we reached spectrum limit?IET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  29. 29. Requirements for 5G?5G>1GbpsBetterQoSMachine-to-MachineSmaller cellIPv6, AIIntelligent access/coordination5GQoSGreenPersonal-izationLowerCostMachineEnergy efficientSONContext AwareAlternative BackhaulSmartIET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  30. 30. Emerging and Future Technologies• Heterogeneous Networks• Cognitive Radio• Internet of Things• There are more….• There are more….IET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  31. 31. What is Heterogeneous WirelessNetworks?© 2012 MIMOS Berhad. All Rights Reserved.• “Not exactly a technology but a set of rules whereby differenttypes of Radio Access Technologies can cooperate and workharmoniously towards some common goals” – David ChiengIET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  32. 32. Motivations• Rather than coexist (finding best ways to exist together) whynot cooperate?• Cooperative scenarios:Multi Tech Access Relay/MultihopWiFiMultiradio router/relay stations supportingdifferent radio technologiesWiMAX LTEWiFi• Benefits include seamless services, rapid deployment, resource reuse, offload, etc.WiMAX LTEMultiradio terminals supporting different radiotechnologiesIET Talk Series, 7 July 2012, Pearl International Hotel
  33. 33. • Enabling different radio technologies to share the samespectrum efficiently by adaptively finding unused spectrum andadapting the transmission scheme to the requirements of thetechnologiesCognitive Radio
  34. 34. • “Things having identities and virtualpersonalities operating in smartspaces using intelligent interfaces toconnect and communicate withinsocial, environmental, and usercontexts”.• Connecting everyone, everything acrossInternet of Things• Connecting everyone, everything acrossdiverse wireless protocols• Enabling:– Tracking (retail, transportation)– Smart Space (home, office, etc)– Smart Healthcare– Security

×