EU Enlargement and Turkey’s Application for Membership v3
EU enlargement and Turkey’s application for membership Lea Hannibalsen David Mircea Bucur
Enlargement: The accession process Copenhagen Criteria (1993): Political: rule of law, stable institutions, democracy, respect for human rights. Economic: functional market economy. Legal: EU laws and practice. Adherence to the terms of a political, economic and monetary union. Joining the EU is a 3 stage process:1. A country is offered a prospect of membership.2. The country is given official candidate status.3. Formal membership negotiations.
2007 Enlargement: Romania and Bulgaria•Romania•Bulgaria
Who’s joining next?•Iceland•Croatia•Serbia•Bosnia and Herzegovina•Montenegro•Kosovo•Albania•Turkey
Turkey: Timeline1959: Turkey applies for associate membership of EEC.1963: Ankara Agreement signed, aiming to enter a customs union.1987: Turkey applies for full EEC membership.1995: Customs union founded between Turkey and the EU.1997: Council declares Turkey eligible to become a member state.2004: Council defines conditions for opening accession negotiations.2005: Negotiations formally opened.
Turkey and European Union- Long-term process with shifting attitudes from the EU towards a full membership for Turkey.- Applied for membership of the EEC in 1987 (association agreement with EEC in 1963) and the accession negotiations froze in 2006.- Turkey has made great progress pursuing EU standards yet they lack several important areas(commission progress report 2005).- Why not Turkey?
Pros and preferences for a Turkishmembership in the EU- The emergence of democracy and vibrant economy in Turkey.(Enlargement Policy; the spread of liberal democratic ideas and marketeconomy principles).- A reinforcement of Security.(Maintaining security in the eastern Mediterranean, role model forneighbouring Islamic states. May help to create security and stability inthe European continent. Geographical location).
Concerns and problems regarding a fullmembership for Turkey The conflict with Cyprus and Greece Conditionality and criteria issues Geographical and Cultural issues Association partnership instead of full membership?
Attitudes towards Turkish membership- Attitude among European citizens.(Four factors which can explain attitudes: Economic costs andbenefits, cultural differences, political ideology and the general attitudestowards the EU).- Perspectives of the Turkish elite.(Opinions on membership. Political and cultural issues. Reflection onrejection and future prospect. Cost and benefits. Any concerns?).
Statistic view ofthe 27 memberstates support forTurkish accession:- The countries who aremost supportive are thetwo newest members:Romania and Bulgaria- Among the countrieswho are leastsupportive we findFrance and Austria.Both countries are likelyto have referendumsabout the Turkishaccession.
Further reading European Commission key documents http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/candidate- countries/turkey/key_documents_en.htm 2004 enlargement http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/enlargement/2004_and_2007 _enlargement/e50017_en.htm 2004 and 2007 Enlargement documents/links http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/enlargement/2004_and_2007 _enlargement/index_en.htm General information regarding Turkey and the EU http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/countries/detailed-country- information/turkey/index_en.htm