Team leaders


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Team leaders

  1. 1. Team Leaders…<br />
  2. 2. Stages of Team Development<br />High<br />Performing<br />Norming<br />Task Performance<br />& Effectiveness <br />Storming<br />Forming<br />Low<br />Relationship / Support <br />High<br /><ul><li> Each step builds on the previous one
  3. 3. Each step prepares for the performing stage
  4. 4. Skipping any step affects performing negatively
  5. 5. With every new significant challenge, the process repeats.</li></ul>Source: Tuckman<br />
  6. 6. Forming<br /><ul><li>Orientation period
  7. 7. Becoming familiar with one another
  8. 8. Identifying the group’s tasks
  9. 9. Determining acceptable interpersonal behaviors
  10. 10. Relying on leaders for structure </li></li></ul><li>Storming<br /><ul><li>Intra-group conflict
  11. 11. Challenging others and expressing individual viewpoints
  12. 12. Lacking unity
  13. 13. Reacting emotionally to tasks
  14. 14. Testing out roles within the team  </li></li></ul><li>Norming<br /><ul><li>Mutually accepting one another
  15. 15. Developing group cohesion
  16. 16. Establishing group norms and ground rules
  17. 17. Establishing roles within the team </li></li></ul><li>Performing<br /><ul><li>Solutions emerge
  18. 18. Becoming a problem-solving instrument
  19. 19. Contributing to the team’s purpose
  20. 20. Becoming interdependent and non-dependant on the leader </li></li></ul><li>From Forming to Storming<br /><ul><li>Build a shared purpose/mission and continuously clarify team outcomes
  21. 21. Create a sense of urgency and rationale for the purpose/mission
  22. 22. Select members based on resource and skill need
  23. 23. Invest time getting to know each member’s skills, experiences, and personal goals
  24. 24. Bring individuals together to work on common tasks
  25. 25. Define recognition and rewards, both individual and team-based
  26. 26. Work on personal commitment by linking personal goals to team roles</li></li></ul><li>From Storming to Norming<br /><ul><li>Build a common understanding by periodically communicating the team’s purpose/mission
  27. 27. Acknowledge times when the group is struggling and take time to discuss ways to move toward “Norming”
  28. 28. Set out to achieve focused performance goals / tasks
  29. 29. Encourage members to express their differing opinions, ideas, and feelings with open-ended questions
  30. 30. Make connections between divergent perspectives; acknowledge and accept where there are differences
  31. 31. Build a set of operating agreements (ground rules for team behavior)
  32. 32. Raise issues, confront deviations from commitments, and encourage disagreement and conflict </li></li></ul><li>From Norming to Performing<br /><ul><li>Develop shared leadership based on expertise and development needs
  33. 33. Translate common purpose and team expectations into performance goals that are specified and measurable
  34. 34. Build consensus on overarching goals and approaches
  35. 35. Formally give and receive feedback within the team
  36. 36. Maintain focus on external relationships: commitments, requirements, feedback, and competitive realities
  37. 37. Take risks by setting stretch performance goals while simultaneously encouraging the disclosure of fears
  38. 38. Celebrate successes, share rewards, recognize team and individual achievements
  39. 39. Continue to evaluate team against performance goals</li></li></ul><li>High Performing Teams<br />“A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.”<br />6 team basics - requirements for team performance<br />Size - Small Number – (generally fewer than 12)<br />Skills - Complementary skills<br />Purpose - Common purpose<br />Goals - Common set of specific performance goals<br />Approach - Commonly agreed upon working approach<br />Accountability - Mutual accountability<br />Katzenbach and Smith, The Wisdom of Teams<br />
  40. 40. Attributes of High Performing Teams<br /><ul><li>Clear goals that are accepted by all team members
  41. 41. Set high standards of performance and achieve them
  42. 42. Allow members to disagree
  43. 43. Embrace & navigate conflict well
  44. 44. Sense of unity and distinct personality. Members feel free to represent each other
  45. 45. Experience a feeling of synergy
  46. 46. Provide an opportunity to learn and grow
  47. 47. Is flexible and can readily adapt to change
  48. 48. Trust each other enough to ask for help & feedback
  49. 49. Members listen and provide useful feedback
  50. 50. Communicate effectively. Members express themselves fully and frankly
  51. 51. There are no hidden agendas
  52. 52. Allow individuals to be themselves and make individual contributions
  53. 53. Support and help each other as needed
  54. 54. Creatively solves problems
  55. 55. Creates a spirit of ownership & sense of belonging
  56. 56. Clear roles and responsibilities
  57. 57. Interdependent; manages boundaries and works well with other teams
  58. 58. Mutual commitment and accountability
  59. 59. Makes collective decisions efficiently and effectively</li></ul>* Adapted from various sources <br />
  60. 60. The 5 Dysfunctions of a Team<br />Inattention to<br />Results<br />Avoidance of<br />Accountability<br />Lack of Commitment<br />Fear of Conflict<br />Absence of Trust<br />Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni<br />
  61. 61. Team Members With an Absence of Trust…<br /><ul><li>Conceal their weaknesses and mistakes from one another
  62. 62. Hesitate to ask for help or provide constructive feedback
  63. 63. Hesitate to offer help outside their own areas of responsibility
  64. 64. Jump to conclusions about the intentions and aptitudes of others without attempting to clarify them
  65. 65. Fail to recognize and tap into one another’s skills ad experiences
  66. 66. Waste time and energy managing their behaviors for effect
  67. 67. Hold grudges
  68. 68. Dread meetings and find reasons to avoid spending time together</li></ul>Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni<br />
  69. 69. Members of Trusting Teams…<br /><ul><li>Admit weaknesses and mistakes
  70. 70. Ask for help
  71. 71. Accept questions and input about their areas of responsibility
  72. 72. Give one another the benefit of the doubt before arriving at a negative conclusion
  73. 73. Take risks in offering feedback and assistance
  74. 74. Appreciate and tap into one another’s skills and experiences
  75. 75. Focus time and energy on important issues, not politics
  76. 76. Offer and accept apologies without hesitation
  77. 77. Look forward to meetings and other opportunities to work as a group</li></ul>Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni<br />
  78. 78. Teams that Fear Conflict…<br /><ul><li>Have boring meetings
  79. 79. Create environments where back-channel politics and personal attacks thrive
  80. 80. Ignore controversial topics that are critical to team success
  81. 81. Fail to tap into all the opinions and perspectives of team members
  82. 82. Waste time and energy with posturing and interpersonal risk management</li></ul>Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni<br />
  83. 83. Teams that Engage in Conflict…<br /><ul><li>Have lively, interesting meetings
  84. 84. Extract and exploit the ideas of all team members
  85. 85. Solve real problems quickly
  86. 86. Minimize politics
  87. 87. Put critical topics on the table for discussion</li></ul>Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni<br />
  88. 88. A Team that Fails to Commit…<br /><ul><li>Creates ambiguity among the team about direction and priorities
  89. 89. Watches window of opportunity close due to excessive analysis and unnecessary delay
  90. 90. Breeds lack of confidence and fear of failure
  91. 91. Revisits discussions and decisions again and again
  92. 92. Encourages second-guessing among team members</li></ul>Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni<br />
  93. 93. A Team that Commits…<br /><ul><li>Creates clarity around direction and priorities
  94. 94. Aligns the team around common objectives
  95. 95. Develops an ability to learn from mistakes
  96. 96. Takes advantage of opportunities before competitors do
  97. 97. Moves forward without hesitation
  98. 98. Changes direction without hesitation or guilt</li></ul>Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni<br />
  99. 99. A Team that Avoids Accountability…<br /><ul><li>Creates resentment among team members who have different standards of performance
  100. 100. Encourages mediocrity
  101. 101. Misses deadlines and key deliverables
  102. 102. Places an undue burden on the team leader as the sole source of discipline</li></ul>Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni<br />
  103. 103. A Team that Embraces Accountability…<br /><ul><li>Ensures that poor performers feel pressure to improve
  104. 104. Identifies potential problems quickly by questioning one another’s approaches without hesitation
  105. 105. Establishes respect among team members who are held to the same high standards
  106. 106. Avoids excessive bureaucracy around performance management and corrective action</li></ul>Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni<br />
  107. 107. A Team that is Not Focused on Results…<br /><ul><li>Stagnates and fails to develop and grow
  108. 108. Rarely defeats competitors
  109. 109. Loses achievement-oriented employees
  110. 110. Encourages team members to focus on their own careers and individual goals
  111. 111. Is easily distracted</li></ul>Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni<br />
  112. 112. A Team that Focuses on Results…<br /><ul><li>Retains achievement-oriented employees
  113. 113. Minimizes individualistic behavior
  114. 114. Enjoys success and suffers failure acutely
  115. 115. Benefits from individuals who subjugate their own goals/interests for the good of the team
  116. 116. Avoids distractions</li></ul>Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni<br />
  117. 117. Trust Interventions<br /><ul><li>Personal Histories – where I grew up, family background and challenges
  118. 118. Behavioral Profiling – such as Birkman, Hogan, MBTI, DiSC, FiroB, etc.
  119. 119. Time Spent Together </li></ul>Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni<br />
  120. 120. Conflict Interventions<br /><ul><li>Conflict Profiling or Norming – i.e. TKI
  121. 121. Conflict Mining – objectively and supportively facilitating hidden or suppressed conflict resolution
  122. 122. Real-Time Permission – interruption to reinforce healthy debate </li></ul>Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni<br />
  123. 123. Commitment Interventions<br /><ul><li>Commitment Clarification – clear articulation of agreements and decisions
  124. 124. Cascading Communication – agreements and decisions cascade throughout the organization
  125. 125. Scoreboard – organize meeting and discussions around the 2-3 wildly important goals of the organization</li></ul>Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni<br />
  126. 126. Accountability Interventions<br /><ul><li>Team Effectiveness Activity - Each team member gives specific feedback to all team members on: 1) what is the single most important behavioral characteristic or quality demonstrated by this person that contributes to the strength of the team? & 2) what is the single most important behavioral characteristic or quality demonstrated by this person that can sometimes derail the team?
  127. 127. Lightning Round Meeting Introduction – To introduce each meeting - each team member takes 30 seconds to update the team about their top 3 priorities for the week/month. If anyone on the team thinks that those 3 priorities are misplaced – now is the time to say so and initiate discussion.</li></ul>Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni<br />
  128. 128. Results-Focus Interventions<br /><ul><li>Scoreboard - organize meeting and discussions around the 2-3 wildly important goals of the organization
  129. 129. Team-Based Rewards – changing compensation and rewards so that team incentives weigh more heavily than individual incentives
  130. 130. Team #1 – team members subordinate the needs and interests of the team they manage to the team in which they belong</li></ul>Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni<br />
  131. 131. Correlating 3 Human Behavior Concepts<br />
  132. 132. Source & Nature of Norms<br /><ul><li>Some norms facilitate team effectiveness and some hinder it
  133. 133. Norms evolve over a relatively long period of time
  134. 134. Norms exist for good reasons – in service to the needs of a group
  135. 135. Norms operate with different degrees of intensity dependent on the needs of the individuals
  136. 136. Norms are persistent and often resistant to change as long as they have the support of a group
  137. 137. Norms serve to keep a group cohesive – can build security and affiliation</li></ul>Discerning Norms…<br /><ul><li>Behaviors that can be seen
  138. 138. What “is”, not what “ought to be”
  139. 139. “Listen, that’s the way we do it here in…”
  140. 140. “In this team everybody….”</li></ul>Source: Clapp (1980) Block, Petrella, Weisbord<br />
  141. 141. Surfacing & Changing Team Norms<br />Common<br />Frequent Positive Practice<br />Positive Norm<br />Frequent Negative Practice<br />Negative Norm<br />Behavioral Frequency <br />Infrequent Positive Practice<br />Potential Positive Norm<br />Infrequent Negative Practice<br />Potential Negative Norm<br />Rare<br />Contribution to Team Effectiveness<br />Low<br />(Hurting)<br />High<br />(Contributing)<br />