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Team leaders


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  • 1. Team Leaders…
  • 2. Stages of Team Development
    Task Performance
    & Effectiveness
    Relationship / Support
    • Each step builds on the previous one
    • 3. Each step prepares for the performing stage
    • 4. Skipping any step affects performing negatively
    • 5. With every new significant challenge, the process repeats.
    Source: Tuckman
  • 6. Forming
    • Orientation period
    • 7. Becoming familiar with one another
    • 8. Identifying the group’s tasks
    • 9. Determining acceptable interpersonal behaviors
    • 10. Relying on leaders for structure
  • Storming
    • Intra-group conflict
    • 11. Challenging others and expressing individual viewpoints
    • 12. Lacking unity
    • 13. Reacting emotionally to tasks
    • 14. Testing out roles within the team  
  • Norming
    • Mutually accepting one another
    • 15. Developing group cohesion
    • 16. Establishing group norms and ground rules
    • 17. Establishing roles within the team
  • Performing
    • Solutions emerge
    • 18. Becoming a problem-solving instrument
    • 19. Contributing to the team’s purpose
    • 20. Becoming interdependent and non-dependant on the leader
  • From Forming to Storming
    • Build a shared purpose/mission and continuously clarify team outcomes
    • 21. Create a sense of urgency and rationale for the purpose/mission
    • 22. Select members based on resource and skill need
    • 23. Invest time getting to know each member’s skills, experiences, and personal goals
    • 24. Bring individuals together to work on common tasks
    • 25. Define recognition and rewards, both individual and team-based
    • 26. Work on personal commitment by linking personal goals to team roles
  • From Storming to Norming
    • Build a common understanding by periodically communicating the team’s purpose/mission
    • 27. Acknowledge times when the group is struggling and take time to discuss ways to move toward “Norming”
    • 28. Set out to achieve focused performance goals / tasks
    • 29. Encourage members to express their differing opinions, ideas, and feelings with open-ended questions
    • 30. Make connections between divergent perspectives; acknowledge and accept where there are differences
    • 31. Build a set of operating agreements (ground rules for team behavior)
    • 32. Raise issues, confront deviations from commitments, and encourage disagreement and conflict
  • From Norming to Performing
    • Develop shared leadership based on expertise and development needs
    • 33. Translate common purpose and team expectations into performance goals that are specified and measurable
    • 34. Build consensus on overarching goals and approaches
    • 35. Formally give and receive feedback within the team
    • 36. Maintain focus on external relationships: commitments, requirements, feedback, and competitive realities
    • 37. Take risks by setting stretch performance goals while simultaneously encouraging the disclosure of fears
    • 38. Celebrate successes, share rewards, recognize team and individual achievements
    • 39. Continue to evaluate team against performance goals
  • High Performing Teams
    “A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.”
    6 team basics - requirements for team performance
    Size - Small Number – (generally fewer than 12)
    Skills - Complementary skills
    Purpose - Common purpose
    Goals - Common set of specific performance goals
    Approach - Commonly agreed upon working approach
    Accountability - Mutual accountability
    Katzenbach and Smith, The Wisdom of Teams
  • 40. Attributes of High Performing Teams
    • Clear goals that are accepted by all team members
    • 41. Set high standards of performance and achieve them
    • 42. Allow members to disagree
    • 43. Embrace & navigate conflict well
    • 44. Sense of unity and distinct personality. Members feel free to represent each other
    • 45. Experience a feeling of synergy
    • 46. Provide an opportunity to learn and grow
    • 47. Is flexible and can readily adapt to change
    • 48. Trust each other enough to ask for help & feedback
    • 49. Members listen and provide useful feedback
    • 50. Communicate effectively. Members express themselves fully and frankly
    • 51. There are no hidden agendas
    • 52. Allow individuals to be themselves and make individual contributions
    • 53. Support and help each other as needed
    • 54. Creatively solves problems
    • 55. Creates a spirit of ownership & sense of belonging
    • 56. Clear roles and responsibilities
    • 57. Interdependent; manages boundaries and works well with other teams
    • 58. Mutual commitment and accountability
    • 59. Makes collective decisions efficiently and effectively
    * Adapted from various sources
  • 60. The 5 Dysfunctions of a Team
    Inattention to
    Avoidance of
    Lack of Commitment
    Fear of Conflict
    Absence of Trust
    Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni
  • 61. Team Members With an Absence of Trust…
    • Conceal their weaknesses and mistakes from one another
    • 62. Hesitate to ask for help or provide constructive feedback
    • 63. Hesitate to offer help outside their own areas of responsibility
    • 64. Jump to conclusions about the intentions and aptitudes of others without attempting to clarify them
    • 65. Fail to recognize and tap into one another’s skills ad experiences
    • 66. Waste time and energy managing their behaviors for effect
    • 67. Hold grudges
    • 68. Dread meetings and find reasons to avoid spending time together
    Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni
  • 69. Members of Trusting Teams…
    • Admit weaknesses and mistakes
    • 70. Ask for help
    • 71. Accept questions and input about their areas of responsibility
    • 72. Give one another the benefit of the doubt before arriving at a negative conclusion
    • 73. Take risks in offering feedback and assistance
    • 74. Appreciate and tap into one another’s skills and experiences
    • 75. Focus time and energy on important issues, not politics
    • 76. Offer and accept apologies without hesitation
    • 77. Look forward to meetings and other opportunities to work as a group
    Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni
  • 78. Teams that Fear Conflict…
    • Have boring meetings
    • 79. Create environments where back-channel politics and personal attacks thrive
    • 80. Ignore controversial topics that are critical to team success
    • 81. Fail to tap into all the opinions and perspectives of team members
    • 82. Waste time and energy with posturing and interpersonal risk management
    Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni
  • 83. Teams that Engage in Conflict…
    • Have lively, interesting meetings
    • 84. Extract and exploit the ideas of all team members
    • 85. Solve real problems quickly
    • 86. Minimize politics
    • 87. Put critical topics on the table for discussion
    Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni
  • 88. A Team that Fails to Commit…
    • Creates ambiguity among the team about direction and priorities
    • 89. Watches window of opportunity close due to excessive analysis and unnecessary delay
    • 90. Breeds lack of confidence and fear of failure
    • 91. Revisits discussions and decisions again and again
    • 92. Encourages second-guessing among team members
    Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni
  • 93. A Team that Commits…
    • Creates clarity around direction and priorities
    • 94. Aligns the team around common objectives
    • 95. Develops an ability to learn from mistakes
    • 96. Takes advantage of opportunities before competitors do
    • 97. Moves forward without hesitation
    • 98. Changes direction without hesitation or guilt
    Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni
  • 99. A Team that Avoids Accountability…
    • Creates resentment among team members who have different standards of performance
    • 100. Encourages mediocrity
    • 101. Misses deadlines and key deliverables
    • 102. Places an undue burden on the team leader as the sole source of discipline
    Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni
  • 103. A Team that Embraces Accountability…
    • Ensures that poor performers feel pressure to improve
    • 104. Identifies potential problems quickly by questioning one another’s approaches without hesitation
    • 105. Establishes respect among team members who are held to the same high standards
    • 106. Avoids excessive bureaucracy around performance management and corrective action
    Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni
  • 107. A Team that is Not Focused on Results…
    • Stagnates and fails to develop and grow
    • 108. Rarely defeats competitors
    • 109. Loses achievement-oriented employees
    • 110. Encourages team members to focus on their own careers and individual goals
    • 111. Is easily distracted
    Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni
  • 112. A Team that Focuses on Results…
    • Retains achievement-oriented employees
    • 113. Minimizes individualistic behavior
    • 114. Enjoys success and suffers failure acutely
    • 115. Benefits from individuals who subjugate their own goals/interests for the good of the team
    • 116. Avoids distractions
    Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni
  • 117. Trust Interventions
    • Personal Histories – where I grew up, family background and challenges
    • 118. Behavioral Profiling – such as Birkman, Hogan, MBTI, DiSC, FiroB, etc.
    • 119. Time Spent Together
    Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni
  • 120. Conflict Interventions
    • Conflict Profiling or Norming – i.e. TKI
    • 121. Conflict Mining – objectively and supportively facilitating hidden or suppressed conflict resolution
    • 122. Real-Time Permission – interruption to reinforce healthy debate
    Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni
  • 123. Commitment Interventions
    • Commitment Clarification – clear articulation of agreements and decisions
    • 124. Cascading Communication – agreements and decisions cascade throughout the organization
    • 125. Scoreboard – organize meeting and discussions around the 2-3 wildly important goals of the organization
    Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni
  • 126. Accountability Interventions
    • Team Effectiveness Activity - Each team member gives specific feedback to all team members on: 1) what is the single most important behavioral characteristic or quality demonstrated by this person that contributes to the strength of the team? & 2) what is the single most important behavioral characteristic or quality demonstrated by this person that can sometimes derail the team?
    • 127. Lightning Round Meeting Introduction – To introduce each meeting - each team member takes 30 seconds to update the team about their top 3 priorities for the week/month. If anyone on the team thinks that those 3 priorities are misplaced – now is the time to say so and initiate discussion.
    Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni
  • 128. Results-Focus Interventions
    • Scoreboard - organize meeting and discussions around the 2-3 wildly important goals of the organization
    • 129. Team-Based Rewards – changing compensation and rewards so that team incentives weigh more heavily than individual incentives
    • 130. Team #1 – team members subordinate the needs and interests of the team they manage to the team in which they belong
    Source:The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, Lencioni
  • 131. Correlating 3 Human Behavior Concepts
  • 132. Source & Nature of Norms
    • Some norms facilitate team effectiveness and some hinder it
    • 133. Norms evolve over a relatively long period of time
    • 134. Norms exist for good reasons – in service to the needs of a group
    • 135. Norms operate with different degrees of intensity dependent on the needs of the individuals
    • 136. Norms are persistent and often resistant to change as long as they have the support of a group
    • 137. Norms serve to keep a group cohesive – can build security and affiliation
    Discerning Norms…
    • Behaviors that can be seen
    • 138. What “is”, not what “ought to be”
    • 139. “Listen, that’s the way we do it here in…”
    • 140. “In this team everybody….”
    Source: Clapp (1980) Block, Petrella, Weisbord
  • 141. Surfacing & Changing Team Norms
    Frequent Positive Practice
    Positive Norm
    Frequent Negative Practice
    Negative Norm
    Behavioral Frequency
    Infrequent Positive Practice
    Potential Positive Norm
    Infrequent Negative Practice
    Potential Negative Norm
    Contribution to Team Effectiveness