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How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey
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How to Deliver Happiness Through Archetypes and Customer Journey

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Throughout history, four fundamental dispositions toward happiness have been described: transformative, altruistic, utilitarian, and perceptive. This research, based on philosophy, psychology, and …

Throughout history, four fundamental dispositions toward happiness have been described: transformative, altruistic, utilitarian, and perceptive. This research, based on philosophy, psychology, and ethnography, describes how companies can deliver on their promises to make customers happier.

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  • 1. PRODUCING HAPPINESS BY DESIGN Prepared by Dave Norton, Ph.D. Founder and Principal Stone Mantel goStoneMantel.com SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 2. WHY THIS DECK? This deck was put together for my friends and fellow Collaborative members to celebrate 2014. In 2013 Stone Mantel launched the Digital Consumer Collaborative. Our aim is to better understand the decision-making processes of digital consumers and apply new strategies and principles to create meaningful brand experiences for them. As a part of our work, several of the Collaborative members began an online dialogue about positive psychology and subjective well-being. It started as a side topic but has become somewhat of an ongoing discussion. This deck reflects on research Stone Mantel has conducted over six years on the subject. It draws from history, field research, positive psychology theory and practice, philosophy, and political studies. The objective: to create principles that organizations could use to keep their promises and help people be happier through experiences. (A warning: I have lost some of the references over the years but would love to quote them if they are still out there.) SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 2 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 3. IN 2008 In 2008, as the great recession was just getting started, I did a historical review of recessions and branding. I assessed how brand strategy had changed over the years and discovered that major shifts in how businesses think about branding aligned with recessions. During recessions consumer priorities shift and business thinking on branding shifts. The pendulum of brand innovation swings during recessions from ‘promise making’ to ‘promise keeping’ and back again (see next two slides). I wanted to project what the next wave of brand innovation would look like. I came to believe that the next wave of strategic brand thinking would be based on happiness. Consumers, no longer able or wanting to ‘keep up with the Joneses’ would prioritize their spending and align themselves with brands that they felt would actually deliver (not just promise) happiness for them. The goal then of companies was to determine principles for producing experiences that made people happier. SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 3 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 4. MACRO BRAND STRATEGY TENDS TO EVOLVE DURING RECESSIONS Over the past 30 years, brand strategy has shifted from innovations in how to make a promise to how to keep a promise, and then to how to make a promise again. In 2008 the shift should have moved to how to keep a promise. Brand Leaders Key Strategic Concept BRAND IMAGE BRAND EXPERIENCE BRAND TRUTH Formative Years 1980 -1982 1990 -1993 2001 -2003 PROMISE MAKING PROMISE KEEPING PROMISE MAKING Type of Innovation SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 4 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 5. BY 2009 MOST BRANDS PROMISED HAPPINESS By 2009 many brands began to emphasize in their promise making that consumers would be happier. Coca Cola and Best Buy were the most obvious. The problem was that consumer sensibility was shifting to brands who could keep a promise, not brands who could make a promise. Happiness is easy to promise but hard to deliver on. SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 5 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 6. SOME ARGUE THAT HAPPINESS IS AT AN ALL TIME LOW “Look around you. While happy families were once the norm, more and more often we see parents and children today rushing frenetically from one task to another— children whining, bickering, tantruming, pouting, parents nagging, complaining and trying to ignore their unruly surly offspring. Can you go to any store, restaurant, or library without seeing these joyless children?” Robert Shaw SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 6 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 7. AND THAT THERE ARE NEW MALADIES IN SOCIETY hurry sickness flow over commercialized childhood habituation pleonexia out of control greed Reality evasion positivism toxic success syndrome presentism SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 7 quick fix © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 8. Q Which is easier for an individual to recover his or her happiness after? Death of a spouse Divorce from a spouse SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 8 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 9. Broken relationships are harder to rebound from than death. A Death of a spouse SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 9 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 10. Q For your happiness, which is better? To worry about a global epidemic To worry about the loss of job SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 10 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 11. Concern about macro events may be associated with greater happiness. The more local or personal the fear, the more unhappy the person is. A To worry about a global epidemic SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 11 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 12. Q Match the country with the fact Highest suicide rate Sweden Highest levels of happiness Russia SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 12 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 13. Sweden is the answer for both. Suicide at a national level does not correlate with happiness. High suicide rates nationally correlate with low levels of belief in God and high incomes, not subjective well-being. A Sweden Highest suicide rate Highest levels of happiness SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 13 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 14. THINGS THAT ARE STRONGLY LINKED TO HAPPINESS Things that are strongly linked to happiness tend to be things that are high in cultural capital. Things like education, health, income, gender, and physical environment depend on situational factors. STRONGLY LINKED IT DEPENDS Community Workplace Education Trustworthiness Belief in God Health Income Happiness Neighbors Gender Family Physical Environment Suicide SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 14 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 15. HOW TO DELIVER HAPPINESS THROUGH ARCHETYPES AND CUSTOMER JOURNEY REQUIREMENTS SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 16. ABOUT THIS SECTION This section is based on primary research conducted by Stone Mantel and a review of the history of happiness. It describes four fundamental dispositions that people throughout history have described when they are happy or are talking about happiness. The dispositions (transformative, altruistic, utilitarian, and perceptive) are the basis for important experience design archetypes that have a demonstrable ability to help people feel happier. Each archetype includes customer journey requirements. When the requirements for the journey are present in the experience, the consumer is very likely to be happier. Stone Mantel has applied these frameworks to client work in travel, pharma, banking, and other industries and affected significant lift in customer happiness. This is a few of the slides for our workshop, Producing Happiness by Design. Two articles based on this work are: David W. Norton, Experience Myopia in the Age of Digital Solutions, 2013 (white paper, gostonemantel.com) and Norton, Durgee, and VanDeVelde, Producing Customer Happiness: The Job to Do for Brand Innovation, 2010 (The Design Management Institute, dmi.org). SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 16 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 17. A SHORT HISTORY OF HAPPINESS Happiness is not a new research topic. Since Socrates (at least) people have been thinking about what makes humans happy. Socrates thought philosophy itself brought people to a higher purpose and gave them a powerful internal life. Nietzsche wasn’t so sure that the contemplated life need to have a higher purpose but he located happiness within the self. Epicurus reflected on meaning associated with the sensory life. Darwin came at meaning from a physical/ evolutionary stance but located happiness in a similar type of experience as Epicurus. Du Chatelet, her heart broken, felt that happiness was a façade and a lie caused by the self and biology. Marx said that people could not be happy unless they were a part of the worker’s movement. Jeremy Bentham came up with a theory of happiness based on utility. Most economists use it today. Perpetua and her slave, Felicitas, converts to Christianity, died happy because they believed a loving God who prepared a better place for them. SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 Socrates Epicurus Perpetua and Felicitas Bentham Higher Purposed Socrates de La Mettrie Marx Vibia Perpetua du Chatelet Friedrich Nietzsche Within Self Through Karl Marx Others Epicurus Darwin Jeremy Bentham Charles Darwin Marquise du Chatelet Julien Offray de La Mettrie Physical (Sensorial) Nietzsche 17 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 18. A SHORT HISTORY OF HAPPINESS All philosophers and even modern researchers make assumptions regarding how to locate happiness and what the aim of happiness is. In fact, these are the only common threads throughout history. By plotting their approaches to happiness based on locus (or where they situate happiness) and aim, we see four distinct patterns emerge. Higher Purposed Socrates, Plato, Aristotle Augustine Thomas Aquinas John Stuart Mill Vibia Perpetua Thomas Jefferson Martin Luther Within Self Jean-Jacques Rousseau Thomas More Friedrich Nietzsche Locus Aim Samuel Coleridge Benjamin Franklin Giovanni Pico Alexis de Tocqueville Karl Marx Through Others Epicurus John Locke Jeremy Bentham David Hume Charles Darwin Marquise du Chatelet Sigmund Freud Julien Offray de La Mettrie Physical (Sensorial) SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 18 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 19. FOUR HAPPINESS ARCHETYPES Brands can dramatically increase the likelihood of delivering happiness to consumers when they develop expertise in one of these four archetypes. Higher Purposed Altruistic Transformative Helps improve the self/org through goal attainment and epiphany Locus Aim Helps the individual connect with and help others Within Self Through Others Maximizes pleasure from a staged experience Helps the individual/org think/feel positive emotions Perceptive Utilitarian Physical (Sensorial) SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 19 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 20. MAPPING SELIGMAN’S PERMA MODEL Martin Seligman has recently updated his theory of well-being. It’s a holistic model that addresses all four types of happiness. It leans somewhat toward activity within the self, as do most positive psychology models. Higher Purposed Transformative 5. Accomplishment Aim Altruistic 3. Meaning 4. Relationships Locus Within Through Others Self 2. Engagement 1. Positive Emotion Physical (Sensorial) Perceptive SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 20 Utilitarian © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 21. YOUR BRAND PREDISPOSES YOUR CUSTOMERS TO EXPERIENCE A TYPE OF HAPPINESS Higher Purposed Aim Transformative Altruistic Harvard Haliburton SAP Siemens Société Générale Locus Within Self Weight Watchers Ernst & Young Archer Daniels Midland Apple Novartis Google Newmans Own Frito Lay Best Buy Microsoft Pandora Shell Sodexo Verizon Philips McDonalds Bath & Body Works SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 Physical (Sensorial) 21 Disney Hallmark Amway Through Others Canadian Tire Coca Cola Hyundai Nintendo Royal Caribbean International Lenovo Perceptive Facebook Bellagio Utilitarian © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 22. CUSTOMER JOURNEY REQUIREMENTS DIFFER BASED ON ARCHETYPE Higher Purposed Altruistic Transformative Helps the individual connect with and help others Helps improve the self/org through goal attainment and epiphany Within Self Through Others Maximizes pleasure from a staged experience Helps the individual/org think/feel positive emotions Perceptive Utilitarian Physical (Sensorial) SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 22 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 23. PERCEPTIVE JOURNEY REQUIREMENTS To deliver on Perceptive happiness, companies develop expertise in producing stimulus that causes the consumer to reflect and remember positive experience. Then develop something new or adaptive for the experience. This journey is repeated regularly to prompt positive emotions. 2. Reflection 1. Stimulus 3. Newness/Adaptation DESIGN OBJECTIVE Help people to think/feel positive emotions 1. Strong stimulus Ability to create things that evoke the right emotion. SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 2. Reflection 3. Newness/Adaptation Triggers that encourage the Ability to create new emotions customer to reflect on feelings or different emotions. or thoughts and make meaning 23 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 24. PERCEPTIVE JOURNEY EXAMPLES Books, cereal boxes, billboards, logos, and Pandora often have the same journey structure and can produce the same perceptive type of happiness. People value the experience based on their ability to think/feel deeply. SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 24 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 25. UTILITARIAN JOURNEY REQUIREMENTS To deliver on Utilitarian happiness, companies invent tools that create dramatic action so that the consumer feels a lift. The company continually creates better tools and better experiences based on those tools that maximize pleasure. DESIGN OBJECTIVE Maximizes pleasure from a staged experience 2. Dramatic Action 1. Tools 3. Newness/ Adaptation 1. Tools Simple but robust tools that reduce unwanted activity. 2. Dramatic Action Experience builds for customer to a climatic moment. 3. Newness/Adaptation Ability to add on new and make customer feel that next time will be even better. SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 25 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 26. UTILITARIAN JOURNEY EXAMPLES A Google search, a roller coaster, and a CAT scan have the same journey structure and can produce the same functional type of happiness. Consumers value the experience based on pleasure or lack thereof associated with the experience. SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 26 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 27. TRANSFORMATIVE JOURNEY REQUIREMENTS To deliver on Transformative happiness, companies identify goals that elevate consumers or organizations. They provide tools to review current state of the individual, guide individuals, share knowledge, and create flow. DESIGN OBJECTIVE Helps the individual/org improve the self/org through goal attainment and epiphany 1. A Goal that Elevates The ability to define a goal that stretches and elevates the customer 2. Current State Review A diagnostic that effectively assesses the customer’s current state. 1. Goal that elevates New knowledge 4. Current state review 2. 3. Guides SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 5. Flow 3. Guides Guides that help the customer progress toward the goal. 4. New Knowledge The ability to share new knowledge that builds on what was known. 5. Flow Producing the feeling of ‘flow’ during the transformation 27 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 28. TRANSFORMATIVE JOURNEY EXAMPLES Weight Watchers, a consulting engagement, a technology upgrade, and a physician visit have the same journey structure and can produce the same, transformative type of happiness. People value the experience based on their ability to achieve unstated and stated goals. SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 28 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 29. ALTRUISTIC JOURNEY REQUIREMENTS To deliver on Altruistic happiness, companies become expert at identifying common causes that people care about, creating opportunities for individual to prepare, give a gift, and reconnect. The company must be able to facilitate the encounter. DESIGN OBJECTIVE Helps the individual/org help others accomplish something important 1. Common Cause 2. Personal preparation 5. Reconnection 1. A Shared Common Cause Ability to produce a common cause that others share. 2. Personal Preparation Help participants to be part of the group. 3. A Facilitated Encounter A forum or venue for gathering. 3. A facilitated encounter 4. Gift giving 4. Gift Giving The ability to facilitate a gift between two participants. 5. Reconnection Ability to help participants reconnect. SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 29 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 30. ALTRUISTIC JOURNEY EXAMPLES Facebook and a cruise have the same journey structure and can produce the same, altruistic type of happiness. People value the experience based on their ability to find a common purpose and to relate and connect with others. SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 30 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 31. FOR EXAMPLE The archetype you deliver for can significantly change the types of innovations you produce and that you pre-dispose your customers to expect from you. Spotify can do things that Pandora does not have permission to do because the experience predisposes the customer differently. Pandora delivers Perceptive SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 Spotify delivers Altruistic 31 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 32. FOR EXAMPLE The archetype you deliver for can significantly change the types of innovations you produce and that you pre-dispose your customers to expect from you. Spotify can do things that Pandora does not have permission to do because the experience predisposes the customer differently. Pandora Uses stimulus, reflection, and adaptation to create ongoing emotions Higher Purposed Transformative Altruistic Stimulus Sophisticated filtering tool to stream similar songs Reflection Prompts listener to see similarities and Through Others differences between artists Within Self Adaptation Combine streams to create new similarities Pandora Perceptive SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 Physical (Sensorial) Utilitarian 32 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 33. FOR EXAMPLE The archetype you deliver for can significantly change the types of innovations you produce and that you pre-dispose your customers to expect from you. Spotify can do things that Pandora does not have permission to do because the experience predisposes the customer differently. Spotify Helps the individual/org help others accomplish something important Higher Purposed Transformative Altruistic Spotify 1. Common cause Great music should be shared 2. Personal preparation Create your own station Within Self Through Others 3. Facilitated encounter Tools to connect people: find and share 4. Gift giving Feels like something personal 5. Reconnection Ability to develop communities Perceptive SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 Physical (Sensorial) Utilitarian 33 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 34. HAPPINESS ARCHETYPES = JOB ARCHETYPES Job Definition Happiness Definition The four archetypes for happiness translate into four archetypes of jobs to get done for customers (using Clayton Christensen’s vernacular). If your goal is to positively affect the well-being of the consumer, use the happiness definitions. If you need to help your company clarify its innovation priorities, use the job definitions. UTILITARIAN Maximizes pleasure from a staged experience PERCEPTIVE ALTRUSTIC Helps the individual/org think/ feel positive emotions TRANSFORMATIVE Helps the individual connect with and help others Helps improve the self/org through goal attainment and epiphany FUNCTIONAL EMOTIONAL SOCIAL ASPIRATIONAL Help me accomplish a task Help me feel deeply about a moment Help me relate to others Help me change something important SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 34 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 35. By shifting from one archetype to another, you can change the strategic thrust of your solutions (no pun intended). a functional vs. a social job archetype SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 35 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 36. FIVE KEY THINGS FOR MARKETERS TO CARE ABOUT IN DESIGNING FOR HAPPINESS FROM POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 36 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 37. 1. CONSUMERS PUSH BACK ON CONSPICUOUS CONSUMPTION For years consumers had been promised by brands a variation of the theme: if you’ve got the car, you’re going to get the girl. As incomes and assets dropped, consumers became aware that more income did not translate to more satisfaction with life or meaningful relationships. At a certain point satisfaction with life goes down when people focus on money. Satisfaction goes up when they focus on love and friendship. Relative Importance HIGH LOW 1 2 3 4 5 Life Satisfaction LOW 6 7 HIGH MONEY LOVE SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 37 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 38. 2. THE HEDONIC TREADMILL CAN HURT Social scientists who study happiness call what consumers were experiencing in 2008 the hedonic treadmill. People accumulate at a faster pace but feel that they running in place when it comes to their sense of well-being. Consuming more does not translate to higher levels of satisfaction. When a major recession hits its like tripping and falling on the treadmill. SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 38 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 39. 3. THE MIND CAN TRIP OVER ANTICIPATION A number of studies have shown that the mind’s ability to to anticipate, called prospection, can trip up a person’s ability to be happy. The longer we anticipate an experience, the more likely we are to not be able to make a decision that will make us happy. Companies that build high expectations through promise making regarding customer happiness can actually negatively impact the consumer’s felt happiness. Prospection 1: the act of anticipating 2: the act of viewing 3: the act of exploring (as for gold) Foresight SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 39 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 40. 4. THE ABILITY TO DEAL WITH REALITY IS IMPERITIVE TO DURABLE HAPPINESS People who daydream or fantasize too much tend to be unhappy, while people who are positive about their reality are happier. A major critique of advertising is that it facilitates fantasy and the hedonic treadmill and does not help consumers feel positive about their current reality. One could argue that most brands are not in the business of producing happiness. They are in the business of producing dissatisfaction with current. Nick Baylis “Relationship with reality and the wellbeing of young adults” 2006 SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 40 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 41. 5. MEMBERSHIP PRODUCES GREATER HAPPINESS Research by Kitayama and Markus in the early 1990s asked the question: why are these kids from Sumatra smiling? Answer: because everyone else is smiling. Happiness is contagious. When you are around others who are happy, you are happier. Companies can help to facilitate happiness by helping consumers feel a part of a happy group—as long as it’s based in reality, not fantasy. Sumatran Children SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 41 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 42. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LOYALTY AND HAPPINESS The implications of the positive psychology research on happiness and business practices today suggest that most companies are not really in the business of producing happiness, they are in the business of producing loyalty. To produce happiness requires different strategic objectives, effects on consumers, design strategies, and success metrics. Happiness Loyalty Objective Improve the well being of the customer Keep the customer as long as possible Effect Extrinsic or intrinsic goal achievement Satisfaction with a product Design Strategy Align archetype with customer disposition Respond to incremental needs Success Metrics Happiness, Time Well Spent, Goal Achievement Recommend, Use, Stay SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 42 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC
  • 43. Thank You! To go deeper around a concept or apply these principles to your research and strategy, contact: Dave Norton Stone Mantel davenorton@goStoneMantel.com SLIDESHARE | 7 JAN 2014 43 © 2014 Stone Mantel LLC

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