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  • 1. Green Energy and Technology
  • 2. Ayhan Demirbas Biofuels Securing the Planet’s Future Energy Needs 123
  • 3. Ayhan Demirbas, Professor of Energy Technology Sila Science and Energy Trabzon Turkey ISBN 978-1-84882-010-4 e-ISBN 978-1-84882-011-1 DOI 10.1007/978-1-84882-011-1 Green Energy and Technology ISSN 1865-3529 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Control Number: 2008940429 © 2009 Springer-Verlag London Limited Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may only be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers. The use of registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions that may be made. Cover design: WMXDesign, Heidelberg, Germany Printed on acid-free paper 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 springer.com
  • 4. Preface Today’s world is facing two critical problems: (1) high fuel prices, and (2) climatic changes. Experts suggest that current oil and gas reserves would suffice to last only a few more decades. It is well known that transport is almost totally dependent on fossil fuels, particularly petroleum-based fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel, liquefied petroleum gas, and natural gas. Of special concern are the liquid fuels used in automobiles. Hence, there has been widespread recent interest in learning more about obtaining liquid fuels from non-fossil sources. The combination of rising oil prices, issues of security, climate instability, and pollution, and deepening poverty in rural and agricultural areas, is propelling governments to enact powerful incentives for the use of these fuels, which is in turn sparking investment. In fact, the world is on the verge of an unprecedented increase in the production and use of biofuels for transport. Production of grain-based ethanol and vegetable-oil-based biodiesel is today facing difficulties due to competition with food supply. This book unifies the production of various usable liquid fuels from biomass by using a variety of technologies. Biofuels appear to be a potential alternative “greener” energy substitute for fossil fuels. They are renewable and available throughout the world. Biomass can contribute to sustainable development and globally environmental preservation since it is renewable and carbon neutral. This book on biofuels attempts to address the needs of energy researchers, chemical engineers, chemical engineering students, energy resources specialists, engineers, agriculturists, crop cultivators, and others interested in a practical tool for pursuing their interests in relation to bioenergy. Each chapter in the book starts with basic/fundamental explanations suitable for general readers and ends with indepth scientific details suitable for expert readers. General readers will include people interested in learning about solutions for current fuel and environmental crises. Expert readers will include chemists, chemical engineers, fuel engineers, agricultural engineers, farming specialists, biologists, fuel processors, policy makers, environmentalists, environmental engineers, automobile engineers, college v
  • 5. vi Preface students, research faculties, etc. The book may even be adopted as a text book for college courses that deal with renewable energy and/or sustainability. The Introduction already comprises one seventh of the book; in these pages emphasis is laid in detail on global energy sources, fossil fuels, and renewables, i.e., biomass, hydro, wind, solar, geothermal, and marine energy sources. The second chapter is entitled “Biomass Feedstocks” and includes main biomass sources, characterization, and valorization. The third chapter is an introduction to biofuels. Furthermore, processing conditions are discussed briefly, as well as alternative applications of biorenewable feedstocks in the following chapters. The fourth and fifth chapters on “Liquid and Gaseous Biofuels”, including main liquid biofuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas, biohydrogen, liquid and gaseous fuels from the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis are addressed in detail. The sixth chapter on “Thermochemical Conversion Processes” covers the utilization of biorenewables for engine fuels and chemicals. The seventh and eighth chapters include “Biofuel Economy and Biofuel Policy”. Trabzon, Turkey, July 2008 Ayhan Demirbas
  • 6. Contents 1 2 Introduction............................................................................................. 1.1 Introduction to Energy Sources ..................................................... 1.2 Short Supply of Fossil Fuels.......................................................... 1.2.1 Petroleum in the World .................................................... 1.2.2 Natural Gas as the Fastest Growing Primary Energy Source in the World ......................................................... 1.2.3 Coal as a Fuel and Chemical Feedstock........................... 1.3 Introduction to Renewable and Biorenewable Sources ................. 1.3.1 Non-combustible Renewable Energy Sources ................. 1.3.2 Biorenewable Energy Sources ......................................... References................................................................................................. 1 1 4 4 10 15 18 20 31 43 Biomass Feedstocks................................................................................. 2.1 Introduction to Biomass Feedstocks.............................................. 2.1.1 Definitions........................................................................ 2.1.2 Biomass Feedstocks ......................................................... 2.2 Biomass Characterization .............................................................. 2.2.1 Characterization of Biomass Feedstock and Products ..... 2.2.2 Biomass Process Design and Development ..................... 2.3 Biomass Fuel Analyses.................................................................. 2.3.1 Particle Size and Specific Gravity.................................... 2.3.2 Ash Content ..................................................................... 2.3.3 Moisture Content ............................................................. 2.3.4 Extractive Content............................................................ 2.3.5 Element Content............................................................... 2.3.6 Structural Constituent Content......................................... 2.3.7 The Energy Value of Biomass ......................................... 2.4 Biomass Optimization and Valorization........................................ 2.4.1 Fuels from Biomass ......................................................... 2.4.2 Chemicals from Biomass ................................................. 45 45 46 54 58 59 60 61 62 62 62 62 63 63 63 65 67 70 vii
  • 7. viii Contents 2.4.3 Char from Biomass .......................................................... 72 2.4.4 Adhesives from Biomass ................................................. 74 2.4.5 Valorization of Wood....................................................... 78 References................................................................................................. 81 3 Biofuels .................................................................................................... 3.1 Introduction to Biofuels................................................................. 3.1.1 Economic Impact of Biofuels........................................... 3.1.2 Environmental Impact of Biofuels ................................... References................................................................................................. 87 87 90 94 99 4 Biorenewable Liquid Fuels .................................................................... 4.1 Introduction to Biorenewable Liquid Fuels ................................... 4.1.1 Evaluation of Gasoline-Alcohol Mixtures as Motor Fuel Alternatives............................................... 4.1.2 Evaluation of Vegetable Oils and Diesel Fuel Mixtures as Motor Fuel Alternatives............................................... 4.2 Bioalcohols.................................................................................... 4.2.1 Alternate Fuels to Gasoline.............................................. 4.3 Bioethanol ..................................................................................... 4.3.1 Synthetic Ethanol Production Processes .......................... 4.3.2 Production of Ethanol from Biomass ............................... 4.3.3 Sugars from Biomass by Hydrolysis................................ 4.3.4 Bioethanol Production by Fermentation of Carbohydrates .............................................................. 4.3.5 Bioethanol Feedstocks ..................................................... 4.3.6 Fuel Properties of Ethanol................................................ 4.4 Biomethanol .................................................................................. 4.5 Vegetable Oils ............................................................................... 4.5.1 Alternatives to Diesel Fuel............................................... 4.5.2 Vegetable Oil Resources.................................................. 4.5.3 The Use of Vegetable Oils as Diesel Fuel........................ 4.5.4 New Biorenewable Fuels from Vegetable Oils................ 4.5.5 Properties of Triglycerides............................................... 4.5.6 Triglyceride Economy...................................................... 4.6 Biodiesel........................................................................................ 4.6.1 The History of Biodiesel .................................................. 4.6.2 Definitions of Biodiesel ................................................... 4.6.3 Biodiesel from Triglycerides via Transesterification ....... 4.6.4 Recovery of Glycerol ....................................................... 4.6.5 Reaction Mechanism of Transesterification..................... 4.6.6 Current Biodiesel Production Technologies .................... 4.6.7 Biodiesel Production Processes........................................ 4.6.8 Basic Plant Equipment Used in Biodiesel Production ..... 4.6.9 Fuel Properties of Biodiesels ........................................... 103 103 104 105 105 106 108 108 109 111 115 119 120 122 126 131 133 137 143 153 156 156 158 160 162 171 173 176 180 185 186
  • 8. Contents 4.6.10 Advantages of Biodiesels................................................. 4.6.11 Disadvantages of Biodiesel as Motor Fuel....................... 4.6.12 Engine Performance Tests................................................ 4.7 Bio-oils from Biorenewables......................................................... 4.8 Other Alternate Liquid Fuels......................................................... 4.8.1 Glycerol-Based Fuel Oxygenates for Biodiesel and Diesel Fuel Blends .................................................... 4.8.2 P-series Fuels ................................................................... 4.8.3 Dimethyl Ether (DME) .................................................... 4.8.4 Fischer–Tropsch (FT) Liquid Fuel from Biomass ........... 4.8.5 Other Bio-oxygenated Liquid Fuels................................. References................................................................................................. 5 6 ix 193 198 199 211 217 217 220 221 221 222 223 Biorenewable Gaseous Fuels.................................................................. 5.1 Introduction to Biorenewable Gaseous Fuels ................................ 5.2 Biogas............................................................................................ 5.2.1 Aerobic Conversion Processes......................................... 5.2.2 Anaerobic Conversion Processes ..................................... 5.2.3 Biogas Processing ............................................................ 5.2.4 Reactor Technology for Anaerobic Digestion.................. 5.3 Landfill Gas................................................................................... 5.4 Crude Gases from Pyrolysis and Gasification of Biomass ............ 5.5 Biohydrogen from Biorenewable Feedstocks................................ 5.5.1 Hydrogen from Biorenewable Feedstocks via Thermochemical Conversion Processes ..................... 5.5.2 Biohydrogen from Biorenewable Feedstocks .................. 5.6 Gaseous Fuels from Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis of Biomass ........ References................................................................................................. 231 231 232 233 233 236 242 245 248 249 Thermochemical Conversion Processes ................................................ 6.1 Introduction to Thermochemical Conversion Processes................ 6.2 Thermal Decomposition Mechanisms of Biorenewables .............. 6.3 Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biorenewable Feedstocks ............. 6.3.1 The Role of Water During the HTL Process.................... 6.3.2 HTU Applications ............................................................ 6.4 Direct Combustion of Biomass...................................................... 6.4.1 Combustion Efficiency .................................................... 6.5 Direct Liquefaction........................................................................ 6.6 Pyrolysis Processes........................................................................ 6.6.1 Reaction Mechanism of Pyrolysis.................................... 6.7 Gasification Research and Development....................................... 6.7.1 Biomass Gasification ....................................................... 6.7.2 Biomass Gasification Systems ......................................... 6.7.3 Electricity from Cogenerative Biomass Firing Power Plants..................................................................... 261 261 264 266 270 270 271 273 275 277 281 283 285 287 250 254 255 257 293
  • 9. x Contents 6.7.4 Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) .................................... 296 6.7.5 Supercritical Steam Gasification...................................... 299 References................................................................................................. 302 7 8 Biofuel Economy ..................................................................................... 7.1 Introduction to Biofuel Economy .................................................. 7.2 Biofuel Economy........................................................................... 7.2.1 Estimation of Biofuel Prices ............................................ 7.2.2 Biodiesel Economy .......................................................... 7.2.3 Bioethanol Economy........................................................ 7.2.4 Biorenewable Energy Costs and Biohydrogen Economy.............................................. References................................................................................................. 305 305 307 309 309 313 Biofuel Policy........................................................................................... 8.1 Introduction to Biofuel Policy ....................................................... 8.2 Biofuel Policy................................................................................ 8.2.1 Biodiesel Policy ............................................................... 8.3 Global Biofuel Projections ............................................................ References................................................................................................. 319 319 320 321 325 328 315 316 Index ................................................................................................................. 331