Trends affecting digital processing


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  • 2. Parsing and leveraging content. An increasingly prevalent trend among journals publishers, particularly in STM, is to maximize the availability (and profitability) of publications by enabling readers to access (and purchase) discrete units and bundles of content beyond a journal issue or subscription. Like the listeners using iTunes, researchers today are empowered increasingly to gain access to the precise configuration of content they desire—an individual article, a handful of articles within a journal issue, or a bundle of content across journal issues, different journals, or, for some publishers, across a range of topically related books and journals. Such fracturing of the print-bound journal issue and book is not new—faculty and graduate researchers have been selectively picking and assembling content for themselves since the long-ago days of the Kinko's-printed course packets. ASHA's journals similarly can now be accessed as discrete articles or bundles of content. Such versatile leveraging of content in no way signals the demise of journals, but rather their redefinition. Instead of being limited to a series of discrete printed events, journals are now increasingly regarded as prestige brands identified with a certain type of continually unfolding scholarly content, whenever the date of availability. The journal is dead—long live the journal!
  • However, as evinced by such dynamic media as Sophie and Commentpress digital publications themselves can potentially house and facilitate interactive discussions of content between authors and readers, and—most notably for SLPs and audiologists—between evidence-based researchers and clinicians. Although largely unexplored at present, such interactivity holds considerable promise for engaging practitioners more fully in the process of research.
  • In the short term the British Library's digital processing operations are going to be faced with a very large amount of data to handle. This is going to require scalable solutions that are both cost effective and manageable.The increasing trend towards electronic only publishing is not only increasing the amount of digital material soon to be liable for legal deposit but is also having knock on effects in what consumers of the published material want to do with the data.Increasingly dynamic data is being made accessible either through portals, data sets, mashups or publisher initiatives.When this dynamic data is published, it is often in the form of a snapshot, but the true value and richness for the data consumer lies in the resource which is often accessible online.These dynamic resources are frequently updated and commented on by peers, scholars and academics.I expect that the social networking trends with the likes of facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter etc. are going to become more pervasive as integrated parts of publisher web sites, discipline specific portals and digital libraries.Data delivery is becoming much more part of a community experience than a fixed deliverable.The British Library has the challenge to migrate it's digital processing operations to capture not only published artefacts but also the comments and criticisms posted as part of social networking. This will require a hollistic tie up between what are currently separate content streams. e.g. e-Journals and Web Archiving.In the future, researchers may be as interested in how a published resource was assembled, written and commented on, as they are in the published resource itself.e-Book readers are increasing in number, and are becoming ubiquitous.In the future new e-Book readers promise to merge with other devices as part of device convergence to offer unique experiences to the reader.One can therefore envisage a time when scanning a book with OCR will be required to enable a value-added and enhanced reader experience on new devices.Scholarly communications in electronic form are enabling much more interdisciplinary cooperation, it is in this field that most new discoveries are expected to come.Therefore, the demands of researchers are only going to increase with time, with their wanting to quickly search across complete collecitons and libraries.The future is mobile and smartphones and tablets enable comsumerism of on-demand quality data. Dedicated apps already build relationships with users and this will increase to enable research and learning in a social media paradigm.This will require leveraging technologies that enable the application of standards and semantic linking, much of which will require value added metadata enhancement.The cancellation of print licenses and the increase in electronic only licenses for the Library's Document Supply Service are going to require digital processing operations to capture the Digital Rights associated with the content as well as dealing with larger volumes of purchased digital material.Publishers continue to push the envelope to drive down their costs by outsourcing their infrastructure and content management systems. There is a clear trend for publishers to use off-shore resources (both human and machine) to enable the timely and cost-effective creation of their products. This will affect who the British Library has to interact with and the standards and technologies used to receive electronic content.
  • Some of the important trends, I believe, are: - Global sourcing instead of local - Further elimination of non value added resellers and so shortening the supply chain. - More focus on social justified entrepreneurship and "Green" procurement (environmental issues) - Further power shift from sellers to buyers - More REAL value added partnerships (for example a bank that offers his clients mobile telephony together with his telecom partner) - More outsourcing activities so internal employees can focus on strategy Supply chains do not react well to surprises. Most organizations inherently know that unanticipated events reduce confidence and invariably lead to increases in an organization's costs. Companies who manage their supply chains well are highly-aware of this danger and treat sustainability objectives using similar risk management strategies avoiding this possibility of higher costs. There are a handful of companies seizing upon this area as an untapped opportunity to reduce costs. In the UK, examples of best practice has been exemplified by Marks & Spencer and United Utilities. They suggest, in partnership with suppliers, that the supply chain are taken on a journey with key objectives set 5-6 years into the future. This long-term approach allows suppliers to understand what the company will value in the future and enables them to innovate around these themes.Companies using advanced supply management techniques such as collaborative cost reduction (CPFR), End-to-End integration, tiered sourcing and design-to-cost generate nearly twice the rate of savings on their procurement of direct and indirect materials and services than companies solely relying on traditional sourcing methods. It is no longer enough to capture cost savings through traditional sourcing strategies, procurement needs to drive other operational benefits such as improved working capital or increased quality of products and services.
  • The agile business embraces change rapidly and gracefully. To be ready, the business needs an infrastructure that supports change without disruption or excessive cost. An adaptive infrastructure enables the business to cope with unforeseen circumstances and competitive demands. To build, use and manage adaptive enterprise solutions you need an infrastructure planning process that supports new and growing business initiatives.
  • Trends affecting digital processing

    1. 1. Trends affecting Digital Processing What are the key trends in national and international publishing, scholarly communications and procurement that you think will affect the implementation of the British Library’s digital processing operations
    2. 2. Trends affecting Digital Processing Business Context:  Multiple varying inputs… e.g. Off-shore keying (APEX), Aggregators (Ingenta, MetaPress etc.), Out-sourcing, Publishers at different levels of automation and complexity, legal deposit and purchased (EStar)  Fragmented publisher marketplace different maturity, approaches, sizes and systems  On-going Publisher engagement both technical and administrative  Different levels of published granularity and supplied packages  Very large volumes of data  Changing standards 2
    3. 3. Trends affecting Digital Processing Instead of being limited to a series of discrete printed events, journals are now increasingly regarded as prestige brands identified with a certain type of continually unfolding scholarly content, whenever the date of availability. 3
    4. 4. Trends affecting Digital Processing Peer-Reviewing 4
    5. 5. Trends affecting Digital Processing Each book, journal, issue, journal article, research article etc. does not stand alone but is intrinsically embedded within a greater semantic world, a relational landscape of content Meta-tagging and linking => research pathway 5
    6. 6. Trends affecting Digital Processing Increase in multimedia components and electronic supplemental materials. 6 Deeply textured articles Dynamic articles Clinical and experimental procedures Discourse transcripts Data from individual participants Video and Audio Enhances translation of research Enhances replication of research Research in Audiology Speech- language pathology
    7. 7. Trends affecting Digital Processing Growing interactivity and dialogue – virtual communities Dynamic media e.g. Sophie and Commentpress 7 wikis blogs MySpace Second Life Facebook Forums Listservs Blogs
    8. 8. Trends affecting Digital Processing Moving to Mobile Preferred way to read and retrieve with individualization and mobility 8 Kindle Nook iPad Droid iPhone
    9. 9. Trends affecting Digital Processing “Scholarly presses should continue to publish the best work being produced. That is our job. We need, however, to deliver that scholarship to our readers in the format they find most useful, most supportive of their own work, while maintaining a workable financial model to support its publication. That means exploring new formats when they become available. New technology, used intelligently and effectively, offers the opportunity to provide scholars and their students with the material they need in a useful form, and it offers scholarly publishers one way to maintain their role as creative and skilled disseminators of that work. It is our job to figure out what is intelligent and effective in the digital/online format.” Kate Wittenberg, Director of the Electronic Publishing Initiative at Columbia University 9
    10. 10. Trends affecting Digital Processing 10 Diversity of formats + repackaging, repurposing, bundling Large Scale, huge data challenges, petabytes not terabytes Dynamic Data, Database publishing for multi-platform - mobile, tablet and online Social Networking integration = community experience Device Convergence e.g. e-Book+ readers Interdisciplinary cooperation Digital Rights, Open Access Publisher systems outsourced Low entry to electronic publishing e.g. Print on Demand
    11. 11. Trends affecting Digital Processing • Global sourcing instead of local • Further elimination of non value added resellers and so shortening the supply chain. • More focus on social justified entrepreneurship, "Green" procurement (environmental issues) and sustainable procurement • Further power shift from sellers to buyers • More REAL value added partnerships • advanced supply management techniques: collaborative cost reduction (CPFR), End-to-End integration, tiered sourcing design-to-cost • improved working capital • increased quality of products and services 11
    12. 12. Trends affecting Digital Processing Agile business change Adaptive Infrastructure Adaptive enterprise solution requires infrastructure planning process 12
    13. 13. 13 Trends affecting Digital Processing Key Organizing Principles for Adaptive Infrastructure
    14. 14. 14 Trends affecting Digital Processing Goals of a Pattern-based Infrastructure
    15. 15. 15 Trends affecting Digital Processing Benefits of Adaptive Infrastructure
    16. 16. 16 Trends affecting Digital Processing Industry standard Best Practice:  Code Re-use where appropriate  Version Control on all source code  Standardisation within the workflow as well as outside it  Modular design  Flexible architecture  Extendable functionality  Simplification first  Incremental Implementation  Tested with large datasets from the outset