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Managing Data Resources Chapter 7 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources ©  20...
Management Challenges <ul><li>Organizational obstacles to a database environment </li></ul><ul><li>Cost/benefit considerat...
<ul><li>Bit:  Smallest unit of data; binary digit (0,1) </li></ul><ul><li>Byte:  Group of bits that represents a single ch...
<ul><li>Database:  Group of related files </li></ul><ul><li>Entity:  Person, place, thing, or event about which informatio...
Organizing Data in a Traditional File Environment The data hierarchy Figure 7-1
Organizing Data in a Traditional File Environment Entities and attributes Figure 7-2
<ul><li>Data redundancy </li></ul><ul><li>Program-data dependence </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>...
Organizing Data in a Traditional File Environment Traditional file processing Figure 7-3
<ul><li>Database </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of centralized data  </li></ul><ul><li>Controls redundant data </li></ul><ul...
The Database Approach to Data Management The contemporary database environment Figure 7-4
<ul><li>Database Management System (DBMS) </li></ul><ul><li>Creates and maintains databases </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates r...
<ul><li>Three Components to a DBMS </li></ul><ul><li>Data definition language:  Formal language programmers use to specify...
The Database Approach to Data Management Sample data dictionary report Figure 7-5
<ul><li>How a DBMS Solves Problems of a </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional File Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces data redu...
<ul><li>Relational DBMS </li></ul><ul><li>Represents data as two-dimensional tables called relations </li></ul><ul><li>Rel...
The Database Approach to Data Management The relational data model Figure 7-6
<ul><li>Three Basic Operations in a Relational Database </li></ul><ul><li>Select:  Creates subset of rows that meet specif...
The Database Approach to Data Management The three basic operations of a relational DBMS Figure 7-7
<ul><li>Hierarchical DBMS </li></ul><ul><li>Older system presenting data in tree-like structure </li></ul><ul><li>Models o...
The Database Approach to Data Management A hierarchical database for a human resources system Figure 7-8
<ul><li>Network DBMS </li></ul><ul><li>Older logical database model </li></ul><ul><li>Models many-to-many parent-child rel...
The Database Approach to Data Management The network data model Figure 7-9
<ul><li>Disadvantages of Hierarchical and  </li></ul><ul><li>Network DBMS </li></ul><ul><li>Outdated </li></ul><ul><li>Les...
<ul><li>Object-Oriented Databases (OODBMS) </li></ul><ul><li>Stores data and procedures as objects </li></ul><ul><li>Bette...
<ul><li>Two Design Exercises in Creating Database </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual (logical) design:  Abstract model of databa...
<ul><li>Conceptual Database Design </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies relationships between data elements </li></ul><ul><li>Iden...
<ul><li>Entity-Relationship Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>A methodology for documenting databases that illustrates the relatio...
Creating a Database Environment An entity-relationship diagram Figure 7-10
Creating a Database Environment An unnormalized relation for ORDER Figure 7-11
Creating a Database Environment A normalized relation for ORDER Figure 7-12
<ul><li>Distributed Database </li></ul><ul><li>Partitioned or replicated to more than one location </li></ul><ul><li>Incre...
Creating a Database Environment Distributed databases Figure 7-13
Creating a Database Environment Key organizational elements in the database environment Figure 7-14
<ul><li>Data Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Develop information policy </li></ul><ul><li>Define information requirements...
<ul><li>Data Planning and Modeling Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise-wide planning for data </li></ul><ul><li>Ident...
<ul><li>Database Technology, Management,  </li></ul><ul><li>and Users </li></ul><ul><li>Databases require DBMS software an...
<ul><li>Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) </li></ul><ul><li>Multidimensional data analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Enables use...
Database Trends Multidimensional data model Figure 7-15
<ul><li>Data warehouse:  Stores current and historical data for reporting, analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Data mart:  Subset o...
Database Trends Components of a data warehouse Figure 7-16
<ul><li>Benefits of Data Warehouses </li></ul><ul><li>Improved information and accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to ...
<ul><li>Data Reveal New Sales Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>How did the use of data warehouses and datamining help manag...
<ul><li>Hypermedia database </li></ul><ul><li>Organizes data as network of nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Links nodes in pattern ...
Database Trends A hypermedia database Figure 7-17
<ul><li>Linking Internal Databases to the Web </li></ul><ul><li>Database server:   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hosts DBMS </li><...
Database Trends Linking internal databases to the Web Figure 7-18
<ul><li>Advantages to Web Access to Databases </li></ul><ul><li>Browser software easy to use; little training </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Web Access for Royal Bank Statements  </li></ul><ul><li>Pays Off </li></ul><ul><li>What are the business benefits ...
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  1. 1. Managing Data Resources Chapter 7 Essentials of Management Information Systems, 6e Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources © 2005 by Prentice Hall
  2. 2. Management Challenges <ul><li>Organizational obstacles to a database environment </li></ul><ul><li>Cost/benefit considerations </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Bit: Smallest unit of data; binary digit (0,1) </li></ul><ul><li>Byte: Group of bits that represents a single character </li></ul><ul><li>Field: Group of words or complete number </li></ul><ul><li>Record: Group of related fields </li></ul><ul><li>File: Group of records of the same type </li></ul>Organizing Data in a Traditional File Environment File Organization Terms and Concepts
  4. 4. <ul><li>Database: Group of related files </li></ul><ul><li>Entity: Person, place, thing, or event about which information must be kept </li></ul><ul><li>Attribute: A piece of information describing a particular entity </li></ul><ul><li>Key field: Field that uniquely identifies every record in a file </li></ul>Organizing Data in a Traditional File Environment File Organization Terms and Concepts
  5. 5. Organizing Data in a Traditional File Environment The data hierarchy Figure 7-1
  6. 6. Organizing Data in a Traditional File Environment Entities and attributes Figure 7-2
  7. 7. <ul><li>Data redundancy </li></ul><ul><li>Program-data dependence </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Poor security </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of data-sharing and availability </li></ul>Organizing Data in a Traditional File Environment Problems with the Traditional File Environment
  8. 8. Organizing Data in a Traditional File Environment Traditional file processing Figure 7-3
  9. 9. <ul><li>Database </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of centralized data </li></ul><ul><li>Controls redundant data </li></ul><ul><li>Data stored so as to appear to users in one location </li></ul><ul><li>Services multiple application </li></ul>The Database Approach to Data Management Database Management Systems
  10. 10. The Database Approach to Data Management The contemporary database environment Figure 7-4
  11. 11. <ul><li>Database Management System (DBMS) </li></ul><ul><li>Creates and maintains databases </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates requirement for data definition statements </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as interface between application programs and physical data files </li></ul><ul><li>Separates logical and physical views of data </li></ul>The Database Approach to Data Management Database Management Systems
  12. 12. <ul><li>Three Components to a DBMS </li></ul><ul><li>Data definition language: Formal language programmers use to specify structure of database </li></ul><ul><li>Data manipulation language: For extracting data from database, e.g. SQL </li></ul><ul><li>Data dictionary: Tool for storing, organizing definitions of data elements and data characteristics </li></ul>The Database Approach to Data Management Database Management Systems
  13. 13. The Database Approach to Data Management Sample data dictionary report Figure 7-5
  14. 14. <ul><li>How a DBMS Solves Problems of a </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional File Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces data redundancy </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates data inconsistency </li></ul><ul><li>Uncouples programs from data </li></ul><ul><li>Increases access and availability of data </li></ul><ul><li>Allows central management of data, data use, and security </li></ul>The Database Approach to Data Management Database Management Systems
  15. 15. <ul><li>Relational DBMS </li></ul><ul><li>Represents data as two-dimensional tables called relations </li></ul><ul><li>Relates data across tables based on common data element </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: DB2, Oracle, MS SQL Server </li></ul>The Database Approach to Data Management Types of Databases
  16. 16. The Database Approach to Data Management The relational data model Figure 7-6
  17. 17. <ul><li>Three Basic Operations in a Relational Database </li></ul><ul><li>Select: Creates subset of rows that meet specific criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Join: Combines relational tables to provide users with information </li></ul><ul><li>Project: Enables users to create new tables containing only relevant information </li></ul>The Database Approach to Data Management Types of Databases
  18. 18. The Database Approach to Data Management The three basic operations of a relational DBMS Figure 7-7
  19. 19. <ul><li>Hierarchical DBMS </li></ul><ul><li>Older system presenting data in tree-like structure </li></ul><ul><li>Models one-to-many parent-child relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Found in large legacy systems requiring intensive high-volume transactions: Banks; insurance companies </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: IBMs IMS </li></ul>The Database Approach to Data Management Types of Databases
  20. 20. The Database Approach to Data Management A hierarchical database for a human resources system Figure 7-8
  21. 21. <ul><li>Network DBMS </li></ul><ul><li>Older logical database model </li></ul><ul><li>Models many-to-many parent-child relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Student – course relationship: Each student has many courses; each course has many students </li></ul>The Database Approach to Data Management Types of Databases
  22. 22. The Database Approach to Data Management The network data model Figure 7-9
  23. 23. <ul><li>Disadvantages of Hierarchical and </li></ul><ul><li>Network DBMS </li></ul><ul><li>Outdated </li></ul><ul><li>Less flexible compared to RDBMS </li></ul><ul><li>Lack support for ad-hoc and English language-like queries </li></ul>The Database Approach to Data Management Types of Databases
  24. 24. <ul><li>Object-Oriented Databases (OODBMS) </li></ul><ul><li>Stores data and procedures as objects </li></ul><ul><li>Better able to handle graphics and recursive data </li></ul><ul><li>Data models more flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Slower than RDBMS </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid: object-relational DBMS </li></ul>The Database Approach to Data Management Types of Databases
  25. 25. <ul><li>Two Design Exercises in Creating Database </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual (logical) design: Abstract model of database from business perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Physical design: How the database is actually arranged on direct access storage devices </li></ul>Creating a Database Environment Designing Databases
  26. 26. <ul><li>Conceptual Database Design </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies relationships between data elements </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies most efficient way to group data elements </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies redundant data elements </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies grouping of data elements needed for specific applications </li></ul>Creating a Database Environment Designing Databases
  27. 27. <ul><li>Entity-Relationship Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>A methodology for documenting databases that illustrates the relationship between various elements in the database </li></ul><ul><li>Normalization </li></ul><ul><li>The process of creating small, stable, and adaptive data structures from complex groups of data when designing a relational database </li></ul>Creating a Database Environment Designing Databases
  28. 28. Creating a Database Environment An entity-relationship diagram Figure 7-10
  29. 29. Creating a Database Environment An unnormalized relation for ORDER Figure 7-11
  30. 30. Creating a Database Environment A normalized relation for ORDER Figure 7-12
  31. 31. <ul><li>Distributed Database </li></ul><ul><li>Partitioned or replicated to more than one location </li></ul><ul><li>Increases service and responsiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces vulnerability of single, massive central site </li></ul><ul><li>Depend on telecommunication lines </li></ul><ul><li>Pose security risks through distribution of sensitive data </li></ul><ul><li>Central data must be updated or justified with local data </li></ul>Creating a Database Environment Distributing Databases
  32. 32. Creating a Database Environment Distributed databases Figure 7-13
  33. 33. Creating a Database Environment Key organizational elements in the database environment Figure 7-14
  34. 34. <ul><li>Data Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Develop information policy </li></ul><ul><li>Define information requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for data </li></ul><ul><li>Oversee logical database design and database dictionary development </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor use of information </li></ul>Creating a Database Environment Management Requirements for Database Systems
  35. 35. <ul><li>Data Planning and Modeling Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise-wide planning for data </li></ul><ul><li>Identify key entities, attributes, and relationships that constitute the organization’s data </li></ul>Creating a Database Environment Management Requirements for Database Systems
  36. 36. <ul><li>Database Technology, Management, </li></ul><ul><li>and Users </li></ul><ul><li>Databases require DBMS software and staff </li></ul><ul><li>Database design group defines and organizes structure and content of database </li></ul><ul><li>Database administration: establish physical database, logical relations, access rules </li></ul>Creating a Database Environment Management Requirements for Database Systems
  37. 37. <ul><li>Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) </li></ul><ul><li>Multidimensional data analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Enables users to view the same data in different ways using multiple dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Each aspect of information – product, price, region – represents a different dimension </li></ul>Database Trends Multidimensional Data Analysis
  38. 38. Database Trends Multidimensional data model Figure 7-15
  39. 39. <ul><li>Data warehouse: Stores current and historical data for reporting, analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Data mart: Subset of data warehouse with summary of data for specific users </li></ul><ul><li>Datamining: Techniques to find hidden patterns, relationships in large pools of data to infer rules for predicting future trends </li></ul>Database Trends Data Warehouses and Datamining
  40. 40. Database Trends Components of a data warehouse Figure 7-16
  41. 41. <ul><li>Benefits of Data Warehouses </li></ul><ul><li>Improved information and accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to model and remodel data </li></ul><ul><li>Enable access to data without affecting performance of underlying operational legacy systems </li></ul>Database Trends Data Warehouses and Datamining
  42. 42. <ul><li>Data Reveal New Sales Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>How did the use of data warehouses and datamining help management at these companies make better decisions? </li></ul><ul><li>What value do these systems provide? </li></ul>Database Trends Window on Management
  43. 43. <ul><li>Hypermedia database </li></ul><ul><li>Organizes data as network of nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Links nodes in pattern specified by user </li></ul><ul><li>Supports text, graphic, sound, video and executable programs </li></ul>Database Trends Data Warehouses and Datamining
  44. 44. Database Trends A hypermedia database Figure 7-17
  45. 45. <ul><li>Linking Internal Databases to the Web </li></ul><ul><li>Database server: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hosts DBMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receives SQL requests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides required data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Middleware: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Works between Web server and DBMS to take requests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handles connectivity to database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be application server or CGI scripts </li></ul></ul>Database Trends Databases and the Web
  46. 46. Database Trends Linking internal databases to the Web Figure 7-18
  47. 47. <ul><li>Advantages to Web Access to Databases </li></ul><ul><li>Browser software easy to use; little training </li></ul><ul><li>Web interface requires no changes to internal database </li></ul><ul><li>Costs less than custom interfaces </li></ul>Database Trends Databases and the Web
  48. 48. <ul><li>Web Access for Royal Bank Statements </li></ul><ul><li>Pays Off </li></ul><ul><li>What are the business benefits of providing a Web interface for the Bankbook Reconstruct application? </li></ul><ul><li>What value does this application provide the company and its customers? </li></ul>Database Trends Window on Technology
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