Prototyping Develop the working model Build the prototype Use and Test the prototype Review the prototype Decision Abandon application Implement Application Redevelop Application Begin new prototype
The physical realisation of the database and application designs
the detailed model is converted to the appropriate implementation model, the data dictionary is built, the database is populated, application programs are developed and users are trained
Data Conversion and Loading & Testing
Transferring any existing data into the new database and converting any existing applications to run on the new database
Interviewing and polling users to determine whether any data needs are unmet.
preventive maintenance (backup)
corrective maintenance (recovery)1
assignment of access
regular monitoring & periodical check up
Data & Database administration
Data administration is the management of the data resources
Database administration is the management of physical realisation of the database application
Database design methodology
A structured approach that uses procedures, techniques, tools, and documentation aids to support and facilitate the process of design.
Conceptual database design
Logical database design
Physical database design
Entity, Attribute, Relationship Entity Attribute Relationship Client Name Address Postcode Passport Passport No Exp.Data Itinerary Date City Contact
Conceptual Design Phase
Many to many
Track is helds in holds Trainer HUSBAND WIFE is married to is married to TRACK PARTICIPANTS belongs to has
Logical design phase 1. REFINE THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL Conceptual E.A.R Model Refined Conceptual Model 2.APPLY THE RULES OF NORMALIZATION Logical Data Model
Refining the Conceptual model
Refine the attributes
Physical Database Design Logical Data Model Logical Process Model TR Track 01 Country Database creation CREATE DATABASE CREATE TABLE LOAD Physical Implementation Process
Critical Success Factors in Database Design
Work interactively with the users as much as possible.
Follow a structured methodology throughout the data modelling process.
Incorporate structural and integrity considerations into the data models.
Combine conceptualisation, normalisation, and transaction validation techniques into the data modelling methodology.
Exercise (Conceptual design) List 1 List 2 Track No: 1 Track name: Managing information using Database Participant code Participant name Age Position Country Address Country code Country name Participant code Participant name Track name Create a conceptual E.A.R model of the database for the following lists. (List up the necessary DATA ITEMS, set up ENTITIES and their ATTRIBUTES, and identify the relationship among the entities ) List 1 is the list of participants’ information by track List 2 is the list of participants’ information by countries
Answer Zero one or many Just one One or many Just one
Exercise: Primary and Foreign Key Participant code Participant name Age Position Address Country code Country name Country code Track name Track code Participant code Please identify primary and foreign key. Primary key Foreign key
Answer Participant code Participant name Age Position Address Country code Country name Country code Track name Track code Participant code