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  • You thought the title of the slide was power of napping. Not yet, stay with me here. As wonderful as GIS may be, the power of straightforward mapping should not be overlooked.
  • A major advantage over re-drawing a map by hand as early cartographers so painstakingly did
  • With the aid of computers, cartography expanded to include ‘computer cartography’
  • This is probably the most asked question posed to those in the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) field and is probably the hardest to answer in a succinct and clear manner.
  • A mouthful
  • So, what are core GIS components
  • So what about a GIS librarian???
  • Here is long winded definition, but does it sound familiar?
  • It’s difficult to go out only halfway in providing services and resources.
  • It’s difficult to go out only halfway in providing services and resources.
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Potential of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in Libraries Presented by Teri Ann Arion 24 February 2006
    • 2. The Power of Mapping
      • The origins of GIS were in the overlay method
      • Before the widespread availability of computers this effect was first achieved using a base paper map and then physically overlaying transparent printouts on top
    • 3. When did GIS begin?
      • What is now the GIS field began around 1960, with the discovery that maps could be represented with simple computer programming code stored in a computer for later modification to the map
    • 4. Computer Cartography
      • Early versions of GIS involved simple lines representing land features
      • Later, the concept of overlaying different map features on top of each other was used to investigate patterns and causes of spatial phenomenon
    • 5. What is a GIS?
      • Geographic information systems are computer-based systems that facilitate the input, storage, manipulation and output of geographically referenced data
    • 6. What Drives a GIS?
      • The driving force behind a GIS is its ability to integrate spatial information with higher end statistical and analytical processes
      • GIS allows the user to link location or spatial data with tabular data in order to see relationships and patterns to derive patterns not readily apparent to the observer
    • 7. Why use a GIS?
      • In a nutshell, if you have a question, a map, tabular data, a computer, and a GIS software application, you can utilize GIS to answer your question
    • 8. Who uses GIS?
      • GIS are rapidly becoming the essential tools of analysis at all levels of public- and private-sector management, administration and planning
      • People with the skill to use GIS are in demand across a broad range of professions, in government, business and nonprofit organizations
    • 9. How are GIS used?
      • GIS provides a set of tools for planning, decision-making, operations management and inventory
      • GIS is now being employed in a wide range of applications including urban and regional planning, environmental risk analysis, forest management, hazard analysis, emergency response, marketing, transportation planning, wildlife management, agriculture, and health care management
    • 10. The GIS Profession Evolves
      • While other occupations are aged, tested, and refined, the field of GIS is young and growing
      • GIS has rejuvenated other professions that were once set in their ways and as a result, there has been a merger between GIS and other professions
    • 11. GIS Technology Evolves
      • In the case of GIS, it is necessary to understand basic geographic concepts in addition to developing specialty knowledge:
        • various software packages, programming languages, and hardware are used
        • vast amounts of new data requires data management systems
    • 12. Components of a GIS
      • People
      • Technology
      • Data
      • Data Presentation
    • 13. People as GIS Components
      • It is the knowledge that people carry that makes them important
      • In order to properly function as a GIS professional it is necessary to have at least a general knowledge of geography and GIS
    • 14. GIS Technology Component
      • Technological necessities for today’s GIS include:
        • Software
        • Hardware
        • System Administration
        • Database Administration
        • Programming
    • 15. GIS Software Component
      • May include products from ESRI, MapInfo, or AutoCAD (many other companies produce GIS products as well)
      • As GIS evolves, technicians and analysts must be proficient in using more than one GIS application
    • 16. GIS Data Component
      • Data includes any information that is spatial or tabular that relates to geography and specialty fields, for example:
        • parcels, crime statistics, or volcanic activity
      • Quality and accuracy of data is important and should always be considered
      • Metadata, or the data about data, is very important as more data becomes available
    • 17. GIS Data Presentation Component
      • Representation of space and time can take the form of maps, graphs, charts, animations, and simulations
      • Visualizing aspects in 3D or using creative symbology gives users new perspectives and can enable a higher level of communication
      • The World Wide Web offers a forum for interactive mapping
    • 18. GIS Specialty Fields
      • There is a need for GIS users to be able to make specific queries and analyses best conceptualized with a specialized knowledge base
      • As a result, GIS Specialists are learning specialized and focused fields while people in specialized fields are learning to use GIS
    • 19. What is a GIS Librarian?
      • A GIS Librarian is a library professional with knowledge of GIS data models, concepts, techniques, technologies, and information and library science, and who can apply this knowledge in collecting, organizing, disseminating, and preserving geographically referenced data, providing general help in GIS reference and in displaying geospatial data
    • 20. What Does a GIS Librarian do?
      • Technical Services aspect:
        • metadata, cataloging, and selection
      • Public Services aspect:
        • depends on the resources (people and dollars) of the library
        • depends on the Mission of the library
    • 21. GIS in Library Public Services
      • Suppose a student comes to the library reference desk needing to create a map detailing the moose population for Anchorage
      • Let's also suppose that this student knows little about GIS except hearing that GIS is a wonderful tool 
    • 22. GIS in Library Public Services
      • This is something that would take a GIS Librarian no more than 15 minutes to do for the student
        • Not every library has someone on staff who can help with GIS
      • Or, should the student learn the skills and resources necessary to create the map on their own?
      • Who or where should this student be referred?
    • 23. GIS in Library Public Services
      • Some libraries are more in the teaching mode, offering GIS workshops, one-one instruction, and in depth project assistance
      • These libraries likely have librarians that are on par with GIS Technicians and are GIS savvy, devoting the bulk of their day primarily to GIS and/or maps
    • 24. GIS in Library Public Services
      • Reality:
      • Most libraries do not have titled 'GIS' Librarians
      • Most librarians have subject specialty/liaison duties of which GIS may be just one small part
        • individual GIS instruction is just not practical or feasible for most libraries
    • 25. GIS Services in Libraries
      • If a library chooses to provide a GIS service beyond collecting GIS data, the library staff, and their library administration must acknowledge, that a high end service is being offered
    • 26. GIS Services in Libraries
      • Being able to assist users with the functionality of a GIS and the ability to work with digital datasets is very different than providing bibliographic instruction on how to use a bibliographic database or providing reference assistance to determine whether the library owns a particular title
    • 27. Marketing GIS to Libraries
      • GIS needs to be marketed not only to reference librarians, but library administrators, as a management tool
      • Libraries won’t adopt GIS until they understand that it has a management application that offers real value to libraries, and that library directors could be using GIS for their own planning processes
    • 28. GIS in Library Strategic Planning
      • Analyze patterns of patron use in their libraries and branches using GIS tools to answer questions:
        • What areas of the community are the patrons coming to use library services?
        • What are the characteristics of the populations served by each library?
        • Do the materials used vary by area served?
    • 29. Learn More About GIS
      • There are many websites where you can learn more about GIS and other geospatial technologies, for example:
        • http:// www.gis.com
        • http:// www.esri.com/industries/libraries/index.html
        • http:// www.gisportal.com
        • http:// www.giscafe.com