<ul><li>Databases on the Internet </li></ul>David Billard [email_address] 4th CEENet Workshop on Network Technology Bratis...
<ul><li>Outline </li></ul><ul><li>Classical databases </li></ul><ul><li>Why should it be different in the Internet? </li><...
<ul><li>Classical Databases </li></ul>Entity-Relationship (ER) model Relational model Oracle DBMS conceptual level definit...
<ul><li>Classical Database Environment </li></ul><ul><li>A classical Database Management System (DBMS) is composed of: </l...
<ul><li>What is different with the Internet? </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertext data: </li></ul><ul><li>relational tables are 2-d...
<ul><li>What is different with the Internet? </li></ul><ul><li>Internet technology: </li></ul><ul><li>no guaranty of servi...
<ul><li>What is different with the Internet? </li></ul><ul><li>User behaviour: </li></ul><ul><li>the user's actions are un...
<ul><li>Organizing the data for their use via the Web </li></ul><ul><li>Web sites containing  valuable  pieces of informat...
<ul><li>Organizing the data for their use via the Web </li></ul>What we need: <ul><li>a methodology for the: </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>The ARANEUS Project (Univ. Roma 3) </li></ul>Database Conceptual Design (Entity-Relationship model) 1 Database Log...
<ul><li>The ARANEUS Project </li></ul>1:N 1:1 <ul><li>University ER scheme </li></ul>1:N 1:1 1:1 1:N <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>n...
<ul><li>The ARANEUS Project </li></ul><ul><li>From ER schemes to Hypertext Conceptual schemes </li></ul>Selecting  Macroen...
<ul><li>The ARANEUS Project </li></ul>1:N 1:1 <ul><li>Selecting  Macroentities  (objects relevant and independent) </li></...
<ul><li>The ARANEUS Project </li></ul>1:N 1:1 <ul><li>Selecting  Macroentities  (objects relevant and  independent) </li><...
<ul><li>The ARANEUS Project </li></ul>1:N 1:1 <ul><ul><li>Designing  Directed Relationships  (precise the direction of nav...
<ul><li>The ARANEUS Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designing  Union Nodes  and  Aggregations  (representation of the IS-A r...
<ul><li>The ARANEUS Project </li></ul><ul><li>Department Hypertext Conceptual Scheme </li></ul>type = undergraduate type =...
<ul><li>The ARANEUS Project </li></ul><ul><li>From Hypertext Conceptual schemes to Hypertext Logical Design </li></ul>Mapp...
<ul><li>The ARANEUS Project </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping  Macroentities  to pages </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>name </li></u...
<ul><li>The ARANEUS Project </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping  Macroentities  to lists </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>title </li></...
<ul><li>The ARANEUS Project </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping  Directed relationships  to links </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>name...
<ul><li>The ARANEUS Project (Univ. Roma 3) </li></ul>1 2 3 4 5 6 Dynamic page generation Database Conceptual Design (Entit...
<ul><li>Querying the databases (browsing and navigating) </li></ul><ul><li>a query language to make DB requests </li></ul>...
<ul><li>The Target Form Expression (TFE) project (Univ. of Keio, Japan) </li></ul><ul><li>Idea: Extending SQL to add publi...
<ul><li>The Target Form Expression project </li></ul><ul><li>GENERATE  keyword </li></ul>GENERATE <medium> <TFE> <medium> ...
<ul><li>The Target Form Expression project </li></ul><ul><li>Example of a movie database </li></ul>cast film id title type...
<ul><li>The Target Form Expression project </li></ul>action horror drama comedy select a category 1997 Batman and Robin Sp...
<ul><li>The Target Form Expression project </li></ul>select a category generate html verb(select a category) ! [f.type  % ...
<ul><li>The Target Form Expression project </li></ul>generate html verb(select a category) ! [f.type % [f.year, [f.title %...
<ul><li>The Target Form Expression project </li></ul>generate html verb(select a category) ! [f.type % [f.year,  [f.title ...
<ul><li>The Target Form Expression project </li></ul>generate html verb(select a category) ! [f.type % [f.year, [f.title  ...
<ul><li>The Target Form Expression project </li></ul>The first wives club generate html verb(select a category) ! [f.type ...
<ul><li>The Target Form Expression project </li></ul>The first wives club generate html verb(select a category) ! [f.type ...
<ul><li>The Target Form Expression project </li></ul>The first wives club generate html verb(select a category) ! [f.type ...
<ul><li>The Target Form Expression project </li></ul><ul><li>INVOKE  keyword </li></ul>allow dynamic queries inside querie...
<ul><li>Classical Database Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Environment of a classical DBMS: </li></ul>secure environment DB ...
<ul><li>Classical Database Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Multidatabases - Federated DBMS </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative wor...
<ul><li>Securing the databases </li></ul>The Internet introduces threats for the DBMS and the users. 4 attacks among the m...
<ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot help a message to be intercepted; </li></ul><ul><li>The message must not ...
<ul><li>Dangerous behaviours </li></ul>Modification Fabrication
<ul><li>Dangerous behaviours </li></ul><ul><li>A user cannot deny having received or  sent a message. </li></ul><ul><li>No...
<ul><li>Dangerous behaviours </li></ul>Interruption <ul><li>A user cannot help a communication to being cut. </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Securing the databases </li></ul><ul><li>The iSaSiLk toolbox (Univ. of Vienna) </li></ul><ul><li>Written in Java <...
<ul><li>Transactions in the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Transactions are a very common tool in databases </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Example in Electronic Commerce </li></ul>Internet
<ul><li>Example in Electronic Commerce </li></ul>Internet I want...
<ul><li>Example in Electronic Commerce </li></ul>Internet the same shirt as Sandra Bullock's in &quot;The Net&quot;, and...
<ul><li>Example in Electronic Commerce </li></ul>Internet the same hat as Ingrid Bergman's in &quot;Casablanca&quot;!
Example in Electronic Commerce Internet
Example in Electronic Commerce Internet <ul><li>ACID  </li></ul><ul><li>Atomicity </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul>...
Example in Electronic Commerce Internet <ul><li>ACID  </li></ul><ul><li>Atomicity </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Example in Atomic File Transfer Protocol </li></ul>Internet Sofware update Server A Server B System administrator
<ul><li>Example in Atomic File Transfer Protocol </li></ul>Internet Server A Server B System administrator
Example in Atomic File Transfer Protocol Internet Server A Server B System administrator
<ul><li>Example in Atomic File Transfer Protocol </li></ul>Internet Server A Server B Installation application
Example in Internet Aided Manufacturing Internet New extension card for PC
Example in Internet Aided Manufacturing Internet New extension card for PC Printed circuit manufacturer
Example in Internet Aided Manufacturing Internet New extension card for PC Printed circuit manufacturer Electronic compone...
Example in Internet Aided Manufacturing Internet New extension card for PC Printed circuit manufacturer Electronic compone...
Example in Internet Aided Manufacturing Internet Integrator Towards workflows
<ul><li>Transactions in the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Transaction Internet Protocol (TIP) </li></ul><ul><li>Corba OTS (Ob...
<ul><li>Workflows on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>A workflow business process: </li></ul>procedures
<ul><li>Workflows on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Process (separation of business logic from function logic) </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Workflows on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Flowmark </li></ul><ul><li>Flowman </li></ul><ul><li>InConcert </li></...
<ul><li>Resume of part 1 </li></ul><ul><li>We know how to modelize and represent a database </li></ul><ul><li>We know how ...
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  1. 1. <ul><li>Databases on the Internet </li></ul>David Billard [email_address] 4th CEENet Workshop on Network Technology Bratislava, Slovakia, August 21-31, 1998
  2. 2. <ul><li>Outline </li></ul><ul><li>Classical databases </li></ul><ul><li>Why should it be different in the Internet? </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing the data with the Araneus methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Building dynamically a web site with the Target Form Expression </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with security </li></ul><ul><li>Using transactions and workflows </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Classical Databases </li></ul>Entity-Relationship (ER) model Relational model Oracle DBMS conceptual level definition of concepts and relations among them logical level database technology applied DBMS level data storage, queries, transactions, ...
  4. 4. <ul><li>Classical Database Environment </li></ul><ul><li>A classical Database Management System (DBMS) is composed of: </li></ul>interpretation of requests ACID properties <ul><li>Atomicity (all or nothing) </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Durability </li></ul>data repository request processing transaction manager fault-tolerance module concurrency control
  5. 5. <ul><li>What is different with the Internet? </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertext data: </li></ul><ul><li>relational tables are 2-dimensions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tuples (lines) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attributes (columns) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>relational tables do not content navigational data ; </li></ul><ul><li>hypertext pages implements the third dimension of access path to the data </li></ul><ul><li>Entity-relation scheme must evolve; </li></ul><ul><li>Relations must be queried with the third dimension in mind. </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences: </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>What is different with the Internet? </li></ul><ul><li>Internet technology: </li></ul><ul><li>no guaranty of service (the RSVP is not fully implemented in IP, expected to be in IPng); </li></ul><ul><li>unsecure channel of communication; </li></ul><ul><li>lack of the notion of user (only machines); </li></ul><ul><li>high probability of system crash; </li></ul><ul><li>very sensible to scale problems. </li></ul><ul><li>we must implement recovery protocols; </li></ul><ul><li>we must implement security features. </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences: </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>What is different with the Internet? </li></ul><ul><li>User behaviour: </li></ul><ul><li>the user's actions are unknown and unpredictable </li></ul><ul><li>we cannot use tightly coupled integration of the servers; </li></ul><ul><li>we must define a minimal set of mandatory functionalities for interoperation. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong heterogeneity: </li></ul><ul><li>a DBMS cannot know every other DBMS technology to interact </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences: </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Organizing the data for their use via the Web </li></ul><ul><li>Web sites containing valuable pieces of information </li></ul><ul><li>Web sites containing high volume of data, retrieved from databases </li></ul><ul><li>Data organized in hypertextual form (access paths are part of the model) </li></ul>What we have:
  9. 9. <ul><li>Organizing the data for their use via the Web </li></ul>What we need: <ul><li>a methodology for the: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Database design process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertext design process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>a tool for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>generating web sites from databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maintaining these web sites </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The ARANEUS Project (Univ. Roma 3) </li></ul>Database Conceptual Design (Entity-Relationship model) 1 Database Logical Design (Relational model) 2 Hypertext Conceptual Design (Hypertext Conceptual Scheme) 3 Hypertext Logical Design (Hypertext Logical Scheme) 4 Presentation Design (Page Template) 5 Hypertext to DB mapping, Page Generation (Web site) 6
  11. 11. <ul><li>The ARANEUS Project </li></ul>1:N 1:1 <ul><li>University ER scheme </li></ul>1:N 1:1 1:1 1:N <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>name </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>type </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>day </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hour </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>roomNum </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>phone </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>name </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>photo </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e-mail </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>professor teaching course room place lesson program researcher person
  12. 12. <ul><li>The ARANEUS Project </li></ul><ul><li>From ER schemes to Hypertext Conceptual schemes </li></ul>Selecting Macroentities (objects relevant and independent) Designing Directed Relationships (precise the direction of navigation) Designing Union Nodes and Aggregations (representation of the IS-A relationship)
  13. 13. <ul><li>The ARANEUS Project </li></ul>1:N 1:1 <ul><li>Selecting Macroentities (objects relevant and independent) </li></ul>1:N 1:1 1:1 1:N <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>name </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>type </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>day </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hour </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>roomNum </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>phone </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>name </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>photo </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e-mail </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>professor teaching course room place lesson program researcher person
  14. 14. <ul><li>The ARANEUS Project </li></ul>1:N 1:1 <ul><li>Selecting Macroentities (objects relevant and independent) </li></ul>1:N 1:1 1:1 1:N <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>name </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>type </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>day </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hour </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>roomNum </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>phone </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>name </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>photo </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e-mail </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>professor teaching course room place lesson program researcher person
  15. 15. <ul><li>The ARANEUS Project </li></ul>1:N 1:1 <ul><ul><li>Designing Directed Relationships (precise the direction of navigation) </li></ul></ul>1:N 1:1 1:1 1:N <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>name </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>type </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>day </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hour </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>roomNum </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>phone </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>name </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>photo </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e-mail </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>professor teaching course room place lesson program researcher person
  16. 16. <ul><li>The ARANEUS Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designing Union Nodes and Aggregations (representation of the IS-A relationship) </li></ul></ul>1:N 1:1 1:N 1:1 1:1 1:N <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>name </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>type </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>day </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hour </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>roomNum </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>phone </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>name </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>photo </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e-mail </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>professor teaching course room place lesson program researcher person
  17. 17. <ul><li>The ARANEUS Project </li></ul><ul><li>Department Hypertext Conceptual Scheme </li></ul>type = undergraduate type = graduate <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>name </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>phone </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>photo </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e-mail </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>1:N 1:1 day hour roomNum 1:N name type department education research general people professor student teaching course
  18. 18. <ul><li>The ARANEUS Project </li></ul><ul><li>From Hypertext Conceptual schemes to Hypertext Logical Design </li></ul>Mapping Macroentities (to pages or lists) Mapping Directed Relationships (to links between pages) Mapping Aggregations (pages + lists + links)
  19. 19. <ul><li>The ARANEUS Project </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping Macroentities to pages </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>name </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>phone </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>photo </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e-mail </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>room </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>professor <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>name </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>phone </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>photo </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e-mail </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>room </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>mapping
  20. 20. <ul><li>The ARANEUS Project </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping Macroentities to lists </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>title </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>author </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>date </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hour </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>room </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>seminar mapping <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>title </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>author </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>date </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hour </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>room </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>seminar list
  21. 21. <ul><li>The ARANEUS Project </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping Directed relationships to links </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>name </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>phone </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>photo </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e-mail </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>room </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>... </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>1:N 1:1 day hour roomNum 1:N name type professor mapping teacher course toughtby professor page <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>name </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>phone </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>photo </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e-mail </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>room </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>name </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to course </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>course list </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>course page <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>name </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>type </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>day </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hour </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>room </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>time table </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>name </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to professor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>The ARANEUS Project (Univ. Roma 3) </li></ul>1 2 3 4 5 6 Dynamic page generation Database Conceptual Design (Entity-Relationship model) Hypertext Conceptual Design (Hypertext Conceptual Scheme) Hypertext Logical Design (Hypertext Logical Scheme) Presentation Design (Page Template) Hypertext to DB mapping, Page Generation (Web site) Database Logical Design (Relational model)
  23. 23. <ul><li>Querying the databases (browsing and navigating) </li></ul><ul><li>a query language to make DB requests </li></ul><ul><li>a tool for presenting the result of the request: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in HTML form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in any form </li></ul></ul>What we need:
  24. 24. <ul><li>The Target Form Expression (TFE) project (Univ. of Keio, Japan) </li></ul><ul><li>Idea: Extending SQL to add publishing facilities </li></ul><ul><li>the result of a query is presented in a structured document (HTML, Java, LaTeX, ...) </li></ul>To give a comparison: Allaire's Cold Fusion does not allow grouping or hyperlink generation (necessary for structuring documents)
  25. 25. <ul><li>The Target Form Expression project </li></ul><ul><li>GENERATE keyword </li></ul>GENERATE <medium> <TFE> <medium> = HTML, LaTeX, Java, Excel, TCLTK, O2C, SQL <TFE> = expression , = tuple connector ! = row connector % = depth (link) operator [ and ] = repeaters [ emp.name , emp.salary ] ! = list of tuples (names, salary) [ store.name , [ dept.name ! [ emp.name ] !, [ item.name ] ! ] ! ] %
  26. 26. <ul><li>The Target Form Expression project </li></ul><ul><li>Example of a movie database </li></ul>cast film id title type year pict actor id name birth face film, actor
  27. 27. <ul><li>The Target Form Expression project </li></ul>action horror drama comedy select a category 1997 Batman and Robin Speed 2 1996 Mission impossible 2 Independence day 1997 My best friend's wedding Out to sea 1996 Dear God The first wives club Nutty professor Tin cup The first wives club Diane Keaton 1946 Goldie Hawn 1945 Bette Middler 1945 generate html verb(select a category) ! [f.type % [f.year, [f.title % {f.title ! imagefile(f.pict) ! [imagefile(a.face), a.name, a.birth]!}]!]!], from film f, cast c, actor a where f.id = c.film and c.actor = a.id
  28. 28. <ul><li>The Target Form Expression project </li></ul>select a category generate html verb(select a category) ! [f.type % [f.year, [f.title % {f.title ! imagefile(f.pict) ! [imagefile(a.face), a.name, a.birth]!}]!]!], from film f, cast c, actor a where f.id = c.film and c.actor = a.id action horror drama comedy
  29. 29. <ul><li>The Target Form Expression project </li></ul>generate html verb(select a category) ! [f.type % [f.year, [f.title % {f.title ! imagefile(f.pict) ! [imagefile(a.face), a.name, a.birth]!}]!]!], from film f, cast c, actor a where f.id = c.film and c.actor = a.id action horror drama comedy select a category
  30. 30. <ul><li>The Target Form Expression project </li></ul>generate html verb(select a category) ! [f.type % [f.year, [f.title % {f.title ! imagefile(f.pict) ! [imagefile(a.face), a.name, a.birth]!}]!]!], from film f, cast c, actor a where f.id = c.film and c.actor = a.id action horror drama comedy select a category 1997 Batman and Robin Speed 2 1996 Mission impossible 2 Independence day 1997 My best friend's wedding Out to sea 1996 Dear God The first wives club Nutty professor Tin cup
  31. 31. <ul><li>The Target Form Expression project </li></ul>generate html verb(select a category) ! [f.type % [f.year, [f.title % {f.title ! imagefile(f.pict) ! [imagefile(a.face), a.name, a.birth]!}]!]!], from film f, cast c, actor a where f.id = c.film and c.actor = a.id action horror drama comedy select a category 1997 Batman and Robin Speed 2 1996 Mission impossible 2 Independence day 1997 My best friend's wedding Out to sea 1996 Dear God The first wives club Nutty professor Tin cup
  32. 32. <ul><li>The Target Form Expression project </li></ul>The first wives club generate html verb(select a category) ! [f.type % [f.year, [f.title % { f.title ! imagefile(f.pict) ! [imagefile(a.face), a.name, a.birth]!}]!]!], from film f, cast c, actor a where f.id = c.film and c.actor = a.id action horror drama comedy select a category 1997 Batman and Robin Speed 2 1996 Mission impossible 2 Independence day 1997 My best friend's wedding Out to sea 1996 Dear God The first wives club Nutty professor Tin cup
  33. 33. <ul><li>The Target Form Expression project </li></ul>The first wives club generate html verb(select a category) ! [f.type % [f.year, [f.title % {f.title ! imagefile(f.pict) ! [imagefile(a.face), a.name, a.birth]!}]!]!], from film f, cast c, actor a where f.id = c.film and c.actor = a.id action horror drama comedy select a category 1997 Batman and Robin Speed 2 1996 Mission impossible 2 Independence day 1997 My best friend's wedding Out to sea 1996 Dear God The first wives club Nutty professor Tin cup
  34. 34. <ul><li>The Target Form Expression project </li></ul>The first wives club generate html verb(select a category) ! [f.type % [f.year, [f.title % {f.title ! imagefile(f.pict) ! [imagefile(a.face), a.name, a.birth]!}]!]!], from film f, cast c, actor a where f.id = c.film and c.actor = a.id action horror drama comedy select a category 1997 Batman and Robin Speed 2 1996 Mission impossible 2 Independence day 1997 My best friend's wedding Out to sea 1996 Dear God The first wives club Nutty professor Tin cup Goldie Hawn 1945 Diane Keaton 1946 Bette Middler 1945
  35. 35. <ul><li>The Target Form Expression project </li></ul><ul><li>INVOKE keyword </li></ul>allow dynamic queries inside queries (recursive queries) With TFE we have a tool to dynamically create a web site from an existing database, at the whish of the user
  36. 36. <ul><li>Classical Database Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Environment of a classical DBMS: </li></ul>secure environment DB DBMS
  37. 37. <ul><li>Classical Database Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Multidatabases - Federated DBMS </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative work, ... </li></ul>DB DBMS 2 DB DBMS 1
  38. 38. <ul><li>Securing the databases </li></ul>The Internet introduces threats for the DBMS and the users. 4 attacks among the more frequent <ul><li>Interception </li></ul><ul><li>Modification </li></ul><ul><li>Fabrication </li></ul><ul><li>Interruption </li></ul>Normal flow Sender receiver
  39. 39. <ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot help a message to be intercepted; </li></ul><ul><li>The message must not be disclosed; </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality of data (Privacy) </li></ul><ul><li>Encryption (e.g. Secure Socket Layer - SSL) </li></ul>Interception
  40. 40. <ul><li>Dangerous behaviours </li></ul>Modification Fabrication
  41. 41. <ul><li>Dangerous behaviours </li></ul><ul><li>A user cannot deny having received or sent a message. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Repudiation schemas, based on the authentication of user. </li></ul><ul><li>A user must really be who he claims to be. </li></ul><ul><li>Authentication of user </li></ul><ul><li>Authentication certificates delivered by a &quot;Thrustee&quot; </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Dangerous behaviours </li></ul>Interruption <ul><li>A user cannot help a communication to being cut. </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery procedures, based on time-outs and logging. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Securing the databases </li></ul><ul><li>The iSaSiLk toolbox (Univ. of Vienna) </li></ul><ul><li>Written in Java </li></ul><ul><li>Provides cryptography primitives (possibility to implement SSL sockets) </li></ul><ul><li>Provides authentication primitives </li></ul><ul><li>Provides certificate management </li></ul><ul><li>Free for use for academic partners </li></ul><ul><li>(not free for industry) </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Transactions in the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Transactions are a very common tool in databases </li></ul><ul><li>They provide isolation of concurrent activities </li></ul><ul><li>They are fault tolerant processes </li></ul><ul><li>They have been extensively studied in distributed environment </li></ul>But <ul><li>They lack security and scalability in the Internet </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Example in Electronic Commerce </li></ul>Internet
  46. 46. <ul><li>Example in Electronic Commerce </li></ul>Internet I want...
  47. 47. <ul><li>Example in Electronic Commerce </li></ul>Internet the same shirt as Sandra Bullock's in &quot;The Net&quot;, and...
  48. 48. <ul><li>Example in Electronic Commerce </li></ul>Internet the same hat as Ingrid Bergman's in &quot;Casablanca&quot;!
  49. 49. Example in Electronic Commerce Internet
  50. 50. Example in Electronic Commerce Internet <ul><li>ACID </li></ul><ul><li>Atomicity </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Durability </li></ul>
  51. 51. Example in Electronic Commerce Internet <ul><li>ACID </li></ul><ul><li>Atomicity </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Durability </li></ul><ul><li>Secure </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentialty </li></ul><ul><li>Authentication </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Repudiation </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>Example in Atomic File Transfer Protocol </li></ul>Internet Sofware update Server A Server B System administrator
  53. 53. <ul><li>Example in Atomic File Transfer Protocol </li></ul>Internet Server A Server B System administrator
  54. 54. Example in Atomic File Transfer Protocol Internet Server A Server B System administrator
  55. 55. <ul><li>Example in Atomic File Transfer Protocol </li></ul>Internet Server A Server B Installation application
  56. 56. Example in Internet Aided Manufacturing Internet New extension card for PC
  57. 57. Example in Internet Aided Manufacturing Internet New extension card for PC Printed circuit manufacturer
  58. 58. Example in Internet Aided Manufacturing Internet New extension card for PC Printed circuit manufacturer Electronic component supplier
  59. 59. Example in Internet Aided Manufacturing Internet New extension card for PC Printed circuit manufacturer Electronic component supplier
  60. 60. Example in Internet Aided Manufacturing Internet Integrator Towards workflows
  61. 61. <ul><li>Transactions in the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Transaction Internet Protocol (TIP) </li></ul><ul><li>Corba OTS (Object Transaction Service) </li></ul><ul><li>X/Open DTP (Distributed Transaction Processing) </li></ul>Related work on transactions:
  62. 62. <ul><li>Workflows on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>A workflow business process: </li></ul>procedures
  63. 63. <ul><li>Workflows on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Process (separation of business logic from function logic) </li></ul><ul><li>Organization (who is doing what) </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure (what has to be done manually, with computer, ...) </li></ul>3 levels in a workflow:
  64. 64. <ul><li>Workflows on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Flowmark </li></ul><ul><li>Flowman </li></ul><ul><li>InConcert </li></ul><ul><li>Staffware </li></ul><ul><li>ViewStar </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul>
  65. 65. <ul><li>Resume of part 1 </li></ul><ul><li>We know how to modelize and represent a database </li></ul><ul><li>We know how to query the database and visualize the results </li></ul><ul><li>We are aware of security and fault-tolerance problems </li></ul>
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