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  1. 1. Managing Data Resources Managing 3 interlocking systems
  2. 2. 3 interlocking systems <ul><li>Processing system (task system) </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive forces system (environmental system) </li></ul><ul><li>Value system </li></ul>
  3. 3. IBM’s Tasks systems <ul><li>Are they a mainframe company? </li></ul><ul><li>Or a software company? </li></ul><ul><li>Or a global company? </li></ul><ul><li>Or a global consulting company? </li></ul><ul><li>Or they are everything? </li></ul>
  4. 4. IBM’s Environmental system <ul><li>What was 60s’ environment? </li></ul><ul><li>70s’ </li></ul><ul><li>80s’ </li></ul><ul><li>90s’ </li></ul><ul><li>2000s’ </li></ul>
  5. 5. Systems vendors <ul><li>Oracle </li></ul><ul><li>IBM DB2 </li></ul><ul><li>Peoplesoft </li></ul><ul><li>Business Intelligence companies </li></ul>
  6. 6. IBM vs. Oracle <ul><li>Why did Oracle arise from a tiny company? </li></ul><ul><li>How did IBM manage to survive Oracle’s dominance </li></ul><ul><li>What is the best way to become successful? </li></ul><ul><li>How does it relate to 3 interlocking systems </li></ul>
  7. 7. 3 layers of database tasks <ul><li>Lexical structure </li></ul><ul><li>Grammatical structure </li></ul><ul><li>Semantical structure </li></ul>
  8. 8. Data hierarchy <ul><li>Bit </li></ul><ul><li>Byte </li></ul><ul><li>Field </li></ul><ul><li>Record </li></ul><ul><li>File </li></ul><ul><li>Database – a group of related files </li></ul>
  9. 9. Basic data concepts <ul><li>An entity is a person, place, thing or event on which we maintain information, for example, a student record </li></ul><ul><li>An attribute is a field describing a characteristic or quality of an entity, for example, student name </li></ul><ul><li>A key field is an identifier field </li></ul>
  10. 10. Traditional File Environment <ul><li>Manually create several different data management programs </li></ul><ul><li>As compared with modern database management systems, traditional file environment has many problems. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Problems with the traditional file environment <ul><li>Data redundancy and confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Program-data dependence </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Poor security </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of data-sharing and availability </li></ul>
  12. 12. The database environment <ul><li>Avoid problems happened in the traditional file environment </li></ul><ul><li>A single database serves multiple applications and also easily allow users to draw together all the information for other applications </li></ul><ul><li>The database management system acts as the interface between the application programs and the data </li></ul><ul><li>But is much more expensive and need professional management </li></ul><ul><li>Can rent it through application software providers (ASP ) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Components of a DBMS <ul><li>A data definition language </li></ul><ul><li>A data manipulation language </li></ul><ul><li>A data dictionary </li></ul>
  14. 14. A data definition language <ul><li>Is used to specify the content and structure of the database </li></ul><ul><li>Define each data element </li></ul>
  15. 15. A data manipulation language <ul><li>Is used to manipulate data in the database for some application through some application software </li></ul><ul><li>Structured query language, or SQL, is a famous data manipulation language </li></ul>
  16. 16. Data dictionary <ul><li>An automated or manual file that stores definition of data elements and data characteristics such as usage, physical representation, ownership, authorization and security </li></ul>
  17. 17. Database trends <ul><li>OLAP vs. OLTP – On line transaction processing does not analyze data using multidimensional data analysis called on line analytical processing </li></ul><ul><li>Data warehouses are databases that store current and historical data of potential interest to managers throughout the company </li></ul>
  18. 18. Benefits of data warehouses <ul><li>Improved information </li></ul><ul><li>Easy access </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to model and remodel the data in the warehouse </li></ul><ul><li>Uses OLAP and datamining to help refocus businesses </li></ul>
  19. 19. Linking internal DB to the web <ul><li>Legacy system </li></ul><ul><li>Middle ware </li></ul><ul><li>SQL </li></ul><ul><li>Application server customer program </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Web browser </li></ul>
  20. 20. Key organizational elements in the database environment <ul><li>Data administration </li></ul><ul><li>Data planning and modeling methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Database technology and management </li></ul><ul><li>users </li></ul>
  21. 21. Data administration <ul><li>Data as an organizational resource </li></ul><ul><li>Administration means to develop information policy, to plan for data including overseeing database design and monitoring how information system specialists and end-users use data </li></ul><ul><li>The head of it is called CIO </li></ul>
  22. 22. Database administration <ul><li>Define and organize database structure and content </li></ul><ul><li>Develop security procedures to safeguard the database </li></ul><ul><li>Develop database documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains the database management software </li></ul>