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  • 1. Managing Data Resources Managing 3 interlocking systems
  • 2. 3 interlocking systems
    • Processing system (task system)
    • Competitive forces system (environmental system)
    • Value system
  • 3. IBM’s Tasks systems
    • Are they a mainframe company?
    • Or a software company?
    • Or a global company?
    • Or a global consulting company?
    • Or they are everything?
  • 4. IBM’s Environmental system
    • What was 60s’ environment?
    • 70s’
    • 80s’
    • 90s’
    • 2000s’
  • 5. Systems vendors
    • Oracle
    • IBM DB2
    • Peoplesoft
    • Business Intelligence companies
  • 6. IBM vs. Oracle
    • Why did Oracle arise from a tiny company?
    • How did IBM manage to survive Oracle’s dominance
    • What is the best way to become successful?
    • How does it relate to 3 interlocking systems
  • 7. 3 layers of database tasks
    • Lexical structure
    • Grammatical structure
    • Semantical structure
  • 8. Data hierarchy
    • Bit
    • Byte
    • Field
    • Record
    • File
    • Database – a group of related files
  • 9. Basic data concepts
    • An entity is a person, place, thing or event on which we maintain information, for example, a student record
    • An attribute is a field describing a characteristic or quality of an entity, for example, student name
    • A key field is an identifier field
  • 10. Traditional File Environment
    • Manually create several different data management programs
    • As compared with modern database management systems, traditional file environment has many problems.
  • 11. Problems with the traditional file environment
    • Data redundancy and confusion
    • Program-data dependence
    • Lack of flexibility
    • Poor security
    • Lack of data-sharing and availability
  • 12. The database environment
    • Avoid problems happened in the traditional file environment
    • A single database serves multiple applications and also easily allow users to draw together all the information for other applications
    • The database management system acts as the interface between the application programs and the data
    • But is much more expensive and need professional management
    • Can rent it through application software providers (ASP )
  • 13. Components of a DBMS
    • A data definition language
    • A data manipulation language
    • A data dictionary
  • 14. A data definition language
    • Is used to specify the content and structure of the database
    • Define each data element
  • 15. A data manipulation language
    • Is used to manipulate data in the database for some application through some application software
    • Structured query language, or SQL, is a famous data manipulation language
  • 16. Data dictionary
    • An automated or manual file that stores definition of data elements and data characteristics such as usage, physical representation, ownership, authorization and security
  • 17. Database trends
    • OLAP vs. OLTP – On line transaction processing does not analyze data using multidimensional data analysis called on line analytical processing
    • Data warehouses are databases that store current and historical data of potential interest to managers throughout the company
  • 18. Benefits of data warehouses
    • Improved information
    • Easy access
    • The ability to model and remodel the data in the warehouse
    • Uses OLAP and datamining to help refocus businesses
  • 19. Linking internal DB to the web
    • Legacy system
    • Middle ware
    • SQL
    • Application server customer program
    • Internet
    • Web browser
  • 20. Key organizational elements in the database environment
    • Data administration
    • Data planning and modeling methodology
    • Database technology and management
    • users
  • 21. Data administration
    • Data as an organizational resource
    • Administration means to develop information policy, to plan for data including overseeing database design and monitoring how information system specialists and end-users use data
    • The head of it is called CIO
  • 22. Database administration
    • Define and organize database structure and content
    • Develop security procedures to safeguard the database
    • Develop database documentation
    • Maintains the database management software