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  • Database Management David Kroenke’s text Database Processing was first published in 1977 and is now in its tenth edition. We strongly believe that understanding relational databases is a critical component of any MIS training. David has explained relational databases and DBMS so that business majors understand their importance. What is content? Important business content is not exclusively stored in traditional databases. Internet resources (images, brands, video, audio) have altered our ideas of content and how to manage it. We encourage students to take a wide view of content. What is content management? Websites are customer facing and the presentation of content is increasingly managed. We talk about content management systems and use OpenText, a Canadian company located in Waterloo, Ontario and a leader in enterprise content management systems, to explain how content for the Web is organized and managed. Two Technical Appendices: Introduction to ER Diagramming and Introduction to Microsoft Access For some instructors a single chapter on database is not enough. For these instructors we have supplemented this chapter with two technical appendices. These appendices provide a rich discussion of Entity Relationship Diagramming and normalization. The appendix on Microsoft Access introduces novice database users to tables, relationships, queries and forms. Chapter Exercise: Nobody Said I Shouldn’t We take a look at the ethical use of data inside an organization using a scenario where a technical person plays with organizational data. The scenario draws attention to ethics in organizational information. MIS in Use - The Many Names of One Customer How does a large financial institution deal with data quality?. Something as seemingly simple as establishing a customer name can be a major project. This case highlights the issue of data and data quality.
  • Q1 What is content? Q2 How can content be organized? Q3 What is the purpose of a database? Q4 What does a database contain? Q5 What is a DBMS, and what does it do? Q6 What is a database application? Q7 What is the difference between an enterprise and a personal DBMS? Exercise: Nobody Said I Shouldn’t MIS in Use 5: The Many Names of One Customer (Van City) Chapter Extension: Database Design Chapter Extension: Using Microsoft Access
  • a database is a collection of tables plus relationships among the rows in those tables, plus special data, called metadata , that describes the structure of the database
  • Figure 5-4 Hierarchy of Data Elements
  • Figure 5-3 Student Table (also called a file)
  • Figure 5-5 Components of a Database
  • Figure 5-6 Example of Relationships among Rows
  • A database is a self-describing collection of integrated records selfdescribing means that a database contains, within itself, a description of its contents. Metadata are data that describe data
  • Popular DBMS products are DB2 from IBM, Access and SQL Server from Microsoft, and Oracle from the Oracle Corporation. Another popular DBMS is MySQL , an open-source DBMS product
  • Figure 5-13 Four Application Programs on a Web Browser Server Computer
  • The knowledge in this chapter would have helped Dee understand how the blog could be used to manage important content that was previously not available. She might also realize why the IS department would be hesitant in being responsible for additional content and the presentation of that content. Dee might also have realized that there is some risk in allowing content in the blog that is not edited. In addition, information in this chapter would have helped Dee to know what a DBMS is and what role it plays. She would have been able to understand the diagram in Figure 5-15 (and perhaps even draw it herself). This is the same diagram that you saw in Figure 4-8, page 77, except now we have filled in the software that runs on the server computer. The application is Movable Type, and it calls the DBMS MySQL, which processes the database. Of course, like every computer, the server also has an operating system, like Windows or Linux. While this system does run a DBMS, it is completely isolated from the rest of the Emerson databases and really should not be of concern to the IT department. Dee is not proposing to replace Oracle with MySQL for things like processing orders or paying salespeople. She just wants to include MySQL, as part of the functionality of her application, on the server. With this knowledge, Dee could explain what she wants to do and that her project is no threat or exception to the Oracle standard. It is an isolated system that needs MySQL to run. Ultimately, Don made that exact argument to the IT department. Once the department understood Dee’s plan, they had no problem with Dee’s use of MySQL—as long as she paid any required licence fees for it out of her own budget. Unfortunately, without knowledge of database concepts, Dee was unable to make that argument herself, so she was forced to hire her consultant to make that argument for her. Doing this meant a delay of another few days as well as an additional expense. Still, she had passed another hurdle on the way to developing her system.
  • MIS in Use - The Many Names of One Customer (Van City) How does a large financial institution deal with data quality? Something as seemingly simple as establishing a customer name can be a major project. This case highlights the issue of data and data quality.
  • Nobody Said I Shouldn’t
  • insert discussion questions from the exercise
  • Transcript

    • 1. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada Chapter 5 Databases and Content Management Part 2: Using Information Technology
    • 2. This Could Happen to You
      • A manager selected Moveable Type application program for the blog
      • Needs database program to store blog
        • Consultant suggested MySQL
        • Network standardized on Oracle
          • may not be able to run Moveable Type
          • will require revision of labor estimates
        • IT resists installing MySQL
    • 3. Learning Objectives
      • What is content?
      • How can content be organized?
      • What is the purpose of a database?
      • What does a database contain?
      • What is a DBMS, and what does it do?
      • What is a database application?
      • What is the difference between an enterprise and a personal DBMS?
    • 4. What is content?
      • Content is related to intellectual property
        • a form of creative endeavour that can be protected through a trademark, patent, copyright, industrial design, or integrated circuit topography
      • Varies by industry ( advertising, publishing )
      • Organizations may store data, documents, spreadsheets, presentations, web pages, text from blogs and discussion boards, graphics, video files, audio files, geographical info via Google Earth etc.
    • 5. integrated circuit topography
    • 6. How can content be organized?
      • Content management includes
        • management of content data
          • database management systems (DBMS)
        • presentation of content
          • content management system (CMS)
      • Content management challenge
        • processing and storing the right content
        • getting the right content to the right person in the right format at the right time
    • 7.
      • It is important to separate the management of content data from the presentation of content.
      • management of content data is handled by databases
      • presentation of content is handled by the company’s website ( by the employee- not a good idea – Web CMS )
    • 8. What is the purpose of a database?
      • Spreadsheet and database keep track of things
      • Spreadsheets
        • Keep lists of single concept
      • Databases
        • Keep lists that involve multiple themes
    • 9. A list of single item like student grades [Spreadsheet]
    • 10. List of multiple themes [Database]
    • 11. What does a database contain?
      • A database is a self-describing collection of integrated records
      • Hierarchy of data elements
        • Byte is a character of data
        • Bytes are grouped into columns/fields
        • Columns grouped into rows/records
        • Rows are grouped into tables/files
    • 12. Hierarchy of Data Elements
    • 13. Student Table (also called a file)
    • 14. Components of a Database
      • Database is a collection of tables plus relationships among the rows in those tables plus metadata ( data about data)
        • describes the structure of the database
    • 15. Relationships Among Records
      • Values in one table may relate to rows in other table(s)
      • Keys
        • Column(s) that identify unique row in table
        • Each table has a key ( must be chosen based on the concept of the field and NOT the existing populated table)
      • Foreign keys
        • Keys in a different table than the one in which they reside
      • Relational database
        • Databases using tables, keys, and foreign keys
    • 16. Example of Relationships among Rows
    • 17. Metadata
      • Databases are self-describing
        • contains, within itself, a description of its contents
      • Metadata
        • Data that describe data
        • Makes databases more useful than spreadsheet
          • No one needs to guess, remember what is in DB
        • Makes databases easier to use
    • 18. Example of Metadata
    • 19. What is a DBMS, and what does it do?
      • Database Management System (DBMS)
        • Program that creates, process, and administers database
        • Usually licensed from vendors
          • Microsoft, Oracle, IBM, MySQL (open-source)
      • DBMS and database are two different things
    • 20. Components of Database Application System
    • 21. DBMS
      • DBMS used to create tables, relationships and other structures in the database
      • DBMS processes database
        • Applications use DBMS to read, insert, modify, or delete data
        • Use Structured Query Language (SQL)
          • international standard for processing a database
    • 22. DBMS, continued
      • DBMS provides tools to assist in administration of database [DBA]
        • Can be used to set up security
          • User account, password, permissions
        • Used to back up data
        • Add structure to improve performance ( adding index)
        • Remove data that no longer needed
    • 23. Modifying a Database
    • 24. What is a database application?
      • Collection of forms, reports, queries, and application programs that process a database
      • Databases can have more then one application
      • Applications can have multiple users
    • 25. Multiple Database Application
    • 26. Forms, Reports, and Queries
      • Forms
        • Used to read, insert, modify, and delete data
      • Reports
        • Show data in structured context
        • May compute values ( totals or average …)
      • Queries
        • Means of getting answers from database data
    • 27. Example of a Form
    • 28. Example of a Report
    • 29. Example of a Query
    • 30. Database Application Programs
      • Forms, reports, and queries work for standard functions
      • Application programs
        • Process logic specific to business need
          • E.g. order entry application, if there aren’t enough items in the inventory? Backorder?
        • Enables database processing over Internet
          • serves as intermediary between Web server and database
          • responds to events such as pressing a submit button
          • reads. inserts, modifies, deletes data
    • 31. Four Application Programs on a Web Browser Server Computer Four Application Programs on a Web Server Computer
    • 32. Multi-User Processing
      • Multi-user processing is common
      • Multi-user processing may cause data conflict
      • Unique problems
        • Lost-update problem
        • Locking used to coordinate activities of multiple users
          • creates new set of problems
        • Data conflicts produce inaccurate results
    • 33. Lost Update Problem A successfully completed update operation by one user can be overridden by another user.
    • 34. Lost Update Problem
      • Successfully completed update is overridden by another user.
      • T 1 withdrawing $10 from an account with bal x , initially $100.
      • T 2 depositing $100 into same account.
      • Serially, final balance would be $190.
      • Loss of T 2 's update is avoided by preventing T 1 from reading bal x until after update (Lock)
    • 35. What is the difference between an enterprise and a personal DBMS?
      • Enterprise DBMS
        • Process large organizational and workgroup databases
        • Support many (thousands) users
          • Examples: DB2, SQL Server, Oracle
      • Personal DBMS
        • Designed for smaller, simpler database applications
        • Supports fewer than 100 users
          • Examples: Access, dBase, FoxPro, Paradox, R:Base
    • 36. Personal Database System In Personal DBMS like MS Access, the DBMS and DB application are bundled in the same software system.
    • 37. How does the knowledge in this chapter help you?
      • Understand how the blog could be used to manage important content that was previously not available
      • Understand what a DBMS is and what role it plays
      • Realize why the IS department would be hesitant in being responsible for additional content and the presentation of that content
      • Realize that there is some risk in allowing content in the blog that is not edited
      • Better able to present system plan to IT department
    • 38. MIS in Use
      • The Many Names of One Customer
        • Vancity is Canada’s largest credit union
        • customers can have multiple products, and multiple instances of individual products
        • challenge was to ensure that the data in the customer information file (CIF), the database that held all customer data, was accurate and identified customers uniquely and completely
        • problems with incomplete customer information or misidentification of financial records
    • 39. MIS in Use Questions
      • How serious a problem is this to the financial services industry? Is it more serious for some industries than others?
      • Are there any other costs to Vancity when duplicate information is sent to customers?
      • What are the various challenges in cleaning and grooming data?
      • Would the problem be solved by identifying customers numerically? How would customers perceive this? Are there legal issues?
    • 40. What do YOU think ?
      • Nobody Said I Shouldn’t
      • Kelly does systems support and database backups
      • He copied one of the database backups to a CD, took it home, and query the data
      • Because of that, he was fired
      • Company also threatened that if he didn’t return all of its data, he will be in court for the next five years
    • 41. What do YOU think ?
      • Where did Kelly go wrong?
      • Do you think it was illegal, unethical, or neither for Kelly to take the database home and query the data?
      • Does the company share culpability with Kelly?
      • What do you think Kelly should have done upon discovering the odd pattern in Jason’s orders?
      • What should the company have done before firing Kelly?
      • “ Metadata make databases easy to use—for both authorized and unauthorized purposes.” Explain what organizations should do in light of this fact.
    • 42. Videos
      • Content Management Systems
      • Content Management Systems
      • Google Doc
    • 43. How a search engine works!