Potential effects on the public and workers during normal operations and from accidents, including aircraft crashes, and nature disaster(e.g., floods, tornadoes, and earth- quakes.) Potential effect of air and water quality and other environmental consequences of normal operations and potential accidents--including any effects on the Ogallala Aquifer. Potential effects on agricultural lands and practices. To study these issues, many environmental information is needed, and through those studies, many information is also generated. An information bridge should be set up to connect the data supplier and consumer, so that the future project can be conducted in a timely fashion. Disassemble and disposal of nuclear weapons are sensitive issues. Public concerns are mainly focusing on the safeties and environmental impact Therefore environmental information system is beneficial for both professional environmentalist and general public.
EIS here stands for Environmental Information System, not Environmental Impact Statement. It includes four basic components based on GIS technology. The core component is the spatial database, the environmental description of the study region. Spatial database development involves gathering the information and process the information into an consistent format. Spatial Database management involves database administration and distribution. The implementation and training on the spatial database and its application are also important for the framework.
For the information source, we need to find out what kinds of the information need to be retrieved, where is it and how can it be retrieved. There are three basic types of information in environmental spatial database. Regional Description, environmental Sampling and Regulatory limits. The key point of gathering the information is the user needs To process the data to consistent format, we have to define the region and coordinates, so the data can have the same geographic range, similar scales, and same projection, therefore they can be overlaid together. The key point is Consistent.
The main task for the SD management is to keep the database secure, widely accessible, and easy to use. For SD administration, the main focus is that data are maintained in the appropriate architecture, easy to be updated and backed up. The goal is to keep the system easy to maintain, secure, and provide the accurate and most updated information. For SD distribution, there are three most popular options, online database such as oracle, sybase, Microsoft SQL server, via CD-ROM, and using Internet. The goal is to have a wide distribution range, to provide the multi-format and easy to use, so that not only the environmentalist but also general publics can access the data
The normal spatial database using two-server architecture. An relational database for tabular attribute information, and the Spatial data servesr such as Arc/Info librarian and ArcStorm can be used to handle spatial data.
A more advanced data architecture is one-server architecture, both spatial and tabular data are stored in the relational database, and Spatial Database Engine (SDE) is used to help retrieving the spatial data. In this architecture, the Spatially constraint query is allowed, and database is easier to manage. This structure is especially good for large spatial database that has millions of features.
The architecture we used is a CD-ROM approach. We store the regional description data in spatial data file formats such as coverage, shapes, grid; then we store sampling data in Microsoft Access Tables. We put everything in a CD-ROM, and use ArcView to work on mapping, and Microsoft Access to supply sampling data. The Advantages are: it has a wide distribution range without using the network. The clients get the necessary data, the GIS functions are performed individually, which relieves the burden on the server. The database can have a simpler structure which is customized for each project. The data are accessed directly from local CD-ROM drive, which is very fast for those graphical intensive GIS files.
Internet has been widely used for GIS data publishing, however, the data retrieved usually have to be preprocessed and be viewed by special software such as ArcView. For general publics this is not very feasible. The Internet Map Server can provide spatial data which can be viewed using standard browsers. The two data servers ESRI provides are ArcView IMS and MapObjects IMS. In ArcView IMS, three mapping patches are added to the user-end, server -end and the ArcView application end. When the user reaches the ArcView IMS imbedded web page, a Java applet call Map Café is downloaded to the user, from which you can send the request to a map. The web server has the IMS extension called esrimap.all, it gets the request and talk to ArcView IMS extension, the ArcView gets the request and retrieves the data from database, perform certain activities according to the request and sends back the result. To have the interactive map server, the arcview application has to be running all the time, always ready to response.
MO IMS has the similar structure. The main differences are, it does not provide Java interface. The user uses standard browser to make the request. The weblink is Active X control.
To be consistent, we need to define the study region and the projection. We defined 100 x100 miles square, centered at Pantex. The projection is defined to be the State Plane Coordinates.
Customization example: The TIGER census data is in track level, and we would like to have block level data. One track has about five block. So we combined another data source that have the block level information but not topologically integrated to the TIGER data and had the census data in block level.
ArcView is very good at display and analyze spatial information, but it doesn’t provide very good relational database properties. MS Access is a very relation nice database, easy accessible as part of the MS office software, easy to use. It provides easy query, just by dragging and dropping the tables, relating the table by drawing lines. It also give very nice form input interfacing and report output format. It is compatible with Active X environment. What we try to do is store most of the information in Access, take advantage of its RDBMS functionality and display and analyze the data in ArcView.
Initially we have environmental information stored in Access, the sampling site locations as latitude and longitude, and the sampling data related to them.
The blue dots are sampling locations, the orange lines are the Nitrate concentration contours. The data are initial stored in Access, and displayed and analyzed in ArcView.
The process describes the MOX fuel process, fate and transport describes the where are those radiological material might transport, the health risk describes how it will affect the human. A great amount of communication to the public is involved in this project. The projects is a joint effort from Amarillo National resource Center for plutonium, CRWR, Texas A&M and Pantex. It is difficult to coordinate the project among the teams. Therefore we constructed the research intranet.
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Environmental Information System Framework for Pantex Plant Presented by Ye Maggie Ruan ( http://www. ce . utexas . edu / stu / ruanym /homepage/Research. htm )
Acknowledgement Dr. David Maidment Dr. Randy Charbeneau Dr. Maidment’s Research Group
Outline <ul><li>Background and Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Information System Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Pantex Spatial Database Development and Management </li></ul><ul><li>Additional EIS Components and Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Future Works </li></ul><ul><li>Demo </li></ul>
Background <ul><li>America’s only nuclear weapon assembly and disassembly site </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk to Workers and the Publics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air and Water Quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effect on agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public Concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul></ul>
Current Pantex Database <ul><li>Sybase and Intergraph MGE </li></ul><ul><li>Contains Environmental samples, Regulatory limits, Facility management, Map information </li></ul><ul><li>6,657 Sampling Locations </li></ul><ul><li>2.6GB, 197 Tables and 3,566,104 Data Records </li></ul><ul><li>Updated Daily </li></ul>
Objectives To construct Environmental Information System Framework for the Pantex Facility so that environmental information is provided for both professional environmental engineers and general publics
EIS Framework Spatial Database Development Spatial Database Management Information Source (Types, Sites, Methods ) Data Process (Procedure, Quality Control) GIS Administration (Storage, update, back) Distribution (Online, CD-ROM, Internet) Implementation Training
Spatial Database Development Spatial Database Development Information Source (Types, Sites, Methods) Data Process (Procedure, Quality Control) Gathering and processing the information into a consistent format Regional Description Environmental Sampling Regulatory limits User Needs Consistent Study Region Coordinates and Projection
Spatial Database Management Spatial Database Management Administration Distribution Storage* Update Backup Easy to Maintain Secure Accurate Keep the database secure, widely accessible and easy to use Online CD-ROM Internet* Wide Range Multi-Format Easy to Use
Data Storage: Two-Server Architecture Arc/Info Librarian ArcStorm Oracle Sybase Microsoft SQL Server Spatial Data Server Attributes Data Server Clients: ArcView & Arc/Info MapOjbects Other mapping applications Ethernet NFS or File Sharing Ethernet TCP/IP DBMS Network Client
Data Storage: One-Server Architecture Spatial query allowed SDE RDBMS Oracle Sybase Microsoft SQL Server Clients ArcView & Arc/Info MapOjbects Other mapping applications Ethernet NFS or File Sharing Ethernet TCP/IP DBMS NW Client DBMS NW Server
Database Storage: CD-ROM Approach <ul><li>Wide Distribution Range </li></ul><ul><li>Client-end Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Simple & Customized Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Fast Access Speed </li></ul>Advantage ArcView Arc/Info MapOjbects Other mapping applications CD-ROM Regional data Coverages Shape files Grids Images Sampling data MS Access Tables Queries Microsoft Access
ArcView Internet Map Server Map Café Web Browser Internet Web Server esrimap.dll Web server extension ArcView IMS ArcView IMS extension ArcView SDE GIS DBMS ArcView Internet Map Server TCP/IP Custom Application
MapObjects Internet Map Server Web Browser (e.g, NetScape or Internet Explore) Internet Web Server esrimap.dll Web server extension webLink.ocx MapObjects SDE GIS DBMS MapObjects Internet Map Server TCP/IP Custom Application
Pantex Spatial Database - Objectives: To develop a spatial database framework for assisting in characterization of environmental risks of Pantex Plutonium MOX fuel processing facility , and to develop and analyze potential pathways for human and ecological exposures
Data Types : <ul><li>Raster Image of the Pantex Site and Surrounding Region </li></ul><ul><li>Census description of population </li></ul><ul><li>Stream & Transportation Digital Line Graph </li></ul><ul><li>Land Use & Land Cover Description </li></ul><ul><li>Statsgo Soil Description </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetation Description </li></ul><ul><li>Aquifer Description </li></ul><ul><li>Facility Layout </li></ul>
Study region & Projection Study Region: State Plane Coordinates Projection:
Basic Process Procedure <ul><li>Retrieve the raw data from the source (e.g., Internet) </li></ul><ul><li>Reformat the data file to be compatible with Arc/Info </li></ul><ul><li>Merge the data sets to form a larger continuous seamless data set </li></ul><ul><li>Customize the attributes information to meet the user needs </li></ul><ul><li>Project the merged data set to the desired projection </li></ul><ul><li>Clip the data sets for the defined study region </li></ul>
Regional Description Data Raster Image Census Stream Land Use Soil Aquifer Vegetation Site Layout
Additional Components of EIS <ul><li>Integrate Microsoft Access with ArcView </li></ul><ul><li>Research Intranet for Risk Characterization of Pantex Plutonium MOX Processing Facility </li></ul>
Integrate Access with ArcView - Why? Spatial Information Attribute Information <ul><li>Display </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>RDBMS </li></ul><ul><li>Query </li></ul><ul><li>Form Input </li></ul><ul><li>Report output </li></ul><ul><li>Active X </li></ul>Why? ArcView Microsoft Access
Integrate Access with ArcView - How? How? 1. Export Site location 2. Create Points 3. Spatially Select 4. Query Data of Interest 5. Return Data of Interest 6. Display and Analysis Site Data ArcView Access 1 2 4 Data of Interest 5 6 3
Integrate Access with ArcView - Example! Example: Nitrate distribution in the Groundwater of Pantex
Research Intranet - Framework & Teams Risk Characterization Framework Teams <ul><li>ANRCP </li></ul><ul><li>CRWR </li></ul><ul><li>Texas A&M </li></ul><ul><li>Pantex </li></ul>
Research Intranet - Objectives <ul><li>Define the objective and scope of the project </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify the individual function of each team in the project </li></ul><ul><li>Set up a channel for easy communication </li></ul><ul><li>Provide the online resources for each technical subject </li></ul><ul><li>Update the progress report </li></ul><ul><li>Preview the public information </li></ul>
Conclusions <ul><li>EIS can be beneficial for Environmental projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieving environmental information from the Internet is efficient and cost-effective. </li></ul><ul><li>A CD-ROM database management system provides wide distribution range, simple structure and fast access speed. </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Access can be integrated to ArcView as external relational database management system. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Map Servers provides environmental information to general publics. </li></ul>
Future Work <ul><li>Complete the Spatial Database by Providing More Types of Data </li></ul><ul><li>Improve the Connection between ArcView and Access </li></ul><ul><li>Set Up the Internet Map Server </li></ul><ul><li>Polish the Intranet and Public Window </li></ul>