DOUG_10g_Auto_v11.ppt

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  • 1. Oracle Database 10g Automation Features
    • Dallas Oracle Users Group - Oct. 2005
    • Arun Kumar R.
    • Cingular Wireless
  • 2. Oracle Database 10g Automation Features
    • Speaker Bio
      • Over a decade of database administration and architecture experience in Oracle technologies.
      • Author of Oracle Database 10g Insider Solutions , Sams Publishing, Aug. 2005 and Easy Oracle Automation , Rampant TechPress, Dec. 2004.
      • Columnist on Oracle Data Strategies in Database Trends and Applications Journal (www.dbta.com)
      • Executive Editor, IOUG Select Journal (www.ioug.org/select)
  • 3. Agenda
      • Introduction
      • Oracle Database 10g
      • Automation Features
      • Grid Control
      • Security & Recoverability
      • Wrapping it up
      • Q & A
  • 4. Introduction
      • Until Oracle 9i, DBAs spent a lot of time on database monitoring, identifying problem areas and performance bottlenecks
      • DBA tasks focused on
        • System Resources
        • Storage management
        • Space Management
        • Application and SQL tuning
        • Fixing Security Issues
        • Backup and Recovery Management.
  • 5. Oracle Database 10g
      • Oracle Database 10g is more sophisticated and powerful, suitable for even small businesses.
      • Get an overview of all the major automatic features of Oracle Database 10g.
      • Review improved Enterprise Manager and Grid Control.
      • Learn how Database Administrators can easily automate many administrative routines.
      • Let us dive into the details.
  • 6. Manageability Features- Overview
      • Automatic diagnosis of performance problems, potential or real, and subsequent correction
        • by Automatic Statistics Collection and Retention using the new Automatic Workload Repository.
      • Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor (ADDM)
      • Automatic Shared Memory Management (ASMM)
      • Automatic Storage Management (ASM)
        • helps to add and remove storage as needed and improve the I/O on various disks
      • Automatic SQL Tuning features.
      • Better Data Movement, Security, Backup & Recoverability features
  • 7. What is Automatic Workload Repository?
    • AWR, a built-in repository in every database is the central component of Oracle Database 10g manageability infrastructure.
    • Provides services to the database to access, collect, process, and maintain performance statistics on various functionalities within the database.
    • At regular intervals (60 minutes), Oracle Database 10g takes snapshots of all vital statistics and workload data
    • Stores them in the repository for a period of seven days.
  • 8. AWR (Continued..)
    • Repository data used for analysis and as statistics for problem detection and self-tuning.
    • Used for system level and user level analysis.
    • AWR is the basis for all self-management functionalities of the database.
    • Gives the Oracle Database with the historical perspective on its usage.
    • AWR has report generation mechanism to produce summary reports based on database statistics.
    • Very similar to STATSPACK in previous database versions, but a lot convenient to use !
  • 9. Architecture of AWR
      • AWR in Oracle Database 10g collects-
        • Time model statistics
        • Object statistics
        • Session and system statistics in v$sesstat and v$sysstat
        • Optimizer statistics
  • 10. Active Session History
      • Active Session History (ASH) contains recent session activity.
      • Memory for ASH comes from the SGA, fixed for the instance lifetime.
      • ASH samples the v$session view every second and records the events the active sessions are waiting for.
      • ASH statistics can be viewed from v$active_session_history, o ne row for each active session per sample with the latest session rows first.
      • Contents of v$active_session_history flushed to disk as part of the AWR snapshot process.
  • 11. AWR Snapshots
      • AWR stored in Workload Repository (WR) schema.
      • WR schema resides in the SYSAUX tablespace.
      • A snapshot is a set of performance statistics captured at a certain time in the database.
        • Used for computing the rate of change of a statistic.
        • Identified by unique snapshot sequence # (snap_id).
        • Generated every 60 minutes by default.
        • interval parameter to change snapshot frequency.
      • Manual snapshots can be taken using the database control or a PL/SQL procedure.
  • 12. Metrics and Thresholds
        • Metrics are a set of statistics for certain system attributes.
          • Calculated and stored by the Automatic Workload Repository (AWR).
          • Results displayed in Enterprise Manager through the All Metrics page under Related Links on the Database Home page.
        • Thresholds are the boundary values against which the metric values are compared.
  • 13. Statistics Collection Process
        • Oracle Database 10g metrics can be tracked using AWR.
        • Two categories of Usage metrics- Database feature usage and High water mark (HWM) value of certain database attributes.
        • MMON tracks and records the database feature usage and HWM statistics on a weekly basis.
        • Statistics are recorded in AWR snapshots.
        • To review statistics, dba_feature_usage_statistics view and dba_high_water_mark_statistics view or Enterprise Manager.
  • 14. How to use AWR reports?
    • AWR reports are generated using awrrpt.sql , awrrpti.sql , awrddrpt.sql , and awrddrpi.sql in $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin directory.
    • Reports as html pages or text reports.
      • awrrpt.sql - all available AWR snapshots.
      • awrrpti.sql - statistics for a range of snapshot ids on a specified database and instance
      • awrddrpt.sql - statistics of a particular SQL statement for a range of snapshot ids.
      • awrddrpi.sql - statistics of a SQL statement for a range of snapshot ids on a specified database and instance.
  • 15. Using AWR reports -1
  • 16. Using AWR reports -2
  • 17. AWR reports for Comparisons
  • 18. Advisory Framework
        • Oracle Database 10g has server components called advisors to provide feedback about resource utilization and performance.
          • Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor (ADDM)
          • SQL Tuning Advisor, SQL Access Advisor
          • SGA Advisor, PGA Advisor
          • Buffer Cache Advisor, Library Cache Advisor
          • Segment Advisor
          • Undo Advisor
  • 19. Database Advisors
        • Above database advisors have certain attributes in common.
          • An advisor can be launched in one of two modes depending on time available for completing the advisory task.
            • Limited Mode or Comprehensive Mode
          • Some advisors support both modes.
  • 20. Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor (ADDM)
        • ADDM provides proactive and reactive features for monitoring
        • Statistical information is automatically captured from the SGA
        • Stored inside the workload repository in the form of snapshots in sixty (60) minute intervals.
        • Snapshots are then written to disk
        • Similar to STATSPACK snapshots, but are more detailed.
  • 21. ADDM Performance Monitoring
        • ADDM initiates the MMON process to run automatically on every database instance
          • For every snapshot taken, ADDM triggers an analysis of the period corresponding to the last two snapshots.
          • Helps the ADDM to proactively monitor the instance and detect bottlenecks before they become catastrophic.
          • Analysis results are stored inside the workload repository.
        • Accessible through the EM console.
        • ADDM can be manually invoked using the runad PL/SQL procedure and by the $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/addmrpt.sql procedure.
  • 22. Automatic Shared Memory Management (ASMM)
        • Commonly tuned System Global Area (SGA) components are - database buffer cache, the shared pool, the large pool, and the Java pool.
          • ASMM enables Oracle Database 10g to automatically determine appropriate values within total SGA limits.
          • DBA can simply mention the total amount of SGA memory to an instance using the sga_target .
          • Oracle database will automatically distribute this memory among various sub-components.
  • 23. How does ASMM work?
          • With Automatic SGA memory management enabled, the sizes of different components are flexible to resize to the needs of the workload without additional intervention.
          • The internal tuning algorithm monitors the workload performance & increases the shared pool as needed to reduce the number of parses.
        • ASMM uses a new Memory Manager (MMAN) background process.
          • Coordinates the sizing of the memory components, acts as a memory broker.
          • Tracks all memory components & pending resize operations.
  • 24. Enable ASMM - EM
  • 25. Memory Advisor through EM -1
        • Memory Advisor can be used only when the ASMM is disabled .
        • Three advisors - for Shared pool in SGA, Buffer Cache in SGA, and PGA.
  • 26. Memory Advisor through EM -2
  • 27. Automatic Storage Management
        • Automatic Storage Management (ASM) for efficient management of disk drives with 24/7 availability.
          • Helps the DBA from potentially managing thousands of database files across multiple database instances by creating disk groups.
          • Disk groups are comprised of disks and files on them.
          • ASM will not eliminate any existing database functionalities
          • With ASM, the DBA only needs to manage a smaller number of disk groups.
          • ASM also serves as a cluster file system for RAC configurations.
  • 28. ASM Advantages
        • In a nutshell, we can have a mixture of ASM files; Oracle managed files and manually managed files
          • Existing files can be migrated to ASM if needed.
        • ASM prevents accidental file deletion by eliminating the file system interface.
        • Provides raw disk I/O performance for all files, striping them across multiple storage arrays.
        • Reduces the cost of managing storage with a clustered volume manager and integrated file system functionality.
  • 29. ASM vs. Oracle 9i Storage
  • 30. Automatic SQL Tuning Features
        • SQL Tuning Advisor and SQLAccess Advisor
          • SQL Tuning Advisor provides tuning advice for SQL statements with out modifying any statement.
          • For complex applications and large databases, use SQLAccess Advisor.
            • Provides advice on indexes, materialized views and materialized view logs for a given work load.
            • Provides advice on database schema issues and determines optimal data access paths .
  • 31. Using Automatic SQL Tuning tools
        • For both tuning tools- create a task, run the Advisor, generate the recommendations and implement them.
          • The user can accept or reject the recommendations.
          • Advisor tools available through Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g (OEM) and from SQL command prompt.
        • Helps the DBA to save time in application SQL tuning efforts over methods used with Oracle 9i and prior.
  • 32. SQLAccess Advisor
        • Used for applications with complex queries on large sets of data.
        • Recommend a combination of indexes, materialized views, and materialized view logs.
        • Recommends how to optimize materialized views to be refreshable and benefit from general query rewrites.
        • Recommends the use of bitmap and B-tree indexes.
          • B-tree indexes are used mainly in data warehouses or large databases to index unique or near-unique keys.
          • Bitmap indexes improve response time for adhoc queries.
          • Very little space compared to conventional indexes.
  • 33. SQL Tuning Advisor
        • SQL Tuning Advisor provides automatic tuning advice for SQL statements.
        • Takes one or more SQL statements as input and invokes the automatic tuning optimizer to perform SQL tuning with out actually modifying any statement.
        • Output is a series of advice or recommendations along with the rationale behind each recommendation and its expected benefits.
        • The user can accept the recommendations or reject them.
  • 34. SQL Tuning Advisor - STS
        • For tuning multiple SQL statements, a SQL Tuning Set (STS) is created.
        • STS can be created from command line or Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g.
        • SQL Tuning Sets can be handled through EM or managed with DBMS_SQLTUNE package procedures.
        • For using SQL Tuning Set APIs, the developer needs ADMINISTER ANY SQL TUNING SET system privilege.
  • 35. Controlling a Tuning Task
        • Control the scope and duration of a tuning task
          • Scope of the task -limited or comprehensive.
          • With the limited option, the SQL Tuning Advisor produces recommendations based on analysis of statistics, access paths, and SQL structure.
          • SQL Profile recommendations are not generated.
          • With comprehensive option, the SQL Tuning Advisor does everything under limited scope and SQL profiling. User can also set the time limit of a tuning task (default value 30 minutes).
  • 36. Deploying SQL Tuning Advisor
  • 37. SQL Tuning Advisor from EM
      • In EM, using Advisor Central - SQL Tuning Advisor link.
      • DBMS_SQLTUNE package by anyone with DBA role and ADVISOR privilege.
  • 38. SQL Tuning Advisor using EM-1
      • In EM, SQL Tuning Advisor-> Top SQL link.
  • 39. SQL Tuning Advisor using EM- 2
      • Choose the SQL & click Run SQL Tuning Advisor
  • 40. SQL Tuning Advisor using EM-3
      • Select Scope
      • Choose
      • Schedule
  • 41. SQL Tuning Advisor using EM-4
      • When the SQL Tuning task’s status is COMPLETED, select the task and click View Recommendations.
  • 42. SQLAccess Advisor
        • SQLAccess Advisor
          • Will recommend a combination of indexes, materialized views, and materialized view logs.
          • Can be run from EM using the SQLAccess Advisor Wizard or by invoking the DBMS_ADVISOR package.
        • SQL Tuning with SQLAccess Advisor
          • 4 steps->create a task, define workload, generate recommendations, & implement them.
          • A task has all the information relating to the recommendation process and its results.
            • To create a task, use the wizard in EM or the DBMS_ADVISOR.QUICK_TUNE .
            • For hands-on approach, use DBMS_ADVISOR.CREATE_TASK procedure.
  • 43. Executing the Task
        • Create a task and link to a workload.
        • Use the DBMS_ADVISOR.EXECUTE_TASK procedure to generate the recommendations.
        • To view the recommendations, use
          • DBA_ ADVISOR_RECOMMENDATIONS
          • USER_ADVISOR_RECOMMENDATIONS
          • Get a script using DBMS_ADVISOR.GET_TASK_SCRIPT
          • EM to get recommendations.
        • Recommendations are stored in the SQLAccess Advisor repository.
          • Repository has benefits being managed by the server, support of historical data etc.
  • 44. Implementing SQLAccess Advisor Recommendations
        • SQL Access Advisor creates a set of recommendations.
          • Lets the user decide whether to implement all of its recommendations, or some, or none.
        • In EM - Select the required recommendations.
          • You are given a choice on how to implement the recommendations.
          • Schedule a job in the EM to execute the script and implement the recommendations.
        • For do-it-yourself DBAs
          • SQLAccess Advisor generates a SQL script to be used any time.
          • DBA can edit SQL, naming conventions etc.
  • 45. Advisor Task Implementation-EM-1
  • 46. Advisor Task Implementation-EM-2
  • 47. Advisor Task Implementation-EM-3
  • 48. Advisor Task Implementation-EM-4
  • 49. Deploying SQLAccess Advisor
  • 50. Uses for SQLAccess Advisor
        • Generally used in large database/data warehouse environments.
        • Advantages
          • DBA can tune parts of the database using selective workloads.
          • Quick and easy to use tool, which helps to build a pattern of usage over a time frame.
          • DBA gets to decide and select the recommendations to be implemented.
          • Identify parts of the system which needs tuning, that would have been left out by ordinary tuning procedures.
  • 51. Server Generated Alerts
        • A server-generated alert is a notification message from the server of an impending problem.
          • Generated whenever a database metric does not match expected values
          • Or thresholds levels (warning / critical levels) on different metrics are reached
          • Or when the problem condition has been cleared
        • Notification has error/alert condition, and may contain suggestions for correcting the problem.
        • MMON regularly schedules monitoring actions.
  • 52. Server Generated Alerts
        • Threshold levels can be internally set, customer defined, or customer altered from preset values.
        • Threshold alerts ( stateful alerts) automatically cleared on fixing the alert condition.
        • Stateful alerts stored in dba_outstanding_alerts and moved to dba_alert_history when cleared.
        • EM can be customized to send these messages to pager or email addresses.
        • A message about the alert written to Oracle Database alert log.
  • 53. When you get an alert !
    • Follow the recommendations it provides.
    • Run ADDM or another advisor as needed to get a more detailed diagnostics of system or object behavior.
    • You can run a corrective script on receiving an alert.
    • Clear the alerts as a part of alert management.
  • 54. Alerts Management Using EM
        • Alerts can be managed using Oracle Enterprise Manager console.
        • EM can be invoked from a Web browser, from client installation or from the database server itself.
        • Using EM, you can schedule different monitoring jobs to be run on the database or have the database send you an alert for the specified events.
  • 55. Alerts Management Using EM -1
  • 56. Alerts Management Using EM -2
  • 57. Alerts Management Using EM -3
  • 58. Alerts Management Using EM -4
  • 59. Clearing of Alerts
        • Oracle clears most of the alerts automatically when the cause of the alert disappears.
        • Certain alerts need to be acknowledged by the DBA and require corrective measures.
        • After taking the necessary corrective actions, acknowledge the alert by clearing it or purging it.
        • Clearing an alert sends it to the Alert History; purging an alert removes it from the Alert History.
        • Viewable from the home page of EM under Related Links .
  • 60. Data Pump
    • New high-speed infrastructure for data and metadata movement called Data Pump a.k.a. DBMS_DATAPUMP .
    • Provides high-speed data load and unload capability to existing tables.
    • Platform independent flat files can be moved between multiple servers.
    • Use the new network mode to transfer data using database links.
    • Parallelism for Data Pump in the Enterprise Edition.
  • 61. Data Pump Architecture
  • 62. Data Pump Benefits
    • Detach from a long running job and reattach with out affecting the job.
      • Enables the DBA to monitor jobs from multiple locations, stop the jobs and restart them later .
    • Space needed for an export job can be estimated using the ESTIMATE ONLY parameter.
      • Prevents the destination directory from running out of space.
    • Data Pump also supports fine-grained object selection using the EXCLUDE, INCLUDE and CONTENT parameters.
    • Remapping of data during export and import processes.
      • Names of source data files, source schema names, and source tablespaces can be changed to different names at the target system .
  • 63. Grid Control
    • A web-based system for managing Oracle products, host systems, and applications.
    • Unified console for monitoring distributed application servers.
    • Application server administrators can use Grid Control to
      • Check the status and performance of servers.
      • Manage system and software configurations.
      • Manage application servers, and availability of applications.
  • 64. Grid Control & Schematic
  • 65. Security Features - Overview
    • Oracle Security features include
      • Virtual Private Database (VPD)
      • Fine Grained Auditing (FGA)
      • Database encryption/decryption
      • Oracle Label Security & Oracle Identity Management
    • Oracle Advanced Security in Oracle Database 10g Release 2.
      • Combination of network encryption, database encryption and strong authentication
  • 66. Security Features (continued..)
    • Transparent Data Encryption
      • Encrypts data.
      • Uses DES, AES etc.
      • Backward compatibility with DBMS_OBFUSCATION_TOOLKIT and DBMS_CRYPTO
    • Network Encryption
      • Support for RC4, DES, 3DES , AES
    • Data Integrity
      • Using MD5 , SHA-1 Algorithms
    • Data Authentication
      • PKI, Kerberos, RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) , Secure Sockets Layer (SSL with digital certificates)
  • 67. Recoverability Features
    • Flashback features for quick and efficient recovery from human errors
      • Flashback Query, Flashback Versions Query – row level
      • Flashback Transaction Query – transaction level
      • Flashback Drop, Flashback Table – table level
      • Flashback Database – database level
      • Restore Points to guarantee database can be recovered to any pre-set point in time
  • 68. Recovery Manager (RMAN)
    • RMAN available as command-line and EM for backups and recovery.
    • Flash Recovery Area
      • A single directory on disk or ASM disk group to keep all recovery-related files. (control, data, archive log, RMAN backup set files etc.)
    • Automatic channel failover
      • When faced with errors during disk backup or restore, RMAN will try to complete as much job as possible
    • Block Media Recovery
      • Allows RMAN to fix a corrupted block on backup
      • Keeps the data file online
      • Keeps non-affected data available for read/update.
  • 69. Wrapping it up -1
        • A quick overview of the automatic manageability features of Oracle Database 10g.
        • Review of Grid Control, Enterprise Manager etc.
        • These automatic database management features of Oracle Database 10g are
          • Meant to reduce the time spent on routine DBA tasks.
          • Focus on more challenging issues for the enterprise.
        • Oracle Database 10g replaces the tedious system and database administration tasks with a few simple steps from the EM or command line interface.
  • 70. Wrapping it up -2
        • Use the security features of Oracle Database 10g along with proper planning to make your databases compliant with regulatory requirements.
        • Improved recoverability features with Flashback and RMAN.
        • Detailed explanation given in Oracle Documentations, related Oracle Database 10g books, and references given here.
  • 71. Better Life with Oracle 10g Manageability features
      • Improve the performance of mission critical applications
        • Manage more databases and applications
        • Be more valuable to the organization
        • Get more sleeping time.
      • For your business, it will result in
        • Fewer failures & Faster response times
        • Lower development cost
      • By judicious utilization of automatic management features of Oracle Database 10g, a DBA can drastically reduce the time spent on routine administrative tasks.
  • 72. Thank you
    • References
      • Oracle Database 10g Insider Solutions, Sams Publishing, Sep. 2005
      • Oracle Database 10g Documentation (online).
      • Oracle Technology Network.
      • Easy Oracle Automation, Rampant TechPress, Dec. 2004.
    • Get this presentation and similar articles at http://www.dbatrends.com/Downloads.htm
    • Contact Info:
      • Personal website: http://www.dbatrends.com
      • Email arunioug at dbatrends dot com
      • =====================================
    • Questions & Answers