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  • Policy: Users must have password, password must be changed every 6 months Standards Passwords have a min of 5 characters, max of 12 char., cannot be SS#, names, birthdates Procedures: To create a password, send a request to DBA for an Account, temp password is created, sends account Information to user, user changes temporary password into acceptable perm. one
  • Transcript

    • 1. Database Administration Todd S. Bacastow
    • 2. Need for Databases
      • Data is used by different people, in different departments, for different reasons
      • Interpretation and Presentation of data in useful formats
      • Distribution of data and information
        • To the right people
        • At the right time
      • Data Preservation
      • Control over Data Duplication and Use
    • 3. Role of the Database
      • Primary Role: To Support Managerial Decision Making at All Levels of the Organization
        • Top Level  Strategic Decisions
        • Middle Management  Tactical Decisions
        • Operational Management  Daily, Operational Decisions
      • DBMS must provide each level a separate view of the data and support their specialized decision making roles
      • Provide a seamless flow of information throughout the company
    • 4. Top Level Management
      • Provide information for strategic decision making, strategic planning, policy formation, and goals definitions
      • Provide access to data to identify growth opportunities
      • Provide a framework for defining and enforcing organizational policies
      • Improve the likelihood of a positive return on investment for the company
        • Ways to reduce cost
        • Increase Productivity
      • Provide feedback on whether the company is achieving its goals
    • 5. Middle Management
      • Provide necessary data for tactical decision making and planning
      • Monitor and control the use of company resources
        • How efficiently are the resources allocated and used (including data)
        • What potential or current operational problems exist
        • Evaluate the performance of the different departments
      • Provide a framework for ensuring the security and privacy of the data in the database
    • 6. Operational Management
      • Represent and support the company operations
      • Produce query results within set performance levels
      • Enhance short-term operational ability
        • Timely information for Customer Support
        • Support for application development and computer operations
    • 7. Special Database Considerations
      • Having a database does not mean the data will be use properly, efficiently, correctly
      • DBMS is just a tool for managing data – it must be used correctly  effective management and use
      • 3 Main Processes for implementing a DBMS
        • Technological  DBMS software and hardware
        • Managerial  Administrative Functions
        • Cultural  Corporate Resistance to Change
    • 8. Evolution of the DBA
      • Data Processing Department
      • Information Systems Department
        • Service Function to provide end users active data management support
        • Production Function to provide solutions to information needs (application development)
      • DBA – Database Administration
        • Size and Role varies from company to company
        • DBA’s function is very dynamic
          • Distributed Databases
          • Internet Databases
          • Object Oriented databases
          • Sophistication and Power of the DBMS packages
    • 9. Common Functions of DBA
      • Database Planning
        • Standards, procedures, enforcement
      • Requirements Gathering and Conceptual Design
      • Logical Design
      • Physical Design and Implementation
      • Testing and Debugging
      • Operations and Maintenance
      • Training and Support
    • 10. DBA’s Managerial Role
      • Control and Planning Dimensions of Database Administration
        • Coordinating, Monitoring, and Allocating database administration resources
          • People
          • Data
        • Defining Goals and Formulating Strategic Plans for the Database Administration function
    • 11. DBA’s Responsibilities Data Distribution and Use Delivering Data backup and Recovery Monitoring Data Security, Privacy, Integrity Testing Policies, Procedures, Standards Organizing End-User Support Planning DBA Service DBA Activity
    • 12. End-User Support
      • User Requirements Gathering
        • Understanding of the users’ views and needs
        • Present and Future information needs
      • Conflict and Problem Resolution
        • Solutions in one department may cause problems in another
      • Finding Solutions to Information Needs
      • Ensure Quality and Integrity of Applications and Data
      • Build End-User Confidence
      • Manage the Training and Support of DBMS users
    • 13. Policies, Procedures, and Standards
      • Policies: General Statements of Direction or action that communicate and support DBA goals
      • Procedures: Written Instructions that describe a services of steps to be followed during the performance of a given activity
      • Standards: More detailed and specific than policies, and describe the minimum requirements of a DBA activity
        • Rules that are used to evaluate the qualityof the activity
    • 14. Areas of Policies and Procedures
      • End-User database requirements gathering
      • Database design and modeling
      • Documentation and Naming conventions
      • Design, coding, and testing of applications
      • Database software selection
      • Database security and integrity
      • Database backup and recovery
      • Database maintenance and operation
      • End-user training
    • 15. Data Security, Privacy and Integrity
      • User Access Management
        • Define each user to the database
          • Operating System Level
          • Database Level
        • Assign Passwords
        • Define User Groups
        • Assign Access Privileges
          • Read
          • Write
          • Delete
        • Physical Access Control
      • View Definitions
        • Protect and Control the Scope of the Data that is accessible to a user
      • DBMS utilities access control
        • Limit the use of query and reporting tools
      • DBMS usage Monitoring
        • Audit Logs
      • (More difficult in distributed databases)
    • 16. Data Backup and Recovery
      • Disaster Management
        • Periodic Data and Application Backups
          • Full
          • Incremental
          • Concurrent
        • Proper Backup Identification
        • Convenient and safe backup storage
        • Physical protection of hardware and software
        • Personal Access Control to the software of a database installation
        • Insurance coverage for the data in the database
    • 17. Data Backup and Recovery
      • Recovery and Contingency plans
        • Tested
        • Evaluated
        • Practiced
      • Will Not Recover all components of an IS
        • Establish priorities for the nature and extend of the data recovery process
    • 18. Data Distribution and Use
      • Data is only useful when:
        • Given to the Right User
        • Right Time
        • Right Format
      • Programmers Deliver programs to access data
        • Time consuming for DBA
      • Data Distribution allows end users to access the database
        • Internet
        • Intranets
        • Queries, Web Front Ends
        • End Users may make improper use of database, data duplication, etc.
    • 19. DBA’s Technical Role
      • DBMS and utilities, evaluation, selection and installation
      • Design and implementation of Database
      • Testing and Evaluation
      • Operation of DBMS, Utilities, and Applications
      • Training and Supporting Users
      • Maintenance of DBMS, Utilities, and Applicaitons
    • 20. Evaluation, Selection, and Installation
      • Selection of Hardware and Software
      • Must be based on the Organization’s Needs
      • Search is for a solutions to a problem, not a need for a software
      • 1 st step is to determine companies NEEDS
    • 21. DBMS Checklist
      • DBMS Model
      • Storage Capacity
      • Application Development Support
      • Security and Integrity
      • Backup and Recovery
      • Concurrency Control
      • Performance
      • DBA tools
      • Interoperability and Data Distribution
      • Portability
      • Hardware
      • Data Dictionary
      • Vendor Training and Support
      • Third Party Tools
      • Cost
    • 22. Design and Implementation
      • Determination and Enforcement of Standards and Procedures
      • Ensure the Design activities are performed within the Standards and Procedures
      • Ensure Transactions are:
        • Correct
        • Efficient
        • Compliant with Integrity and Standards
      • Physical Design
      • Operational Procedures
    • 23. Testing and Evaluation
      • All Database and End User Applications
      • Maintained Independently of Development and Implementation
      • Cover:
        • Technical Aspects
          • Backup, Recovery, Security, Integrity, SQL
        • Evaluation of Documentation
        • Observance of Standards
          • Naming, Documentation, Coding
        • Data Duplication Conflicts with existing data
        • Enforcement of Data Validation rules
    • 24. Operation of DBMS, Utilities, and Applications
      • System Support
        • Day-to-day activity of the DBMS
      • Performance monitoring and tuning
        • Performance Goals
        • Evaluate if performance objectives are being met
        • Isolate Problems and Find solutions
        • Implement solutions
      • Backup and Recovery
      • Security auditing and monitoring
        • Appropriate access rights
        • Proper use of access privileges by programmers and end users
    • 25. Training and Supporting Users
      • Technical Training in the use of DBMS and Utilities for Applications Programmers
      • Unscheduled on-demand technical support
      • Interaction with DBMS vendors
    • 26. Maintenance of DBMS
      • Dedicated to the Preservation of the DBMS environment
      • Management of the Physical or Secondary Storage devices
        • Reorganizing the physical location of the data
      • Upgrading the DBMS and Utility Software
      • Exchange of data is dissimilar formats or between database
    • 27. Database Administration Tools
      • Data Dictionary
        • Store the Description of all objects that interact with the database
          • Integrated  Include data outside of DBMS
          • Standalone  limited to data of DBMS
      • Case Tools
        • Computer Aided Software Engineering
        • Automated Framework for the SDLC
          • Front-End Tools
            • Planning, Analysis, Design
          • Back-End Tools
            • Coding and Implementation
    • 28. Data Dictionary
      • Data Elements from all tables of all databases
        • Names, Types, Format, Validation rules, When an Element is Used and by whom
      • Tables defined in the database
      • Indexes defined for each table
      • Defined databases, and properties
      • End Users and Administrators
      • Programs that access the database
      • Access Authorizations for all users
      • Relationships among data elements
    • 29. Case Tools
      • Reduction in development time and costs
      • Standardization of Systems Development Methodologies
      • Easier Maintenance of Application Systems Developed with CASE Tools
      • Components:
        • Graphics
        • Screen Painters and Report Generators
        • Repository for Storing and Cross-Referencing the System Design Data (Data Dictionary)
        • Analysis Segment for Automated Check on System Consistency, Syntax, Completeness
        • Program Documentation Generator