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  • 1. CS 5226: Database Administration and Performance Tuning
  • 2. Course Structure
    • Continuous Assessment: 50%
      • Assignments: 25%
      • Lab Sessions: 25%
    • Lecturers:
      • Prof. Ooi Beng Chin (ooibc)
      • DBAs: Sze Eng Koon and Phillip Lim
  • 3. Text/Reference Books:
    • Dennis Shasha and Phillipe Bonnet: Database Tuning : Principles Experiments and Troubleshooting Techniques. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. 2002 (released in June 2002). TEXT .
    • Dennis Shasha: Database tuning : a principled approach. Prentice Hall, 1992. REFERENCE (a good reference if cannot get the text book)
    • Database Management Systems, 3 rd edition. Raghu Ramakrishnan & Johannes Gehrke, McGraw-Hill, 2002.
    • Hector Garcia-Molina, Jeffrey D. Ullman, and Jennifer Widom: Database Systems -- The Complete Book. Prentice Hall, 2001.
    • G. J. Vaidyanatha, K. Deshpande and J. Kostelac: Oracle Performance Tuning 101. Osborne/Mc-Graw-Hill. 2001. REFERENCE.
    • Jim Gray (ed): The Benchmark handbook : for database and transaction processing systems. M. Kaufmann Publishers, 1991. REFERENCE.
  • 4. Copyright: Many slides belong to the tutorial: Database Tuning Principles, Experiments and Troubleshooting Techniques Dennis Shasha (shasha@cs.nyu.edu) Philippe Bonnet ( [email_address] ) And lecture notes provided by Database Management Systems , 3 rd edition. Raghu Ramakrishnan & Johannes Gehrke McGraw-Hill, 2002. and some from the web …
  • 5. Database Tuning
    • Database Tuning is the activity of making a database application run more quickly. “More quickly” usually means higher throughput, though it may mean lower response time for time-critical applications.
  • 6. Application Programmer (e.g., business analyst, Data architect) Sophisticated Application Programmer (e.g., SAP admin) DBA, Tuner Hardware [Processor(s), Disk(s), Memory] Operating System Concurrency Control Recovery Storage Subsystem Indexes Query Processor Application
  • 7. Goals of the Course
    • Appreciation of DBMS architecture
    • Study the effect of various components on the performance of the systems
    • Tuning principles
    • Troubleshooting techniques for chasing down performance problems
    • Hands-on experience in Tuning
  • 8. Contents
    • Basic Principles
    • Tuning the guts
    • Indexes
    • Relational Systems
    • Application Interface
    • E-commerce Applications
    • Data warehouse Applications
    • Distributed Applications
    • Troubleshooting
  • 9. Tuning Principles
    • Think globally, fix locally
      • Localizing the problems
    • Partitioning breaks bottlenecks (temporal and spatial)
      • ONE part of the system limits the the overall performance
      • Two approaches:
        • Fix locally
        • Partitioning the LOAD
          • eg. Free list, lock contention due to long transactions
    • Partitioning in space/logical resources/time
  • 10. Tuning Principles
    • Start-up costs are high; running costs are low
      • Start-up costs include
        • Disk access
        • Data transfer
        • Query processing
        • System calls
      • Reduce the number of start-ups
  • 11. An example: Time = Seek Time + Rotational Delay + Transfer Time + Other Rule of Random I/O: Expensive Thumb Sequential I/O: Much less
    • Ex: 1 KB Block
            • Random I/O:  20 ms.
            • Sequential I/O:  1 ms.
  • 12. Tuning Principles
    • Render onto server what is due onto Server
      • Task allocation between the server and the application programs
      • Factors:
        • Relative computing resources of client, application servers and data server
          • Should checking be done in the middle tier?
        • Location of information
        • The nature of tasks: interaction with screen?
  • 13. Tuning Principles
    • Be prepared for trade-offs
    • Ex. Indices
  • 14. Tuning Mindset
    • Set reasonable performance tuning goals
    • Measure and document current performance
    • Identify current system performance bottleneck
    • Identify current OS bottleneck
    • Tune the required components eg: application, DB, I/O, contention, OS etc
    • Track and exercise change-control procedures
    • Measure and document current performance
    • Repeat step 3 through 7 until the goal is met