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Database Core Lesson Template [doc]
 

Database Core Lesson Template [doc]

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    Database Core Lesson Template [doc] Database Core Lesson Template [doc] Document Transcript

    • NSF IT Across Careers Scenario-Based Lesson IT Application: Database Cluster: Core Lesson Template Professional: Student Guide
    • Database Applications: Core Lesson Template Introduction This lesson focuses on using Database Applications and is designed for use as a classroom assignment. The objective of the lesson is to achieve and demonstrate proficiency with database applications tools (e.g. queries, table definitions, reports, and forms) by completing a series of activities based on a realistic industry-based scenario. The lesson assumes that you already have had some basic training and/or experience in using a computer. This lesson covers the basic elements of using database applications by helping you work toward a proficient level of skill in database applications tools. The lesson comprises 4 sections: Section I: What are Database Applications? A short introduction about database applications and the skills required for proficient use of database applications. Section II: Database Application Lesson A series of activities centered on various database applications skills. Section III: Extending Your Learning Additional resources for learning more about using database applications. Section IV: Assessment Guidelines for grading yourself on the lesson activities and tips on building your own IT skills portfolio. © 2002 - 2005 Education Development Center, Inc. 2 IT Across Careers (NSF-ATE Project) 8/30/05
    • Database Applications: Core Lesson Template Section 1: What are database applications? Data is an important valuable resource for all businesses and industries. Organizing, storing, maintaining, retrieving, and sorting data are critical activities that enable businesses to find and use information effectively. A database is a collection of information organized in such a way that a computer program can quickly select desired pieces of data. You can think of a database as an electronic filing system. Databases are organized by fields, records, and tables. A field is a single piece of information; a record is one complete set of fields; and a table is a collection of records. For example, a telephone book is analogous to a table. It contains a list of records, each of which consists of three fields: name, address, and telephone number. A field is a single attribute of the object or item. For example, patient name, address, and insurance company are considered fields. Related fields can then be grouped into tables. A table is a collection of fields that describe the object or item. Tables grouped into related collections are called databases. All the information collected about a group or subject can be considered a database. Essentially, database applications have 2 basic functions: to input data and to retrieve the data. Today‘s database management systems are also called relational database management systems. Several people working in different departments can share the same data. More than one person can access the database with others being able to retrieve and analyze data entered by others. A database management system is able to handle massive amounts of data, easily forming relationships among multiple tables. Examples of database software programs are: ▪ MS Access ▪ FileMaker Pro ▪ FoxPro Each of these programs is designed for the average computer user to manage, analyze, and report on interrelated data elements. IT in Action Demonstrating IT Application Proficiency © 2002 - 2005 Education Development Center, Inc. 3 IT Across Careers (NSF-ATE Project) 8/30/05
    • Database Applications: Core Lesson Template Today, many people use database applications but do not know what it means to be ―proficient‖ in using these applications. How do you evaluate whether or not someone is proficient in using a specific IT application such as MS Access? There are different levels of skill you can demonstrate using IT applications. The rubric1 for database applications (see Figure 1 Database Applications Rubric Table, next page) outlines four levels of skill or proficiency: Novice  Approaching Proficiency  Proficiency  Above Proficiency The object of the lesson is to help you attain a proficient level of skill (Proficiency Level 3) in using database applications. The lesson is structured around the Measurement Criteria for Proficiency Level 3 of the Database Applications Rubric Table. It does not focus exclusively on a particular database application, however, but rather interconnects the use of information technology with a real situation commonly found in a career field. Please note: ▪ Level 3 Proficiency assumes mastery of levels 1 and 2 in addition to Level 3. ▪ Level 4 Proficiency is included to show skill levels above proficiency and does not have assigned point values. Your success with the lesson will be measured by the points you achieve against the two Performance Elements of the Database Applications Rubric Table. The maximum points for the two Performance Elements are: ▪ Performance Element 1 (PE1): 10 points ▪ Performance Element 2 (PE2): 10 points The maximum overall points for Level 3 Proficiency are 20. The minimum is 13 points. 1 A rubric is a framework for evaluating or assessing performance based on a range of criteria. © 2002 - 2005 Education Development Center, Inc. 4 IT Across Careers (NSF-ATE Project) 8/30/05
    • Database Applications: Core Lesson Template Figure 1: Database Applications Rubric Table2 Performance Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Element Novice Approaching Proficiency Above (PE) Proficiency Proficiency Measurement Criteria Measurement Measurement Measurement Criteria Criteria Criteria PE1: Open/exit an existing Create new database Create a new form Create forms and Design, create, simple database with table and define for data entry. menus for novice users. application. appropriate fields. Create a query by Apply validation rules to and test a View database objects Process data using linking two or more fields and database database. – tables, forms, pre-existing functions tables. form. queries, reports. defined by the Test database by Write or modify simple Max Points = 10 Enter data using a database performing data code to customize a simple form. administrator. entry and table form or report. Interpret customer Edit existing data queries and verify Setup security needs and translate using basic functions accuracy of output. protection for a into simple data tables. (insert, delete, sort, Create new database. copy, and paste). relationships in an Create a new database Interpret customer existing relational with two or more tables needs and translate database. and multiple into a logical, Modify database relationships. interrelated (e.g., field format, organization of data. keys, attributes, Locate/replace data relationships). using search and replace functions. PE2: Search database for Search database for Search a database Sort and group Manage, record by scrolling or a record using “find” table to locate records in report. stepping through function. records using more Query database analyze, and database records. than one method. Produce database using more than one report on Understand data and report by printing Sort data using criterion. interrelated reporting needs by section of database single- and multiple- Analyze data and data elements. defining the table to be using simple field sorts. place statistics created and the functions (e.g., menu Perform single and summarizing data in number and type of choices) defined by multiple table queries report. Max Points = 10 fields within the table. the database (e.g., create, run, Write a simple SQL administrator. save). statement (e.g. a Print forms, reports, select statement). and results of queries and verify accuracy of output. How can you use this rubric to assess your own proficiency? See Evaluate Your Performance on page 13. 2 From IT Across Careers Rubrics, an NSF-ATE project. © 2002 - 2005 Education Development Center, Inc. 5 IT Across Careers (NSF-ATE Project) 8/30/05
    • Database Applications: Core Lesson Template Section II: Database Applications Lesson Scenario Demonstrating ICT Literacy Component Task Access Open/exit database software. Open/close a sample or blank database. Manage Query database, scroll/sort database records, enter data using forms, and edit existing data. Integrate N/A Evaluate Verify accuracy of queries and reports. Create Enter data using forms, create queries and reports to query the database. Create auto-forms for data entry. Design and create a new database, with data entry form and table. Operate Navigate menu systems in the database application. Run queries and reports. Test created database. © 2002 - 2005 Education Development Center, Inc. 6 IT Across Careers (NSF-ATE Project) 8/30/05
    • Database Applications: Core Lesson Template In the following 3 activities, you will use IT applications to perform these tasks to use databases: Access Manage Evaluate Create Operate Activity I: Open and Review a Database3 Task A: Open Database Software Databases are made up of different database objects. The main objects include: tables, forms, queries, and reports. Tables hold the data. Forms allow you to enter data into tables. Queries are searches you can run against the table(s) to find specific information. Reports usually run one or more queries and display the results in a specific way. Open the database software package. Find and open a sample database. Task B: View Database Objects View the different objects that are part of the database: forms, tables, queries, reports, etc. View the table(s) that are part of the database. For example, double clicking on a table will ‗open‘ the table displaying its fields and the data within the fields. Each line of data is a record within the table. Select and sort the records using the menu functions (e.g., ascending/descending sort). Now, sort the data based on one or more fields in the table. Similarly, view the forms and other objects in the database. Review the data within them and note which menu functions/actions that are active within these objects.  TIP: You can open the same object in different ways: 1. Double clicking the object 2. Clicking the object name and then the ‗open‘ button on the tool bar 3. Right clicking the object and then ‗open‘ from pop-up menu. 3 This lesson uses database terms found in MS Access programs. The lesson activities and tasks, however, can be adapted and used with other database programs. © 2002 - 2005 Education Development Center, Inc. 7 IT Across Careers (NSF-ATE Project) 8/30/05
    • Database Applications: Core Lesson Template Activity II: Use a Database Task A: Query the Database Now that you understand the structure of the sample database, use the menu options to search the database (tables) for specific data. Look for something you know exists in the database, and then look for something that does not exist. Note the different ways in which results are displayed. Next, view existing queries in the database. Run one or more queries and view the results displayed. See if the results match the query criteria. Edit the query and see how the query was constructed. For example, is it searching one or more fields in a table? Is it searching one or multiple tables?  TIP: Searching is sometimes referred to as ‗filtering‘. You will need to enter a filter/search term, then ‗apply‘ that search term to see results. There are two different filtering methods: ‗Filter By Selection‘ and ‗Filter By Form‘.  TIP: Queries may also be opened in what is called a ‗Design‘ view. This view allows you to see the table(s) being queried and the fields within the table(s). Task B: Enter and Edit Data Using Forms View the forms for the database. Forms usually allow you to view and edit existing records in a table and to enter data into a specific table, so that there is a one-to-one mapping of fields on the form and in the table. Select a form and enter the data in the fields specified. Save this information and verify that the entered data is now visible. Note: Data is usually entered after the last record in the table, so you may need to use the form to scroll to the end or last record in the table before entering your data. Similarly, use the form to view an existing record in the table, edit the data, save, and verify that the new version of the data is visible. Use the copy, paste and insert menu functions to edit data in the existing records.  TIP: Saving data in a form is often done simply by scrolling to the next record in the table.  TIP: Forms are generally used to enter data into a database, but they can also be used to display data. © 2002 - 2005 Education Development Center, Inc. 8 IT Across Careers (NSF-ATE Project) 8/30/05
    • Database Applications: Core Lesson Template Task C: Write and Run a Query Open or create a new query. Select a table(s) that you want to search. Select specific fields within the table for which you want to view the related data (i.e., ‗query‘). Run the query to verify that data is displayed for all of the fields you selected.  TIP: In the query design window, you can create a query by selecting the fields you want and then dragging and dropping them. This is called ‗Query By Example‘ or QBE. You also can go directly to the SQL window and create a query by using SQL language. Task D: Create a Simple Form for Data Entry Create a form for entering data into a specific table. First, make sure you understand which fields are part of your table. Next, create a form that will allow data to be entered in a logical sequence into each of the table‘s fields. Once the form is created, test it to verify the flow of the data entry and to ensure that entered data now is included in the table. In other words, you want to make sure that the order of the fields in the form is the same as the order of your data — that the field tab order of the forms is organized so that the users of the database can tab through the form as the data is entered.  TIP: Some database packages include design templates or wizards to automatically create forms for associated tables. © 2002 - 2005 Education Development Center, Inc. 9 IT Across Careers (NSF-ATE Project) 8/30/05
    • Database Applications: Core Lesson Template Activity III: Create a Database Task A: Design a Database Note to student: Your instructor may provide a specific problem assignment and/or additional resources for this task. In designing databases, you first need to understand the data at hand and what would be the best way to organize the information. For example, what is the data that needs to be stored in the database and how will it be used? How will users enter data into the database? Design a table to hold the data using the following questions as your guide: ** a. How many fields will the table have? b. What types of fields will they be? c. Do you need multiple tables? ** For purposes of this lesson as a class assignment, this information will be supplied by your instructor. However, in real world workplace settings, the information would be provided by the end user or determined by the user‘s business needs.  TIP: If sample database is provided with your database software package, use it as a guide for planning the structure of your database. Task B: Create the Database Create a new database using the table and related fields you have designed in the previous task. Create a form that will enable users to enter data into the database. Task C: Test the Database Enter test data into the database using the form you created in Task B. Verify that the data entered appears in your table. Manipulate the data – e.g. delete records, change the value of certain fields, move data with records – and verify that the results are what you expect. Run sample queries on the database and verify their output. Enlist a potential user to test your database and provide feedback. Correct any errors, make suggested changes, and then make the database available for general use.  TIP: Database design and testing are often iterative processes and should involve the users who plan to use a database, especially if the database is being designed for a broad audience. © 2002 - 2005 Education Development Center, Inc. 10 IT Across Careers (NSF-ATE Project) 8/30/05
    • Database Applications: Core Lesson Template Part III: Extending Your Learning Optional Activities: Applying Validation Rule to a Database Create a date field in your table. Set up validation rules and text to this field, so the field will only accept the ‗date‘ data in a certain format. Setting up Security Protection for a Database Create a password to protect the database allowing only authorized users to access the database. There are different kinds of databases such as object and relational databases. You can link other databases, data files, and spreadsheets to most databases which eliminates the need to recreate data you have already put together. You can assign different levels of data permissions to users based on each user‘s needs and/or job functions. In some database applications (such as Assess, SQL Server, Oracle and some open source software), you can see the table relationships in a graphics view. This can help you understand the relationships between tables for building queries and reports. © 2002 - 2005 Education Development Center, Inc. 11 IT Across Careers (NSF-ATE Project) 8/30/05
    • Database Applications: Core Lesson Template Helpful Sites Database About.com contains a good database primer for beginning users of databases with information on database and SQL fundamentals and database management systems. http://databases.about.com/ Microsoft Office Online supports MS Access users with a varied menu of online help information, templates, downloads, etc. http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/FX010857911033.aspx Microsoft Access FunctionX Tutorials offers indexed information on MS Access fundamentals. http://www.functionx.com/access/ Product information on FileMaker Pro: http://www.filemaker.com/ Information on web database software for designing web databases can be found at: http://www.websitedatabases.com/ Various White Papers on database management can be found at: http://www.findwhitepapers.com/dataman/dmdatabase.html Search Database.com is a resource of technical information on database management software with links to hundreds of pre-screened related database information sites.The site also features a glossary, tips, Ask the Experts, and discussion forums. http://searchdatabase.techtarget.com/ KnowledgeStorm is a business technology Internet search site. http://www.KnowledgeStorm.com © 2002 - 2005 Education Development Center, Inc. 12 IT Across Careers (NSF-ATE Project) 8/30/05
    • Database Applications: Core Lesson Template Activity I: Evaluating Your Performance The activities in the Database Applications Lesson were designed to meet Level 3 proficiency for each of the performance elements in the Database Applications Rubric Table in Figure 1. You can determine your own level of proficiency using the same rubric point values. Go to the Database Applications Self-Evaluation Rubric (Figure 2) on the next page. 1. Circle or place a check near the statements (measurement criteria) that best describe your accomplishments for each of the performance elements (PE1 and PE2). 2. Using the scoring ranges at the bottom of each performance element, circle the number that best corresponds to your assessment of your overall performance in each category. 3. Your overall all Performance Level is sum of the points earned for each performance element (PE1 and PE2). Performance Element Points PE 1: (maximum 10 points) PE 2: (maximum 10 points) Total: (maximum 20 points) Performance Level: Performance Level Guidelines Level 1 = 1-6 pts Level 2 = 7-12 pts Level 3 = 13-20 pts Level 4 = 18-20 pts + 1 or more  © 2002 - 2005 Education Development Center, Inc. 13 IT Across Careers (NSF-ATE Project) 8/30/05
    • Database Applications: Core Lesson Template Figure 2: Database Applications Self-Evaluation Rubric4 Performance Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Element Novice Approaching Proficiency Above Proficiency (PE) Proficiency Measurement Criteria Measurement Criteria Measurement Criteria Measurement Criteria PE1: Open/exit an existing Create new database Create a new form Create forms and Design, simple database with table and define for data entry. menus for novice application. appropriate fields. Create a query by users. create, and View database objects – Process data using linking two or more Apply validation rules test a tables, forms, queries, pre-existing functions tables. to fields and database database. reports. defined by the Test database by form. Enter data using a database performing data entry Write or modify Max Points = 10 simple form. administrator. and table queries and simple code to Interpret customer Edit existing data verify accuracy of customize a form or needs and translate into using basic functions output. report. simple data tables. (insert, delete, sort, Create new Setup security copy, and paste). relationships in an protection for a Interpret customer existing relational database. needs and translate database. Create a new into a logical, Modify database database with two or interrelated (e.g., field format, more tables and organization of data. keys, attributes, multiple relationships. Locate/replace data relationships). using search and replace functions. Scoring ranges: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10   Max Points = 10 PE2: Search database for Search database for a Search a database Sort and group Manage, record by scrolling or record using “find” table to locate records in report. stepping through function. records using more Query database analyze, and database records. than one method. Produce database using more than report on Understand data and report by printing Sort data using one criterion. interrelated reporting needs by section of database single- and multiple- Analyze data and data elements. defining the table to be using simple functions field sorts. place statistics created and the number (e.g., menu choices) Perform single and summarizing data and type of fields within defined by the multiple table queries in report. Max Points = 10 the table. database (e.g., create, run, Write a simple SQL administrator. save). statement (e.g. a Print forms, reports, select statement). and results of queries and verify accuracy of output. Scoring ranges: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10   Max Points = 10 4 From IT Across Careers Self-Evaluation Rubrics, an NSF-ATE project. © 2002 - 2005 Education Development Center, Inc. 14 IT Across Careers (NSF-ATE Project) 8/30/05
    • Database Applications: Core Lesson Template Activity II: Building an IT Skills Portfolio Now that you have completed this lesson and the Self-Evaluation Rubric, do you think that your skill level in using Database Applications has improved or changed? Would you benefit from additional training in this IT application or other IT applications? Not sure? Would you like to find out? Task A: Take the IT Applications: Core User Skills Self-Assessment at: http://surveys.edc.org/surveys/ITSA_ITAC This self-assessment tool will help you identify the IT skills you now possess and help you determine which ones might benefit from additional training and development. What skills do you think that you will need to develop in order to become a success in your career or profession? How would you articulate your IT skills to a potential employer? Task B: Using the template on the next page (Figure 3), create an IT Skills Professional Development Plan. Each mastered IT skill will become part of your IT Skills Portfolio. © 2002 - 2005 Education Development Center, Inc. 15 IT Across Careers (NSF-ATE Project) 8/30/05
    • Database Applications: Core Lesson Template Figure 3: IT Skills Professional Development Plan Name: School/Program: Specialization: IT Skill Goals Mastered How Skill Will Be Learned: (from self assessment or by: Self directed study, specific course other source) (date) or training activity. Include name of mentor I agree to master the IT skills listed in the above chart on or before the dates specified. Signature of Student: ________________________________________ Signature of Advisor: ________________________________________ (Optional) © 2002 - 2005 Education Development Center, Inc. 16 IT Across Careers (NSF-ATE Project) 8/30/05