CS and IT Terrance E. Boult El Pomar Professor of Innovation and Security Department of Computer Science University of Colorado at Colorado Springs Parts of this talk graciously provided by Prof. Ed Lazowska
■ Software Engineer (Applications or System), System
Programmer, System Engineer, System Analyst/Programmer,
Database Administrator, Network Systems and Data
Communication Analyst, Network Programmer/Administrator,
Web Developer/Administrator, Computer Scientist, and
Information Technology Specialist.
A Bachelor's degree in computing is required for high-pay IT positions.
■ According to U.S Department of Labor Statistics and Predication, very good opportunities are expected for college graduates with at least a bachelor’s degree in computer science and with practical work experience.
■ According to the U.S Government Labor Department job statistics and predications, the professional IT workforce is projected to add over a million new jobs between 2004 and 2014, an increase of about 30 percent.
■ According to the U.S Government Labor Department job statistics and predications, software engineers are projected to be one of the fastest growing occupations over the period 2004-2014.
■ Money Magazine May 2006 : Software Engineer is the #1 best job and the forecasted 10-year job growth is 46.07%.
■ CNNMoney.COM quotes an ACM study as saying that “Despite all the publicity in the United States about jobs being lost to India and China, the size of the IT employment market in the United States today is higher than it was at the height of the dotcom boom.”
■ A CNN article ranks the 10 top-paying jobs (excluding medical doctors). 5 of which were jobs for which a computer science degree would be a great preparation. The average salary is between $61,250–$81,140 as follows:
Computer System Software Engineer - $81,140
Biomedical Engineer - $70,520
Physician Assistant - $69,250
Computer Applications Software Engineer- $76,310
Environmental Engineer - $67,620
Computer System Analysis - $67,520
Database Administrator - $61,950
Physical Therapist - $61,560
Network Systems and Data Communication Analyst - $61,250
“… the software industry is going to make more breakthroughs in these next 10 years than it's made in the last 30 … software is really going to transform not just what we think about as the computer industry, but the way that everything is done …” W. Gates CEO Microsoft
CS and Intellectual opportunity
Intellectual opportunity Computer-enhanced driving Re-architecting the Internet Harnessing parallelism Transforming other fields of science and engineering A teacher for every learner Flattening the world Transforming Entertainment and art
Intellectual opportunity Transforming the nation’s defense Security/Biometrics Sensor Networks Medical Imaging Personalized Health care
How to send a message to someone? How to send a book or document? How to find the address of a person or object? How to guarantee delivery when network connections are unreliable? How to deliver mail or objects to addresses over unpredictable routes?
How do I tell the computer what to do? How does the computer translate my command into action? How does the computer let me manipulate facsimiles of objects? How do we show/manipulate 3D objects in the computer? How do we make it so different programs can reuse the same software?
Command sets and shells
Windows, icons, menus, mouse, pointers
3D “rendering pipelines”, shaders
Application Programmer Interfaces(API) and software Libraries
How to prevent unwanted people from accessing my files? How to prevent sensitive information from flowing out of my system? How to prevent someone from sabotaging my system? My information? How to converse in secret? How to sign an electronic document?
Questions: How does the computer set a command program into execution? How can a computer be divided into smaller identical computers (orcopies of the original computer)? How can programs like Java applets be universally portable?
How does the computer incorporate many storage media into a single memory system? How to organize memory so that I don't have to reprogram anything if I add or remove storage devices? How to keep track of objects so they can be addressed at high speed regardless of location? How to speed up a computation when memory is too small to hold everything?
How to prevent two processes from entering a race that makes their combined result unpredictable? How to decide reliably which of two events has occurred first when only one event can be processed at a time? How to ensure that sharable memory objects are used by just one process at a time? How to prevent a group of processes from being halted by a deadlock? How to simulate many processes with a computer having only one computing engine?
CS/IT reshapes business Bridging human and computational processes Human activities (agreed norms) Business processes (organisations, markets, services, products) Computational processes Value Creation Humanities Social sciences Economics Computer science Complex Systems view Research focus IT drives a novel set of transformations: What consequences for society and business?
Towards “Service Science” Humanities Social sciences Economics Computer science Data + Models -> Science of Services? Agent-based/ behavioural economics AI Interfaces Formal models Services Services in the large: How to manage millions of online services?
Outsourcing generally has two key objectives for an organization:
Cost Savings – these are achieved either through lower labor costs within the outsourced organization;
Quality/Efficiency Gains – by outsourcing to a company which specializes in a particular function, there will be process improvements and a greater level of quality and service by using a specialized workforce when compared to in-house resources.
There are currently three main recognized models of outsourcing;
Onshore – the outsourcer will be located in the same country as the client and may deploy some resources onsite at the client;
Offshore – uses an offshore based provider (e.g. India, Sri Lanka, Mexico, South Africa, etc.) to take full advantage of reduced labor costs and large pools of skilled resources. Management and IP can be tricky.
Nearshore – similar to offshoring but utilizes organization s closer to home e.g. Eastern Europe for UK firms, Canada/Mexico for US. The proximity of the outsourced organization balances the fact this is likely to cost more than offshoring;
Methods of Outsourcing Outsourcing traditionally involves the transfer of non-core competencies to an organization which specialises in the provision of that service.
Expert Services – companies are able to outsource some of their non-core competencies to an organization who specialises in the provision of those services. This therefore ensures the right level of skilled resources to carry out the processing;
Focus on Core Competencies – the client is free to focus on their key business areas that affect their bottom line without having to be concerned about the non-core competencies;
Business Environment – working within a business environment and support function that everyone is comfortable with.
Onshore Outsourcing Onshore Outsourcing does not tend to generate large reductions in labour costs and so the key driver tends to be to benefit from the expertise of the third party provider.
Reliance on Supplier – in order to realize any of the benefits of this type of arrangement the supplier must be a proven expert in the field and have expert resources to support the client. Due to the lower cost savings the client will be looking for large scale process/quality improvements;
IT Requirements – to leverage the benefits it is likely to be necessary for the client to have a common IT infrastructure across all operations, which may require some large scale IT investment as part of the initiative;
Minimized Cost Savings - the cost savings of this type of model are likely to be minimal.
Cost Savings – due to lower wage costs and the economic structure of many offshore locations, organization s tend to be able to make much greater cost savings by outsourcing processes to an offshore location;
Time Zone Benefits – the different time zones allow companies who have outsourced offshore to potentially benefit from a 24-7 operation and to have offshore processing done outside of the client’s standard hours;
Availability of Skilled Resources – offshore countries tend to have large scale skilled resource pools making it simple for clients to scale up their operations.
Offshore Outsourcing The Offshore model offers the greatest benefits to clients in terms of cost savings, availability of skilled resources and time zone advantages
Data and IT Security – clients have to be aware of potential risks with client data and confidentiality and this will often drive the set up of the IT infrastructure and may restrict some processes from migrating offshore;
Geopolitical Risks – companies need to assess the stability of the Country when considering an offshoring initiative as this could impact their agreements with suppliers;
Lack of Control – some companies perceive a lack of control from having their outsourced operations so far away.
Time-zone management issues: difficulty managing and keeping in sync shared information/resources across non-overlapping “shifts”
Offshore Outsourcing The Offshore model offers the greatest risks to clients in terms of IP, Security, lack of control and management effort needed .
International Outsourcing: An Emotional Debate "What's going on with this offshoring of American jobs to India and China is nothing but terrorism – economic terrorism.“ Frank LaGrotta , Pennsylvania House of Representatives, March 2004 “ The savings produced through worldwide sourcing are invested in new products and services, in new market expansion, and, most importantly, in creating new jobs and increasing real wages for American workers.” Harris N. Miller, President, ITAA, March 2004
US Real GDP per Worker Grew 254%: More Goods & Services or Less Employment? Major concern by early 1960s that “automated factories” would create vast production worker unemployment. From Dwight Jaffee’s talk at Understanding Global Outsourcing , Conf. 2004
Last 55 Years: Stable Unemployment Rate and Rising Labor Force Participation Displaced workers have left no trace in terms of a rising unemployment rate or a falling labor participation rate. From Dwight Jaffee’s talk at Understanding Global Outsourcing , Conf. 2004
The Observational Equivalence of Technological Change and Offshoring
Although the US experience of last 55 years is dominated by technological change, not offshoring, they are observationally equivalent.
Ingram/Krugman parable tells of US entrepreneur creating consumer goods from wheat and lumber. Moral: same result with technology or offshoring.
Robert Feenstra demonstrates that technological change and imported intermediate imports have identical effects in raising labor productivity.
From Dwight Jaffee’s talk at Understanding Global Outsourcing , Conf. 2004
Bardhan, Jaffee, & Kroll  demonstrate that 6 service jobs were created for every production job lost in US computer manufacturing. But are we now losing these service jobs?
Service offshoring uses occupations , not industries . Ex: call center operators, software developers, etc.
Core features of jobs “at risk” to offshoring:
Face to face contact not required.
Communication based on telephone or broadband.
Scripted or semi-automated data related services.
From Dwight Jaffee’s talk at Understanding Global Outsourcing , Conf. 2004
No Empirical Effects (yet) on Wages in “At-Risk” Occupations There is no sign (yet) that offshoring is creating falling wages (either absolute or relative) in “at-risk” occupations From Dwight Jaffee’s talk at Understanding Global Outsourcing , Conf. 2004
Outsourcing can provide fair globalization between countries Source : IMF Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook 2004. Imports and Exports of Computer and Information Services and Other Business Services, 1986-2003 (in billion current US$)
Jobs Lost to Technological Change or Offshoring: Conclusions
Job losses are essential response to technological change (Schumpeter’s “creative destruction”) and to offshoring (Rodrik’s “no pain, no gain”).
US labor markets reveal remarkable flexibility in creating new jobs in response to jobs lost to the forces of technological change and offshoring.
From Dwight Jaffee’s talk at Understanding Global Outsourcing , Conf. 2004
The National Academy of Engineering (NAE) report Educating the Engineer of 2020 concludes:
“ If the United States is to maintain its economic leadership and be able to sustain its share of high technology jobs, it must prepare for this wave of change. While there is no consensus at this stage, it is agreed that innovation is the key and engineering is essential to this task; but engineering will only contribute to success if it is able to continue to adapt to new trends and provide education to the next generation of students so as to arm them with the tools needed for the world as it will be, not as it is today.”
Only 5% of the survey parents said they would try to persuade their child toward careers in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics), while 65% said they would allow the child to pursue whatever career path he/she prefers and 27% said they would encourage the child to pursue a STEM career but balance it with the child’s preference.
In a 2003 national survey commissioned by GE, only 9% of college students polled indicated that they felt the United States is doing enough to foster innovation among young people .
Production of Engineers (1999) - National Science Foundation 14.85% 82,409 Russia 19.43% 103,440 Japan 15.44% 145,000 India 22.09% 45,145 South Korea 5.08% 60,914 US 44.30% 195,354 China Percent of Grads - Eng. BS Engineers + CS Country
U.S. University Trends in Defense-Related S&E Graduate Student Enrollment (1994-2001) Science Disciplines Aliens with Temporary Visas U.S. Citizens + Permanent Resident Aliens U.S. Citizen + Perm 8 Yr. Delta -27.2% -9.9% -25.3% +14.1% Physics Chemistry Math/Applied Computer Sci. Physics Chemistry Math/Applied Computer Sciences 1994 / 2001 Physics Chemistry Math/Applied Computer Sci. Table I-2 *Source: National Science Foundation – Graduate Students and Post Doctorates in Science and Engineering: Fall 2001
U.S. University Trends in Defense-Related S&E Graduate Student Enrollment (1994-2001) Engineering Disciplines U.S. Citizens + Perm. Resident Aliens U.S. Citizen + Perm 8 Yr. Delta Aliens with Temporary Visas -26.2% -18.9% -21.7% -33.0% -32.1% -29.7% -24.7% -49.1% Aerospace Chemical Electrical Engineering Sciences Industrial/ Mfg. Mechanical Metallurgy/ Materials Nuclear Aerospace Chemical Electrical Engineering Sciences Industrial/ Mfg. Mechanical Metallurgy/ Materials Nuclear Table III *Source: National Science Foundation – Graduate Students and Post Doctorates in Science and Engineering: Fall 2001 Aerospace Chemical Electrical Engineering Science Industrial/Manufacturing Mechanical Metallurgical/Materials Nuclear 1994 / 2001