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  • Suggested final slide for each chapter. CLH SLIDE Please have this slide be the final slide for each chapter.
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    • 1. Chapter 9 Database and Information Management
    • 2. Presentation Overview
      • Database Basics
      • Databases and Information Systems
      • Database Management System Software
      • Types of Databases
      • Planning and Designing Database Systems
      • Using Databases
      • Database Administration
    • 3. Database Basics
      • What is a database and how does it organize information?
    • 4. Database Basics
      • What is a database and how does it organize information?
      • A database is a computerized system for storing information in an organized manner so that it can be searched for and retrieved when needed. Information is stored in the form of fields , records , and files .
    • 5. Database Basics
      • Data vs Information
    • 6. Database Basics
      • Data vs Information
      • Data – raw, unorganized content in the form of words, numbers, sounds, or images
    • 7. Database Basics
      • Data vs Information
      • Data – raw, unorganized content in the form of words, numbers, sounds, or images
      • Information – data associated with other useful data on the same topic
    • 8. Database Basics
      • Levels of Data within a Database
    • 9. Database Basics
      • Levels of Data within a Database
      • Entity – a person, place, thing, or event
    • 10. Database Basics
      • Levels of Data within a Database
      • Entity – a person, place, thing, or event
      • Field – a single value, such as a name, address, or dollar amount
        • data type: usually numeric or text (numbers and text)
        • name: assigned by person developing the database
        • size: number of characters that can be entered
    • 11. Database Basics
      • Levels of Data within a Database
      • Entity – a person, place, thing, or event
      • Field – a single value, such as a name, address, or dollar amount
        • data type: usually numeric or text (numbers and text)
        • name: assigned by person developing the database
        • size: number of characters that can be entered
      • Record – related fields describing an event or situation
    • 12. Database Basics
      • Levels of Data within a Database
      • Entity – a person, place, thing, or event
      • Field – a single value, such as a name, address, or dollar amount
        • data type: usually numeric or text (numbers and text)
        • name: assigned by person developing the database
        • size: number of characters that can be entered
      • Record – related fields describing an event or situation
      • File – collection of records of the same type
    • 13. Database Basics
      • Traditional database organizes data in a hierarchy. A field is the smallest element. Fields are within a record. Records are organized in a data file. Database is a collection of data files.
    • 14. Database Basics
      • Common field data types
    • 15. Databases and Information Systems
      • Management Information Systems (MIS)
    • 16. Databases and Information Systems
      • Management Information Systems (MIS)
      • used to track and control every transaction through a database
    • 17. Databases and Information Systems
      • Management Information Systems (MIS)
      • used to track and control every transaction through a database
      • transaction – any business activity central to the nature of the enterprise
    • 18. Databases and Information Systems
      • Office Information Systems
    • 19. Databases and Information Systems
      • Office Information Systems
      • designed as replacement for paper-based information systems
    • 20. Databases and Information Systems
      • Office Information Systems
      • designed as replacement for paper-based information systems
      • gives quick access to office paperwork
    • 21. Databases and Information Systems
      • Decision Support Systems
    • 22. Databases and Information Systems
      • Decision Support Systems
      • designed to help management make decisions about an operation
    • 23. Databases and Information Systems
      • Decision Support Systems
      • designed to help management make decisions about an operation
      • allows managers to work with “what if” scenarios
    • 24. Databases and Information Systems
      • Factory Automation Systems
    • 25. Databases and Information Systems
      • Factory Automation Systems
      • runs an assembly line directly, controlling manufacturing processes from shop-floor level of conveyor belts and robots
    • 26. Databases and Information Systems
      • Factory Automation Systems
      • runs an assembly line directly, controlling manufacturing processes from shop-floor level of conveyor belts and robots
      • may be part of complete CIM system that controls manufacturing process from beginning to end
    • 27. Database Management System Software
      • Database Keys
    • 28. Database Management System Software
      • Database Keys
      • Key – attribute used to identify and provide a means to search database
    • 29. Database Management System Software
      • Database Keys
      • Key – attribute used to identify and provide a means to search database
      • Primary key – most important key in a field
    • 30. Database Management System Software
      • Database Keys
      • Key – attribute used to identify and provide a means to search database
      • Primary key – most important key in a field
      • Data browsing – process of moving through a database file, examining each record and looking for information
    • 31. Database Management System Software
      • Query Tools
    • 32. Database Management System Software
      • Query Tools
      • Query tools help users narrow down information needed to be searched.
    • 33. Database Management System Software
      • Query Tools
      • Query tools help users narrow down information needed to be searched.
      • A query allows users to ask questions designed to retrieve information.
    • 34. Database Management System Software
      • Query Tools
      • Query tools help users narrow down information needed to be searched.
      • A query allows users to ask questions designed to retrieve information.
      • A select command asks a database to return records that match specific criteria.
    • 35. Database Management System Software
      • Query Tools
      • Query tools help users narrow down information needed to be searched.
      • A query allows users to ask questions designed to retrieve information.
      • A select command asks a database to return records that match specific criteria.
      • Joining matches data from fields in various files.
    • 36. Database Management System Software
      • Structured Query Language (SQL)
      • This SQL statement could search for top students in a college, with “top” defined as those students with a grade point average (GPA) above 3.49.
    • 37. Database Management System Software
      • Joining matches data from fields in various record files. Both Student Personal Records and Student Grade Records files would have a common Student ID number field, allowing information from both files to be returned in a single query.
    • 38. Database Management System Software
      • Metadata and the Data Dictionary
    • 39. Database Management System Software
      • Metadata and the Data Dictionary
      • Metadata – information about data; describes significance of various elements of a database
    • 40. Database Management System Software
      • Metadata and the Data Dictionary
      • Metadata – information about data; describes significance of various elements of a database
      • Data dictionary – a body of metadata
    • 41. Types of Databases
      • Flat File Databases
    • 42. Types of Databases
      • Flat File Databases
      • database contains only one table or file
    • 43. Types of Databases
      • Flat File Databases
      • database contains only one table or file
      • simple and easy to use
    • 44. Types of Databases
      • Flat File Databases
      • database contains only one table or file
      • simple and easy to use
      • slower to respond because records must be searched sequentially
    • 45. Types of Databases
      • Flat File Databases
      • database contains only one table or file
      • simple and easy to use
      • slower to respond because records must be searched sequentially
      • generally consume more disk space
    • 46. Types of Databases
      • Relational Databases
    • 47. Types of Databases
      • Relational Databases
      • Fields can be shared among all files in the database, making it possible to connect them.
    • 48. Types of Databases
      • Relational Databases
      • Fields can be shared among all files in the database, making it possible to connect them.
      • A file is called a table (consists of rows and columns).
    • 49. Types of Databases
      • Relational Databases
      • Fields can be shared among all files in the database, making it possible to connect them.
      • A file is called a table (consists of rows and columns).
      • A record is called a tuple .
    • 50. Types of Databases
      • Relational Databases
      • Fields can be shared among all files in the database, making it possible to connect them.
      • A file is called a table (consists of rows and columns).
      • A record is called a tuple.
      • A field is called an attribute .
    • 51. Types of Databases
      • Object-Oriented Databases
    • 52. Types of Databases
      • Object-Oriented Databases
      • stores data in the form of objects (units of object-oriented programming logic)
    • 53. Types of Databases
      • Object-Oriented Databases
      • stores data in the form of objects (units of object-oriented programming logic)
      • object contains data related to the object and the actions to be performed on the object
    • 54. Types of Databases
      • Object-Oriented Databases
      • stores data in the form of objects (units of object-oriented programming logic)
      • object contains data related to the object and the actions to be performed on the object
      • speeds up database functions and makes database development easier
    • 55. Types of Databases
      • Multimedia Databases
      • allows storage of pictures, movies, sounds, and hyperlinked fields
    • 56. Types of Databases
      • Multimedia Databases
      • allows storage of pictures, movies, sounds, and hyperlinked fields
      • Hybrid Databases
      • several different models combined to allow more effective data handling
    • 57. Types of Databases
      • Operational Databases
    • 58. Types of Databases
      • Operational Databases
      • operational database tracks an operation or situation, such as the inventory of a store
    • 59. Types of Databases
      • Operational Databases
      • operational database tracks an operation or situation, such as the inventory of a store
      • distributed database – is spread across multiple networked computers – each computer shares a portion of the data – can hold more information – is cheaper – is easier to use
    • 60. Types of Databases
      • Data Warehouses
    • 61. Types of Databases
      • Data Warehouses
      • used to store data gathered from one or more databases
    • 62. Types of Databases
      • Data Warehouses
      • used to store data gathered from one or more databases
      • does not change, delete, or manipulate data they store
    • 63. Planning and Designing Database Systems
      • How are databases designed?
    • 64. Planning and Designing Database Systems
      • How are databases designed?
      • System analysts or database designers follow three steps to plan a database
      • 1. Create an organizational structure for the data.
      • 2. Design an interface that makes the database user- friendly.
      • 3. Set up reporting capabilities to allow for inquiry and response.
    • 65. Planning and Designing Database Systems
      • User requests and enters data through the front-end interface program. The database management
      • system manages
      • the retrieval
      • and update of
      • the database
      • itself.
    • 66. Planning and Designing Database Systems
      • Database Objects: Tools in the DBMS
    • 67. Planning and Designing Database Systems
      • Database Objects: Tools in the DBMS
      • form – template that allows users to enter data into the database
    • 68. Planning and Designing Database Systems
      • Database Objects: Tools in the DBMS
      • form – template that allows users to enter data into the database
      • report – formatted body of output from a database
    • 69. Planning and Designing Database Systems
      • Database Objects: Tools in the DBMS
      • form – template that allows users to enter data into the database
      • report – formatted body of output from a database
      • data filter – filtering material in a database to restrict a database search
    • 70. Using Databases
      • What are the types of data processing?
    • 71. Using Databases
      • What are the types of data processing ?
      • Batch processing – occurs at a scheduled time or when a critical point has been reached
    • 72. Using Databases
      • What are the types of data processing?
      • Batch processing – occurs at a scheduled time or when a critical point has been reached
      • Transactional processing – more continuous
      • • real time system – data must be accurate to the second
      • • online transactional processing – very fast, always-on processing
    • 73. Using Databases
      • What are the types of data processing ?
      • Batch processing – occurs at a scheduled time or when a critical point has been reached
      • Transactional processing – more continuous
      • • real time system – data must be accurate to the second
      • • online transactional processing – very fast, always-on processing
      • Mixed forms of processing – transactional and batch processing in the same system
    • 74. Using Databases
      • Database Users
    • 75. Using Databases
      • Database Users
      • Data entry operators type data into databases and make sure that it is accurate. They
      • add records
    • 76. Using Databases
      • Database Users
      • Data entry operators type data into databases and make sure that it is accurate. They
      • add records
      • modify records
    • 77. Using Databases
      • Database Users
      • Data entry operators type data into databases and make sure that it is accurate. They
      • add records
      • modify records
      • delete records
    • 78. Using Databases
      • Database Users
      • Data entry operators type data into databases and make sure that it is accurate. They
      • add records
      • modify records
      • delete records
      • sort records
    • 79. Database Administration
      • Database Administrator
    • 80. Database Administration
      • Database Administrator
      • is responsible for maintaining and updating the database and the DBMS software
    • 81. Database Administration
      • Database Administrator
      • is responsible for maintaining and updating the database and the DBMS software
      • is responsible for preventing computer downtime
    • 82. Database Administration
      • Data Loss or Corruption
    • 83. Database Administration
      • Data Loss or Corruption
      • Data corruption occurs when data is unreadable, incomplete, or damaged.
    • 84. Database Administration
      • Data Loss or Corruption
      • Data corruption occurs when data is unreadable, incomplete, or damaged.
      • Backing up data is a major method for recovering lost or corrupted data.
    • 85. Database Administration
      • Backup and Recovery Operations
    • 86. Database Administration
      • Backup and Recovery Operations
      • tape backups commonly used because they are cheap and easy to store
    • 87. Database Administration
      • Backup and Recovery Operations
      • tape backups commonly used because they are cheap and easy to store
      • backups must be stored separately from original material to lessen accidental data loss
    • 88. Database Administration
      • Database response time is the lag time between a user issuing a command and the database system taking action.
    • 89. Database Administration
      • Record Locking
    • 90. Database Administration
      • Record Locking
      • occurs when users attempt to edit existing records in a multi-user system
    • 91. Database Administration
      • Record Locking
      • occurs when users attempt to edit existing records in a multi-user system
      • allows only one user at a time to edit or delete a record
    • 92. Database Administration
      • Data Integrity
    • 93. Database Administration
      • Data Integrity
      • data integrity – the accuracy of information provided to database users
    • 94. Database Administration
      • Data Integrity
      • data integrity – the accuracy of information provided to database users
      • redundancy – duplication of data in several fields; an enemy of data integrity
    • 95. Database Administration
      • Data Integrity
      • data integrity – the accuracy of information provided to database users
      • redundancy – duplication of data in several fields; an enemy of data integrity
      • normalization – prevents duplicate data storage and reduces chance that some data will not be updated when changes are made
    • 96. Database Administration
      • Data Validation
    • 97. Database Administration
      • Data Validation
      • range check – allows only range of numbers to be entered
    • 98. Database Administration
      • Data Validation
      • range check – allows only range of numbers to be entered
      • alphanumeric check – allows only letters of alphabet and digits to be entered
    • 99. Database Administration
      • Data Validation
      • range check – allows only range of numbers to be entered
      • alphanumeric check – allows only letters of alphabet and digits to be entered
      • consistency check – checks against previously entered data that has been validated
    • 100. Database Administration
      • Data Validation
      • range check – allows only range of numbers to be entered
      • alphanumeric check – allows only letters of alphabet and digits to be entered
      • consistency check – checks against previously entered data that has been validated
      • completeness check – ensures every field filled out
    • 101. On the Horizon
      • Based on the information presented in this chapter and your own experience, what do you think is on the horizon ?

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