Chapter 3

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Chapter 3

  1. 1. <ul><li>Chapter 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Databases and </li></ul><ul><li>Data Warehouses </li></ul><ul><li>Building Business Intelligence </li></ul>
  2. 2. Presentation Overview <ul><li>Business Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>The Relational Database Model </li></ul><ul><li>Database Management System Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Data Warehouses and Data Mining </li></ul><ul><li>Managing The Information Resource In An Organization </li></ul>
  3. 3. Opening Case Study High Tech Battles High School Truancy <ul><li>Organizations need databases (and data warehouses) for organizing and managing information. </li></ul><ul><li>Why are the implementation of security and privacy measures difficult? </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Business intelligence - is knowledge about your customers, competitors, partners, competitive environment, and internal operations. </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of information processing include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OLTP – the processing of transaction information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OLAP – manipulation of information to support decision making. </li></ul></ul>Business Intelligence
  5. 5. Business Intelligence
  6. 6. The Relational Database Model <ul><li>Database - a collection of information that you organize and access according to the logical structure of that information. </li></ul><ul><li>Relational database model - uses a series of logically related two-dimensional tables or files to store information in the form of a database. </li></ul><ul><li>Relation - describes each two-dimensional table or file in the relational model. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Relational databases are composed of two parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information – stored in a series of two-dimensional tables, files, or relations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical structure of the information (data dictionary) . </li></ul></ul>The Relational Database Model
  8. 8. The Relational Database Model Collections of Information
  9. 9. The Relational Database Model Created with Logical Structures Part Number is the primary key because of the key icon beside it. For Percentage Markup , we defined its Format as “Percent” and its number of decimal places as 2.
  10. 10. <ul><li>Primary key - a field (or group of fields in some cases) that uniquely describes each record. </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign key - a primary key of one file that appears in another file. </li></ul>The Relational Database Model
  11. 11. The Relational Database Model With Logical Ties Among the Information
  12. 12. The Relational Database Model With Built-In Integrity Constraints <ul><li>Integrity constraints – rules that help ensure the quality of the information. </li></ul>Team Work Primary Keys, Foreign Keys, and Integrity Constraints (p. 133)
  13. 13. Database Management System Tools
  14. 14. <ul><li>DBMS engine - accepts logical requests from the various other DBMS subsystems, converts them into their physical equivalent, and actually accesses the database and data dictionary as they exist on a storage device. </li></ul>Database Management System Tools
  15. 15. DBMS Tools <ul><li>Data definition subsystem - helps you create and maintain the data dictionary and define the structure of the files in a database. </li></ul><ul><li>Data manipulation subsystem - helps you add, change, and delete information in a database and mine it for valuable information. Tools here include views, report generators, QBE, and SQL. </li></ul>
  16. 16. DBMS Tools Data Manipulation Subsystem Click here to enter a new record. Find information using the binoculars.
  17. 17. DBMS Tools Data Manipulation Subsystem <ul><li>By following a series of simple screens, such as those on the previous slide, you can easily create the report below. </li></ul>
  18. 18. DBMS Tools Data Manipulation Subsystem <ul><li>Query-by-example ( QBE ) tools - help you graphically design the answer to a question. </li></ul>
  19. 19. DBMS Tools Data Manipulation Subsystem The QBE grid Our selection criteria
  20. 20. DBMS Tools Data Manipulation Subsystem <ul><li>Structured query language ( SQL ) - a standardized fourth-generation query language found in most DBMSs. </li></ul><ul><li>The SQL below creates the same report in Figure 3.7 on page 139. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SELECT Part.[Part Number], Part.Cost, Employee.[Employee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Name], Employee.[Employee Number] </li></ul><ul><li>FROM Part, Employee </li></ul><ul><li>WHERE (((Part.Cost)>10)); </li></ul>
  21. 21. DBMS Tools Application Generation Subsystem <ul><li>Application generation subsystem - contains facilities to help you develop transaction-intensive applications. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data entry screens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS-specific programming languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly used programming languages </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. DBMS Tools Data Administration Subsystem <ul><li>Data administration subsystem - a DBMS helps you manage the overall database environment (e.g., backup, recovery, security management). </li></ul>On Your Own DBMS Support OLTP, OLAP, and Information Management (p. 142)
  23. 23. Data Warehouses and Data Mining What Is a Data Warehouse? <ul><li>Data warehouse - a logical collection of information – gathered from many different operational databases – used to create business intelligence that supports business analysis activities and decision-making tasks. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Data Warehouses and Data Mining What Is a Data Warehouse?
  25. 25. Data Warehouses and Data Mining What Are Data Mining Tools? <ul><li>Data mining tools - software tools you use to query information in a data warehouse. These tools include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Query-and-reporting tools - similar to QBE tools, SQL, and report generators. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligent agents – use various artificial intelligence tools to form the basis of information discovery and building business intelligence in OLAP. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Data Warehouses and Data Mining What Are Data Mining Tools? <ul><li>Data mining tools continued </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multidimensional analysis ( MDA ) tools - slice-and-dice techniques that allow you to view multidimensional information from different perspectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistical tools – help you apply various mathematical models to the information stored in a data warehouse to discover new information. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Data Warehouses and Data Mining What Are Data Mining Tools?
  28. 28. Data Warehouses and Data Mining Data Marts – Smaller Data Warehouses <ul><li>Data mart - a subset of a data warehouse in which only a focused portion of the data warehouse information is kept. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Data Warehouses and Data Mining Important Considerations <ul><li>Do you need a data warehouse? </li></ul><ul><li>Do all your employees need an entire data warehouse? </li></ul><ul><li>How up-to-date must the information be? </li></ul><ul><li>What data mining tools do you need? </li></ul>Team Work How Up-to-Date Should Data Warehouse Information Be? (p. 149)
  30. 30. MANAGING THE INFORMATION RESOURCE Who Should Oversee the Organization’s Information? <ul><li>Chief information officer ( CIO ) - responsible for overseeing an organization’s information resource. </li></ul><ul><li>Data administration - plans for, oversees the development of, and monitors the information resource. </li></ul><ul><li>Database administration - responsible for the more technical and operational aspects of managing the information contained in organizational databases. </li></ul>
  31. 31. MANAGING THE INFORMATION RESOURCE How Will Changes in Technology Affect Organizing and Managing Information? <ul><li>Technology changes? </li></ul><ul><li>Convergence of information management tools? </li></ul><ul><li>Information ownership? </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics? </li></ul>On Your Own CRUD – Defining Information Ownership (p. 151)
  32. 32. Closing Case Studies <ul><li>We’ve Got OLTP Covered; Let’s Go on to OLAP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why is it so much easier for organizations to provide good online transaction processing (OLTP) support? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mining Dining Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which of the businesses must have the most up-to-date information in its data warehouse? </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Summary Assignments & Exercises <ul><li>Finding “hacked” databases </li></ul><ul><li>Defining queries for a video rental store </li></ul><ul><li>Creating a query </li></ul><ul><li>Career opportunities in your major </li></ul><ul><li>Salaries for database administrators </li></ul>
  34. 34. Visit the Web to Learn More www.mhhe.com/haag <ul><li>Financial aid resources </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer information </li></ul><ul><li>Demographics </li></ul><ul><li>Real estate </li></ul><ul><li>Data warehouses and data mining tools </li></ul>
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