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  • Policy: Users must have password, password must be changed every 6 months Standards Passwords have a min of 5 characters, max of 12 char., cannot be SS#, names, birthdates Procedures: To create a password, send a request to DBA for an Account, temp password is created, sends account Information to user, user changes temporary password into acceptable perm. one

Transcript

  • 1. Database Administration Chapter 15
  • 2. Need for Databases
    • Data is used by different people, in different departments, for different reasons
    • Interpretation and Presentation of data in useful formats
    • Distribution of data and information
      • To the right people
      • At the right time
    • Data Preservation
    • Control over Data Duplication and Use
  • 3. Role of the Database
    • Primary Role: To Support Managerial Decision Making at All Levels of the Organization
      • Top Level  Strategic Decisions
      • Middle Management  Tactical Decisions
      • Operational Management  Daily, Operational Decisions
    • DBMS must provide each level a separate view of the data and support their specialized decision making roles
    • Provide a seamless flow of information throughout the company
  • 4. Top Level Management
    • Provide information for strategic decision making, strategic planning, policy formation, and goals definitions
    • Provide access to data to identify growth opportunities
    • Provide a framework for defining and enforcing organizational policies
    • Improve the likelihood of a positive return on investment for the company
      • Ways to reduce cost
      • Increase Productivity
    • Provide feedback on whether the company is achieving its goals
  • 5. Middle Management
    • Provide necessary data for tactical decision making and planning
    • Monitor and control the use of company resources
      • How efficiently are the resources allocated and used (including data)
      • What potential or current operational problems exist
      • Evaluate the performance of the different departments
    • Provide a framework for ensuring the security and privacy of the data in the database
  • 6. Operational Management
    • Represent and support the company operations
    • Produce query results within set performance levels
    • Enhance short-term operational ability
      • Timely information for Customer Support
      • Support for application development and computer operations
  • 7. Special Database Considerations
    • Having a database does not mean the data will be use properly, efficiently, correctly
    • DBMS is just a tool for managing data – it must be used correctly  effective management and use
    • 3 Main Processes for implementing a DBMS
      • Technological  DBMS software and hardware
      • Managerial  Administrative Functions
      • Cultural  Corporate Resistance to Change
  • 8. Evolution of the DBA
    • Data Processing Department
    • Information Systems Department
      • Service Function to provide end users active data management support
      • Production Function to provide solutions to information needs (application development)
    • DBA – Database Administration
      • Size and Role varies from company to company
      • DBA’s function is very dynamic
        • Distributed Databases
        • Internet Databases
        • Object Oriented databases
        • Sophistication and Power of the DBMS packages
  • 9. Common Functions of DBA
    • Database Planning
      • Standards, procedures, enforcement
    • Requirements Gathering and Conceptual Design
    • Logical Design
    • Physical Design and Implementation
    • Testing and Debugging
    • Operations and Maintenance
    • Training and Support
    • (Follows the requirements of the DBLC phases)
  • 10. DBA’s Managerial Role
    • Control and Planning Dimensions of Database Administration
      • Coordinating, Monitoring, and Allocating database administration resources
        • People
        • Data
      • Defining Goals and Formulating Strategic Plans for the Database Administration function
  • 11. DBA’s Responsibilities of Data Distribution and Use Delivering Data backup and Recovery Monitoring Data Security, Privacy, Integrity Testing Policies, Procedures, Standards Organizing End-User Support Planning DBA Service DBA Activity
  • 12. End-User Support
    • User Requirements Gathering
      • Understanding of the users’ views and needs
      • Present and Future information needs
    • Conflict and Problem Resolution
      • Solutions in one department may cause problems in another
    • Finding Solutions to Information Needs
    • Ensure Quality and Integrity of Applications and Data
    • Build End-User Confidence
    • Manage the Training and Support of DBMS users
  • 13. Policies, Procedures, and Standards
    • Policies: General Statements of Direction or action that communicate and support DBA goals
    • Procedures: Written Instructions that describe a services of steps to be followed during the performance of a given activity
    • Standards: More detailed and specific than policies, and describe the minimum requirements of a DBA activity
      • Rules that are used to evaluate the qualityof the activity
  • 14. Areas of Policies and Procedures
    • End-User database requirements gathering
    • Database design and modeling
    • Documentation and Naming conventions
    • Design, coding, and testing of applications
    • Database software selection
    • Database security and integrity
    • Database backup and recovery
    • Database maintenance and operation
    • End-user training
  • 15. Data Security, Privacy and Integrity
    • User Access Management
      • Define each user to the database
        • Operating System Level
        • Database Level
      • Assign Passwords
      • Define User Groups
      • Assign Access Privileges
        • Read
        • Write
        • Delete
      • Physical Access Control
    • View Definitions
      • Protect and Control the Scope of the Data that is accessible to a user
    • DBMS utilities access control
      • Limit the use of query and reporting tools
    • DBMS usage Monitoring
      • Audit Logs
    • (More difficult in distributed databases)
  • 16. Data Backup and Recovery
    • Disaster Management
      • Periodic Data and Application Backups
        • Full
        • Incremental
        • Concurrent
      • Proper Backup Identification
      • Convenient and safe backup storage
      • Physical protection of hardware and software
      • Personal Access Control to the software of a database installation
      • Insurance Coverate for the data in the database
  • 17. Data Backup and Recovery
    • Recovery and Contingency plans
      • Tested
      • Evaluated
      • Practiced
    • Will Not Recover all components of an IS
      • Establish priorities for the nature and extend of the data recovery process
  • 18. Data Distribution and Use
    • Data is only useful when:
      • Given to the Right User
      • Right Time
      • Right Format
    • Programmers Deliver programs to access data
      • Time consuming for DBA
    • Data Distribution allows end users to access the database
      • Internet
      • Intranets
      • Queries, Web Front Ends
      • End Users may make improper use of database, data duplication, etc.
  • 19. DBA’s Technical Role
    • DBMS and utilities, evaluation, selection and installation
    • Design and implementation of Database
    • Testing and Evaluation
    • Operation of DBMS, Utilities, and Applications
    • Training and Supporting Users
    • Maintenance of DBMS, Utilities, and Applicaitons
  • 20. Evaluation, Selection, and Installation
    • Selection of Hardware and Software
    • Must be based on the Organization’s Needs
    • Search is for a solutions to a problem, not a need for a software
    • 1 st step is to determine companies NEEDS
  • 21. DBMS Checklist
    • DBMS Model
    • Storage Capacity
    • Application Development Support
    • Security and Integrity
    • Backup and Recovery
    • Concurrency Control
    • Performance
    • DBA tools
    • Interoperability and Data Distribution
    • Portability
    • Hardware
    • Data Dictionary
    • Vendor Training and Support
    • Third Party Tools
    • Cost
  • 22. Design and Implementation
    • Determination and Enforcement of Standards and Procedures
    • Ensure the Design activities are performed within the Standards and Procedures
    • Ensure Transactions are:
      • Correct
      • Efficient
      • Compliant with Integrity and Standards
    • Physical Design
    • Operational Procedures
  • 23. Testing and Evaluation
    • All Database and End User Applications
    • Maintained Independently of Development and Implementation
    • Cover:
      • Technical Aspects
        • Backup, Recovery, Security, Integrity, SQL
      • Evaluation of Documentation
      • Observance of Standards
        • Naming, Documentation, Coding
      • Data Duplication Conflicts with existing data
      • Enforcement of Data Validation rules
  • 24. Operation of DBMS, Utilities, and Applications
    • System Support
      • Day-to-day activity of the DBMS
    • Performance monitoring and tuning
      • Performance Goals
      • Evaluate if performance objectives are being met
      • Isolate Problems and Find solutions
      • Implement solutions
    • Backup and Recovery
    • Security auditing and monitoring
      • Appropriate access rights
      • Proper use of access privileges by programmers and end users
  • 25. Training and Supporting Users
    • Technical Training in the use of DBMS and Utilities for Applications Programmers
    • Unscheduled on-demand technical support
    • Interaction with DBMS vendors
  • 26. Maintenance of DBMS
    • Dedicated to the Preservation of the DBMS environment
    • Management of the Physical or Secondary Storage devices
      • Reorganizing the physical location of the data
    • Upgrading the DBMS and Utility Software
    • Exchange of data is dissimilar formats or between database
  • 27. Database Administration Tools
    • Data Dictionary
      • Store the Description of all objects that interact with the database
        • Integrated  limited to data of DBMS
        • Standalone  Include data outside of DBMS
    • Case Tools
      • Computer Aided Software Engineering
      • Automated Framework for the SDLC
        • Front-End Tools
          • Planning, Analysis, Design
        • Back-End Tools
          • Coding and Implementation
  • 28. Data Dictionary
    • Data Elements from all tables of all databases
      • Names, Types, Format, Validation rules, When an Element is Used and by whom
    • Tables defined in the database
    • Indexes defined for each table
    • Defined databases, and properties
    • End Users and Administrators
    • Programs that access the database
    • Access Authorizations for all users
    • Relationships among data elements
  • 29. Case Tools
    • Reduction in development time and costs
    • Automation of the SDLC
    • Standardization of Systems Development Methodologies
    • Easier Maintenance of Application Systems Developed with CASE Tools
    • Components:
      • Graphics
      • Screen Painters and Report Generators
      • Repository for Storing and Cross-Referencing the System Design Data (Data Dictionary)
      • Analysis Segment for Automated Check on System Consistency, Syntax, Completeness
      • Program Documentation Generator