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  1. 1. Chapter 5 Database Processing © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Experiencing MIS , David Kroenke
  2. 2. This Could Happen to You <ul><li>Dee selected Moveable Type application program </li></ul><ul><li>Needs database program to store blog </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultant suggested MySQL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network standardized on Oracle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May not be able to run Moveable Type </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will require revision of labor estimates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IT resists installing MySQL </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Study Questions <ul><li>What is the purpose of a database? </li></ul><ul><li>What does a database contain? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a DBMS, and what does it do? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a database application? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between an enterprise and a personal DBMS? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the knowledge in this chapter help Dee? </li></ul>
  4. 4. What Is the Purpose of a Database? <ul><li>Spreadsheet and database keep track of things </li></ul><ul><li>Spreadsheets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep lists of single concept </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Databases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep lists that involve multiple themes </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. What Is a Database? <ul><li>Self-describing collection of integrated records </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy of data elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bytes are grouped into columns/fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Columns grouped into rows/records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rows are grouped into tables/files </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collection of tables plus relationships among rows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also includes metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Describes structure of database </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Relationships Among Records <ul><li>Values in one table may relate rows to those in other tables </li></ul><ul><li>Keys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Column(s) that identify unique row in table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each table has a key </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foreign keys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keys in a different table than the one in which they reside </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relational database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Databases using tables, keys, and foreign keys </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Example of Relationships Among Rows Figure 5-6
  8. 8. Metadata <ul><li>Databases are self-describing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain description of its content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metadata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data that describes data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes databases more useful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes databases easier to use </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. What Is a DBMS and What Does It Do? <ul><li>Database management system (DBMS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Program that creates, process, and administers database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually licensed from vendors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft, Oracle, MySQL, DB2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>DBMS and database are two different things </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ethics Guide: Nobody Said I Shouldn’t <ul><li>Kelly was employed maintaining servers and backing up database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made copy of database to practice with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accessed SQL Server metadata </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered tables with order data, customers, salespeople </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uncovered anomalies: one entry clerk gives a discount to a buyer that no one else was given </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentioned it to clerk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was terminated for accessing database </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. DBMS <ul><li>DBMS used to create tables, relationships in databases </li></ul><ul><li>DBMS processes database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications use DBMS to read, insert, modify, and delete data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured Query Language (SQL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>International standard for processing database </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. DBMS, continued <ul><li>DBMS provides tools to assist in administration of database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used to set up security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to back up data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add structure to improve performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove data </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. What Is a Database Application? <ul><li>Collection of forms, reports, queries, and application programs that process a database </li></ul><ul><li>Databases can have more then one application </li></ul><ul><li>Applications can have multiple users </li></ul>
  14. 14. MIS in Use: Dealing with Database Growth <ul><li>Textronix uses Oracle database to store and process financial data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>800 concurrent users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rapidly growing database caused performance to decline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One solution is to remove data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data still needed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data retention laws compound problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sarbanes-Oxley </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SEC Rule 17-A </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HIPAA </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. MIS in Use, continued <ul><li>Data Archiving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem for IS technicians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must create data archiving policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Policy must address legal requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plan must be created for implementing policy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data about open transactions must not be archived </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implement plan before performance problems arise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secure and back up data archive </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Forms, Reports, and Queries <ul><li>Forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to read, insert, modify, and delete data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show data in structured context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May compute values </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Queries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means of getting answers from database data </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Database Application Programs <ul><li>Forms, reports, and queries work for standard functions </li></ul><ul><li>Application programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process logic specific to business need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables database processing over Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serves as intermediary between Web server and database </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responds to events </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reads. inserts, modifies, deletes data </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Multi-User Processing <ul><li>Common </li></ul><ul><li>Unique problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lost-update problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locking used to coordinate activities of multiple users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creates new set of problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data conflicts produce inaccurate results </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. What Is the Difference Between an Enterprise and a Personal DBMS? <ul><li>Enterprise DBMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process large organizational and workgroup databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support many users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: DB2, SQL Server, Oracle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personal DBMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed for smaller, simpler database applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports fewer than 100 users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Access, dBase, FoxPro, Paradox, R:Base </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Opposing Forces Guide: No, Thanks, I’ll Use a Spreadsheet <ul><li>Databases take time to build </li></ul><ul><li>Complicated to operate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May require use of multiple applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need IS people to create it and keep it running </li></ul><ul><li>Will share data that you may not want to expose </li></ul><ul><li>Spreadsheets may be a better option in some cases </li></ul>
  21. 21. How Does the Knowledge in This Chapter Help Dee? <ul><li>She would know what a DBMS is and what roles it can play </li></ul><ul><li>She would understand the diagram of the role of the DBMS for her blog </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System is isolated from rest of databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses MySQL as part of functionality of her application </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Was better able to present her plan to IT </li></ul>
  22. 22. Active Review <ul><li>What is the purpose of a database? </li></ul><ul><li>What does a database contain? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a DBMS, and what does it do? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a database application? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between an enterprise and a personal DBMS? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the knowledge in this chapter help Dee? </li></ul>