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Ch05.ppt Ch05.ppt Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 5 Database Processing © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Experiencing MIS , David Kroenke
  • This Could Happen to You
    • Dee selected Moveable Type application program
    • Needs database program to store blog
      • Consultant suggested MySQL
      • Network standardized on Oracle
        • May not be able to run Moveable Type
        • Will require revision of labor estimates
      • IT resists installing MySQL
  • Study Questions
    • What is the purpose of a database?
    • What does a database contain?
    • What is a DBMS, and what does it do?
    • What is a database application?
    • What is the difference between an enterprise and a personal DBMS?
    • How does the knowledge in this chapter help Dee?
  • What Is the Purpose of a Database?
    • Spreadsheet and database keep track of things
    • Spreadsheets
      • Keep lists of single concept
    • Databases
      • Keep lists that involve multiple themes
  • What Is a Database?
    • Self-describing collection of integrated records
    • Hierarchy of data elements
      • Bytes are grouped into columns/fields
      • Columns grouped into rows/records
      • Rows are grouped into tables/files
    • Collection of tables plus relationships among rows
      • Also includes metadata
        • Describes structure of database
  • Relationships Among Records
    • Values in one table may relate rows to those in other tables
    • Keys
      • Column(s) that identify unique row in table
      • Each table has a key
    • Foreign keys
      • Keys in a different table than the one in which they reside
    • Relational database
      • Databases using tables, keys, and foreign keys
  • Example of Relationships Among Rows Figure 5-6
  • Metadata
    • Databases are self-describing
      • Contain description of its content
    • Metadata
      • Data that describes data
      • Makes databases more useful
      • Makes databases easier to use
  • What Is a DBMS and What Does It Do?
    • Database management system (DBMS)
      • Program that creates, process, and administers database
      • Usually licensed from vendors
        • Microsoft, Oracle, MySQL, DB2
    • DBMS and database are two different things
  • Ethics Guide: Nobody Said I Shouldn’t
    • Kelly was employed maintaining servers and backing up database
      • Made copy of database to practice with
        • Accessed SQL Server metadata
        • Discovered tables with order data, customers, salespeople
        • Uncovered anomalies: one entry clerk gives a discount to a buyer that no one else was given
      • Mentioned it to clerk
      • Was terminated for accessing database
  • DBMS
    • DBMS used to create tables, relationships in databases
    • DBMS processes database
      • Applications use DBMS to read, insert, modify, and delete data
      • Structured Query Language (SQL)
        • International standard for processing database
  • DBMS, continued
    • DBMS provides tools to assist in administration of database
      • Can be used to set up security
      • Used to back up data
      • Add structure to improve performance
      • Remove data
  • What Is a Database Application?
    • Collection of forms, reports, queries, and application programs that process a database
    • Databases can have more then one application
    • Applications can have multiple users
  • MIS in Use: Dealing with Database Growth
    • Textronix uses Oracle database to store and process financial data
      • 800 concurrent users
    • Rapidly growing database caused performance to decline
      • One solution is to remove data
        • Data still needed
      • Data retention laws compound problems
        • Sarbanes-Oxley
        • SEC Rule 17-A
        • HIPAA
  • MIS in Use, continued
    • Data Archiving
      • Problem for IS technicians
      • Must create data archiving policy
        • Policy must address legal requirements
        • Plan must be created for implementing policy
        • Data about open transactions must not be archived
        • Implement plan before performance problems arise
        • Secure and back up data archive
  • Forms, Reports, and Queries
    • Forms
      • Used to read, insert, modify, and delete data
    • Reports
      • Show data in structured context
      • May compute values
    • Queries
      • Means of getting answers from database data
  • Database Application Programs
    • Forms, reports, and queries work for standard functions
    • Application programs
      • Process logic specific to business need
      • Enables database processing over Internet
        • Serves as intermediary between Web server and database
        • Responds to events
        • Reads. inserts, modifies, deletes data
  • Multi-User Processing
    • Common
    • Unique problems
      • Lost-update problem
      • Locking used to coordinate activities of multiple users
        • Creates new set of problems
      • Data conflicts produce inaccurate results
  • What Is the Difference Between an Enterprise and a Personal DBMS?
    • Enterprise DBMS
      • Process large organizational and workgroup databases
      • Support many users
      • Examples: DB2, SQL Server, Oracle
    • Personal DBMS
      • Designed for smaller, simpler database applications
      • Supports fewer than 100 users
      • Examples: Access, dBase, FoxPro, Paradox, R:Base
  • Opposing Forces Guide: No, Thanks, I’ll Use a Spreadsheet
    • Databases take time to build
    • Complicated to operate
      • May require use of multiple applications
    • Need IS people to create it and keep it running
    • Will share data that you may not want to expose
    • Spreadsheets may be a better option in some cases
  • How Does the Knowledge in This Chapter Help Dee?
    • She would know what a DBMS is and what roles it can play
    • She would understand the diagram of the role of the DBMS for her blog
      • System is isolated from rest of databases
      • Uses MySQL as part of functionality of her application
    • Was better able to present her plan to IT
  • Active Review
    • What is the purpose of a database?
    • What does a database contain?
    • What is a DBMS, and what does it do?
    • What is a database application?
    • What is the difference between an enterprise and a personal DBMS?
    • How does the knowledge in this chapter help Dee?