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Chapter 3 Databases and Data Warehouses
STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>Describe business intelligence and its role in an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Differ...
STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>Define the five software components of a database management system. </li></ul><ul><li>L...
Can Companies Keep Your Personal Information Secure and Private?  <ul><li>Databases and data warehouses are organizational...
Can Companies Keep Your Personal Information Secure and Private? <ul><li>Top-10 incidents of personal information loss by ...
Can Companies Keep Your Personal Information Secure and Private? <ul><li>Have you been a victim of identity theft? </li></...
INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Businesses need business intelligence (BI) </li></ul><ul><li>Business intelligence  – knowledge about...
INTRODUCTION <ul><li>IT tools help process information to create business intelligence according to… </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
INTRODUCTION <ul><li>OLTP  – gathering and processing transaction information and updating existing information to reflect...
INTRODUCTION <ul><li>OLAP  – manipulation of information to support decision making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Databases can he...
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION <ul><li>This chapter – database and data warehouse concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Along with some privacy and sec...
RELATIONAL DATABASE MODEL <ul><li>Database  – logical collection of information you organize and access according to the l...
Databases Are…  <ul><li>Collections of information </li></ul><ul><li>Created with logical structures </li></ul><ul><li>Wit...
Databases – Collections of Information  <ul><li>Databases have many tables </li></ul><ul><li>Solomon Enterprises as a conc...
Databases – Collections of Information
Databases – Created with Logical Structures  <ul><li>In databases, row numbers are irrelevant </li></ul><ul><li>In databas...
Databases – Logical Ties within the Information  <ul><li>Logical ties must exist between the tables </li></ul><ul><li>Logi...
Databases – Logical Ties within the Information  <ul><li>Foreign key  – primary key of one file that appears in another fi...
Databases – Logical Ties within the Information
Databases – Built-in Integrity Constraints  <ul><li>Integrity constraint  – rule that helps ensure the quality of informat...
DBMS TOOLS <ul><li>Database management system (DBMS)  – helps you specify the logical organization for a database and acce...
DBMS TOOLS <ul><li>5 software components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data definition subs...
DBMS TOOLS
DBMS Engine <ul><li>DBMS engine  – accepts logical requests, converts them into their physical equivalent, and accesses th...
DBMS Engine <ul><li>Physical view  – how information is arranged, stored, and accessed on a storage device </li></ul><ul><...
Data Definition Subsystem <ul><li>Data definition subsystem  – helps you create and maintain the data dictionary and defin...
Data Manipulation Subsystem <ul><li>Data manipulation subsystem  – helps you add, change, and delete information </li></ul...
Views <ul><li>View  – allows you to see the contents of a database file </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to a spreadsheet view </...
Views
Report Generators <ul><li>Report generator  – helps you quickly define formats of reports and what information you want to...
Report Generators Specify the fields you want in a report Specify the layout of the report
Report Generators
QBE Tools <ul><li>Query-by-example (QBE) tool  – helps you graphically design the answer to a question </li></ul><ul><li>“...
QBE Tools
SQL <ul><li>Structured query language (SQL)  – standardized fourth-generation language found in most DBMSs </li></ul><ul><...
Application Generation Subsystem <ul><li>Application generation subsystem  – contains facilities to help you develop trans...
Data Administration Subsystem <ul><li>Data administration subsystem  – helps you manage the overall database environment <...
Data Administration Subsystem <ul><li>Backup and recovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodically back up information </li></ul...
Data Administration Subsystem <ul><li>Query optimization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restructure physical view to optimize respo...
Data Administration Subsystem <ul><li>Change management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the effect of structural changes to ...
DATA WAREHOUSES & DATA MINING <ul><li>Data warehouses support OLAP and decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Data warehouses d...
What Is a Data Warehouse? <ul><li>Data warehouse  – logical collection of information – gathered from operational database...
What Is a Data Warehouse?
What Is a Data Warehouse? <ul><li>Multidimensional </li></ul><ul><li>Rows and columns </li></ul><ul><li>Also layers </li><...
What Are Data-Mining Tools? <ul><li>Data-mining tools  – software tools that you use to query information in a data wareho...
What Are Data-Mining Tools?
Query-and-Reporting Tools <ul><li>Query-and-reporting tools  – similar to QBE tools, SQL, and report generators in the typ...
Intelligent Agents <ul><li>Use various AI tools such as neural networks and fuzzy logic to form the basis for “information...
Multidimensional Analysis Tools <ul><li>Multidimensional analysis (MDA) tools  – slice-and-dice techniques that allow you ...
Statistical Tools <ul><li>Help you apply various mathematical models to the information stored in a data warehouse to disc...
Data Marts <ul><li>Data warehouses are organizationwide </li></ul><ul><li>Data marts have subsets of an organizationwide d...
Data Marts
Data Mining as a Career Opportunity <ul><li>Knowledge of data mining can be a substantial career opportunity for you </li>...
Considerations in Using a Data Warehouse <ul><li>Do you need a data warehouse? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS may offer all yo...
INFORMATION OWNERSHIP <ul><li>Strategic management support </li></ul><ul><li>The sharing of information with responsibilit...
Strategic Management Support  <ul><li>Chief privacy officer (CPO)  – ensuring that information is used in an ethical way <...
Strategic Management Support  <ul><li>Data administration  – plans for, oversees the development of, and monitors the info...
The Sharing of Information with Responsibility <ul><li>If you create it, you “own” it </li></ul><ul><li>You will also shar...
Information Cleanliness  <ul><li>Database and data warehouse information must be “clean” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No errors <...
Information Cleanliness  <ul><li>Extraction, transformation, and loading (ETL)  – what information you want from each data...
CAN YOU… <ul><li>Describe business intelligence and its role in an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between d...
CAN YOU… <ul><li>Define the five software components of a database management system. </li></ul><ul><li>List and describe ...
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  1. 1. Chapter 3 Databases and Data Warehouses
  2. 2. STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>Describe business intelligence and its role in an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between databases and data warehouses with respect to their focus on OLTP and OLAP. </li></ul><ul><li>List and describe the key characteristics of a relational database. </li></ul>
  3. 3. STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>Define the five software components of a database management system. </li></ul><ul><li>List and describe the key characteristics of a data warehouse. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the four major types of data-mining tools in a data warehouse environment. </li></ul><ul><li>List key considerations in information ownership in an organization. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Can Companies Keep Your Personal Information Secure and Private? <ul><li>Databases and data warehouses are organizational repositories of information </li></ul><ul><li>Much of the information is personal </li></ul><ul><li>It must be secure </li></ul><ul><li>If hackers get your personal information, you can suffer from identity theft </li></ul>
  5. 5. Can Companies Keep Your Personal Information Secure and Private? <ul><li>Top-10 incidents of personal information loss by organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Could affect over 53 million people </li></ul><ul><li>CardSystems lost information on 40 million customers </li></ul><ul><li>Many others </li></ul>
  6. 6. Can Companies Keep Your Personal Information Secure and Private? <ul><li>Have you been a victim of identity theft? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What happened? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What did you do to recover? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How long did it take? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Businesses need business intelligence (BI) </li></ul><ul><li>Business intelligence – knowledge about your customers, competitors, business partners, environment, and internal operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables effective decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information on steroids </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>IT tools help process information to create business intelligence according to… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OLTP (online transaction processing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OLAP (online analytical processing) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>OLTP – gathering and processing transaction information and updating existing information to reflect transaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Databases support OLTP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational database – database that supports OLTP </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>OLAP – manipulation of information to support decision making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Databases can help some </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data warehouses support only OLAP, not OLTP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data warehouses – special forms of databases that support decision making </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. INTRODUCTION
  12. 12. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>This chapter – database and data warehouse concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Along with some privacy and security considerations </li></ul>
  13. 13. RELATIONAL DATABASE MODEL <ul><li>Database – logical collection of information you organize and access according to the logical structure of the information </li></ul><ul><li>Relational database – uses a series of two-dimensional tables or files to store information in the form of a database </li></ul>
  14. 14. Databases Are… <ul><li>Collections of information </li></ul><ul><li>Created with logical structures </li></ul><ul><li>With logical ties within the information </li></ul><ul><li>With built-in integrity constraints </li></ul>
  15. 15. Databases – Collections of Information <ul><li>Databases have many tables </li></ul><ul><li>Solomon Enterprises as a concrete provider. Tables include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete Type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Truck </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Databases – Collections of Information
  17. 17. Databases – Created with Logical Structures <ul><li>In databases, row numbers are irrelevant </li></ul><ul><li>In databases, columns have logical names such as Order Date and Customer Name </li></ul><ul><li>Data dictionary – contains the logical structure of the information in a database </li></ul>
  18. 18. Databases – Logical Ties within the Information <ul><li>Logical ties must exist between the tables </li></ul><ul><li>Logical ties are created with primary and foreign keys </li></ul><ul><li>Primary key – field (or group of fields in some cases) that uniquely describe each record </li></ul>
  19. 19. Databases – Logical Ties within the Information <ul><li>Foreign key – primary key of one file that appears in another file </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign keys help create relationships among tables </li></ul><ul><li>Table = file = relation (don’t confuse yourself) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Databases – Logical Ties within the Information
  21. 21. Databases – Built-in Integrity Constraints <ul><li>Integrity constraint – rule that helps ensure the quality of information </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary keys must be unique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign keys cannot be blank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales price cannot be negative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phone numbers must have an area code </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. DBMS TOOLS <ul><li>Database management system (DBMS) – helps you specify the logical organization for a database and access and use the information within a database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word processing software = document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spreadsheet software = workbook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS software = database </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. DBMS TOOLS <ul><li>5 software components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data definition subsystem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data manipulation subsystem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application generation subsystem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data administration subsystem </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. DBMS TOOLS
  25. 25. DBMS Engine <ul><li>DBMS engine – accepts logical requests, converts them into their physical equivalent, and accesses the database and data dictionary </li></ul><ul><li>DBMS engine separates the logical from the physical </li></ul>
  26. 26. DBMS Engine <ul><li>Physical view – how information is arranged, stored, and accessed on a storage device </li></ul><ul><li>Logical view – how you (knowledge worker) need to arrange and access information </li></ul><ul><li>Databases – you work only with logical views </li></ul>
  27. 27. Data Definition Subsystem <ul><li>Data definition subsystem – helps you create and maintain the data dictionary and define the structure of the files in a database </li></ul><ul><li>Must create data dictionary for a database before entering any information </li></ul>
  28. 28. Data Manipulation Subsystem <ul><li>Data manipulation subsystem – helps you add, change, and delete information </li></ul><ul><li>Primary interface between you and a database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Views </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report generators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>QBE tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SQL </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Views <ul><li>View – allows you to see the contents of a database file </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to a spreadsheet view </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Query </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Views
  31. 31. Report Generators <ul><li>Report generator – helps you quickly define formats of reports and what information you want to see in a report </li></ul><ul><li>Save report formats to use later </li></ul><ul><li>Uses a wizard interface </li></ul>
  32. 32. Report Generators Specify the fields you want in a report Specify the layout of the report
  33. 33. Report Generators
  34. 34. QBE Tools <ul><li>Query-by-example (QBE) tool – helps you graphically design the answer to a question </li></ul><ul><li>“What driver most often delivers concrete to Triple A Homes?” </li></ul>
  35. 35. QBE Tools
  36. 36. SQL <ul><li>Structured query language (SQL) – standardized fourth-generation language found in most DBMSs </li></ul><ul><li>Performs same task as QBE </li></ul><ul><li>Uses sentence structure instead </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly used by IT people </li></ul>
  37. 37. Application Generation Subsystem <ul><li>Application generation subsystem – contains facilities to help you develop transaction-intensive applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data entry screens (called forms in Access) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programming languages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mostly used by IT people </li></ul>
  38. 38. Data Administration Subsystem <ul><li>Data administration subsystem – helps you manage the overall database environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backup and recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Query optimization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concurrency control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change management </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Data Administration Subsystem <ul><li>Backup and recovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodically back up information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recover a database after a failure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who has access to what information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who can perform CRUD tasks on information </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Data Administration Subsystem <ul><li>Query optimization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restructure physical view to optimize response times to queries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concurrency control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens if two people simultaneously try to change the same information? </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Data Administration Subsystem <ul><li>Change management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the effect of structural changes to a database? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What if you add a new column? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens if you delete a column? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens if you change a column’s attributes? </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. DATA WAREHOUSES & DATA MINING <ul><li>Data warehouses support OLAP and decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Data warehouses do not support OLTP </li></ul><ul><li>Data-mining tools are tools for working with data warehouse information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS software = database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data-mining tools = data warehouse </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. What Is a Data Warehouse? <ul><li>Data warehouse – logical collection of information – gathered from operational databases – used to create business intelligence that supports business analysis activities and decision-making tasks </li></ul>
  44. 44. What Is a Data Warehouse?
  45. 45. What Is a Data Warehouse? <ul><li>Multidimensional </li></ul><ul><li>Rows and columns </li></ul><ul><li>Also layers </li></ul><ul><li>Many times called hypercubes </li></ul><ul><li>What are the dimensions in Figure 3.8 on page 97? </li></ul>
  46. 46. What Are Data-Mining Tools? <ul><li>Data-mining tools – software tools that you use to query information in a data warehouse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Query-and-reporting tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligent agents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multidimensional analysis tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistical tools </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. What Are Data-Mining Tools?
  48. 48. Query-and-Reporting Tools <ul><li>Query-and-reporting tools – similar to QBE tools, SQL, and report generators in the typical database environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also similar to pivot tables in Excel </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Intelligent Agents <ul><li>Use various AI tools such as neural networks and fuzzy logic to form the basis for “information discovery” and building BI </li></ul><ul><li>Help you find hidden patterns in information </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 4 focuses on these </li></ul>
  50. 50. Multidimensional Analysis Tools <ul><li>Multidimensional analysis (MDA) tools – slice-and-dice techniques that allow you to view multidimensional information from different perspectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bring new layers to the front </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reorganize rows and columns </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Statistical Tools <ul><li>Help you apply various mathematical models to the information stored in a data warehouse to discover new information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis of variance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And so on </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Data Marts <ul><li>Data warehouses are organizationwide </li></ul><ul><li>Data marts have subsets of an organizationwide data warehouse </li></ul><ul><li>Data mart – subset of a data warehouse in which only a focused portion of the data warehouse information is kept </li></ul>
  53. 53. Data Marts
  54. 54. Data Mining as a Career Opportunity <ul><li>Knowledge of data mining can be a substantial career opportunity for you </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SAS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informatica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many others </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Considerations in Using a Data Warehouse <ul><li>Do you need a data warehouse? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DBMS may offer all you need </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do all employees need the entire data warehouse? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider a data mart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How up-to-date must information be? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Snapshot” concept </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What data-mining tools do you need? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Training can be expensive </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. INFORMATION OWNERSHIP <ul><li>Strategic management support </li></ul><ul><li>The sharing of information with responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Information cleanliness </li></ul>
  57. 57. Strategic Management Support <ul><li>Chief privacy officer (CPO) – ensuring that information is used in an ethical way </li></ul><ul><li>Chief security officer (CSO) – ensuring security of information (e.g., firewalls) </li></ul><ul><li>Chief information officer (CIO) – oversees every aspect of an organization’s information resource </li></ul>
  58. 58. Strategic Management Support <ul><li>Data administration – plans for, oversees the development of, and monitors the information resource </li></ul><ul><li>Database administration – responsible for the more technical aspects and operational aspects of managing information </li></ul><ul><li>Both often report to the CIO </li></ul>
  59. 59. The Sharing of Information with Responsibility <ul><li>If you create it, you “own” it </li></ul><ul><li>You will also share it with others </li></ul><ul><li>Because you “own” it, you are responsible for its quality </li></ul>
  60. 60. Information Cleanliness <ul><li>Database and data warehouse information must be “clean” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No duplicates </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Information Cleanliness <ul><li>Extraction, transformation, and loading (ETL) – what information you want from each database, how the information is associated, and what rules to follow in consolidating the information to ensure its cleanliness in a data warehouse </li></ul>
  62. 62. CAN YOU… <ul><li>Describe business intelligence and its role in an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between databases and data warehouses with respect to their focus on OLTP and OLAP. </li></ul><ul><li>List and describe the key characteristics of a relational database. </li></ul>
  63. 63. CAN YOU… <ul><li>Define the five software components of a database management system. </li></ul><ul><li>List and describe the key characteristics of a data warehouse. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the four major types of data-mining tools in a data warehouse environment. </li></ul><ul><li>List key considerations in information ownership in an organization. </li></ul>
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