บทที่3 Data Resource Management
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  • 1. Data Resource Management 3
  • 2. Learning Objectives
    • Explain the importance of implementing data resource management processes and technologies in an organization.
    • Understand the advantages of a database management approach to managing the data resources of a business.
    3
  • 3.
    • Explain how database management software helps business professionals and supports the operations and management of a business.
    • Illustrate each of the following concepts:
      • Major types of databases
      • Data warehouses and data mining
      • Logical data elements
      • Fundamental database structures
      • Database access methods
      • Database development
    Learning Objectives (continued) 3
  • 4. Section I
    • Managing Data Resources
    3
  • 5. Data Resource Management
    • A managerial activity
    • Applies information systems technology to managing data resources to meet needs of business stakeholders.
    3
  • 6.
    • Logical Data Elements
    Foundation Data Concepts 3
  • 7.
    • Levels of data
      • Character
        • Single alphabetical, numeric, or other symbol
      • Field
        • Groupings of characters
        • Represents an attribute of some entity
    3 Foundation Data Concepts (continued)
  • 8. Foundation Data Concepts (continued)
      • Records
        • Related fields of data
        • Collection of attributes that describe an entity
        • Fixed-length or variable-length
    3
  • 9.
      • Files (table)
        • A group of related records
        • Classified by
          • Primary use
          • Type of data
          • permanence
    Foundation Data Concepts (continued) 3
  • 10.
      • Database
        • Integrated collection of logically related data elements
        • Consolidates records into a common pool of data elements
        • Data is independent of the application program using them and type of storage device
    Foundation Data Concepts (continued) 3
  • 11. Types of Databases
    • Operational
      • Supports business processes and operations
      • Also called subject-area databases, transaction databases, and production databases
    3
  • 12. Types of Databases (continued)
    • Distributed
      • Replicated and distributed copies or parts of databases on network servers at a variety of sites.
      • Done to improve database performance and security
    3
  • 13.
    • External
      • Available for a fee from commercial sources or with or without charge on the Internet or World Wide Web
    • Hypermedia
      • Hyperlinked pages of multimedia
    3 Types of Databases (continued)
  • 14. Data Warehouses and Data Mining
    • Data warehouse
      • Stores data extracted from operational, external, or other databases of an organization
      • Central source of “structured” data
      • May be subdivided into data marts
    3
  • 15. Data Warehouses and Data Mining (continued)
    • Data mining
      • A major use of data warehouse databases
      • Data is analyzed to reveal hidden correlations, patterns, and trends
    3
  • 16. Database Management Approach
    • Consolidates data records and objects into databases that can be accessed by many different application programs
    3
  • 17. Database Management Approach (continued)
    • Database Management System
      • Software interface between users and databases
      • Controls creation, maintenance, and use of the database
    3
  • 18. 3 Database Management Approach (continued)
  • 19.
    • Database Interrogation
      • Query
        • Supports ad hoc requests
        • Tells the software how you want to organize the data
        • SQL queries
        • Graphical (GUI) & natural queries
    3 Database Management Approach (continued)
  • 20.
      • Report Generator
        • Turns results of query into a useable report
    • Database Maintenance
      • Updating and correcting data
    3 Database Management Approach (continued)
  • 21.
    • Application Development
      • Data manipulation language
      • Data entry screens, forms, reports, or web pages
    3 Database Management Approach (continued)
  • 22. Implementing Data Resource Management
    • Database Administration
      • Develop and maintain the data dictionary
      • Design and monitor performance of databases
      • Enforce database use and security standards
    3
  • 23. Implementing Data Resource Management (continued)
    • Data Planning
      • Corporate planning and analysis function
      • Developing the overall data architecture
    3
  • 24.
    • Data Administration
      • Standardize collection, storage, and dissemination of data to end users
      • Focused on supporting business processes and strategic business objectives
      • May include developing policy and setting standards
    3 Implementing Data Resource Management (continued)
  • 25.
    • Challenges
      • Technologically complex
      • Vast amounts of data
      • Vulnerability to fraud, errors, and failures
    3 Implementing Data Resource Management (continued)
  • 26. Section II
    • Technical Foundations of Database Management
    3
  • 27. Database Structures
    • Hierarchical
      • Treelike
      • One-to-many relationship
      • Used for structured, routine types of transaction processing
    3
  • 28. Database Structures (continued)
    • Network
      • More complex
      • Many-to-many relationship
      • More flexible but doesn’t support ad hoc requests well
    3
  • 29.
    • Relational
      • Data elements stored in simple tables
      • Can link data elements from various tables
      • Very supportive of ad hoc requests but slower at processing large amounts of data than hierarchical or network models
    3 Database Structures (continued)
  • 30.
    • Multi-Dimensional
      • A variation of the relational model
      • Cubes of data and cubes within cubes
      • Popular for online analytical processing (OLAP) applications
    3 Database Structures (continued)
  • 31. 3 Database Structures (continued)
  • 32.
    • Object-oriented
      • Key technology of multimedia web-based applications
      • Good for complex, high-volume applications
    3 Database Structures (continued)
  • 33. 3 Database Structures (continued)
  • 34. Accessing Databases
    • Key fields (primary key)
      • A field unique to each record so it can be distinguished from all other records in a table
    3
  • 35. Accessing Databases (continued)
    • Sequential access
      • Data is stored and accessed in a sequence according to a key field
      • Good for periodic processing of a large volume of data, but updating with new transactions can be troublesome
    3
  • 36.
    • Direct access
      • Methods
        • Key transformation
        • Index
        • Indexed sequential access
    3 Accessing Databases (continued)
  • 37. Database Development
    • Data dictionary
      • Directory containing metadata (data about data)
        • Structure
        • Data elements
        • Interrelationships
        • Information regarding access and use
        • Maintenance & security issues
    3
  • 38. Database Development (continued)
    • Data Planning & Database Design
      • Planning & Design Process
        • Enterprise model
        • Entity relationship diagrams (ERDs)
        • Data modeling
          • Develop logical framework for the physical design
    3
  • 39. Discussion Questions
    • How should an e-business enterprise store, access, and distribute data & information about their internal operations & external environment?
    • What roles do database management, data administration, and data planning play in managing data as a business resource?
    3
  • 40. Discussion Questions (continued)
    • What are the advantages of a database management approach to organizing, accessing, and managing an organization’s data resources?
    • What is the role of a database management system in an e-business information system?
    3
  • 41.
    • Databases of information about a firm’s internal operations were formerly the only databases that were considered to be important to a business. What other kinds of databases are important for a business today?
    • What are the benefits and limitations of the relational database model for business applications?
    3 Discussion Questions (continued)
  • 42.
    • Why is the object-oriented database model gaining acceptance for developing applications and managing the hypermedia databases at business websites?
    • How have the Internet, intranets, extranets, and the World Wide Web affected the types and uses of data resources available to business end users?
    3 Discussion Questions (continued)
  • 43. References
    • James A. O'Brien; George M. Marakas. Management Information Systems: Managing Information Technology in the Business Enterprise 6th Ed., Boston: McGraw-Hill/ Irwin ,2004
    3