Social Psychologists :
McGregor (theory X and theory Y)
Maslow- developed a seminal theory of the
needs of human beings.
Herberg and McGregor- both focus on
motivation and leadership.
Focus on human motivation:
1. This psychologist proposed a hierarchy of human needs
building from basic needs at the base to higher needs at the
2. Maslow made assumptions that people need
to satisfy each level of need, before Self-
elevating their needs to the next Actualization
Theory X Theory Y
(essentially “scientific” mgt)
Lazy Like working
Avoid responsibility Accept/ seek
Therefore need control/coercion Need space to
Schein type: “rational economic man” Schein type: “self-
Herzberg showed two categories of findings:
Motivators- factors giving rise to satisfaction
Hygiene factors- factors giving rise to dissatisfaction
Important Motivators Important Hygiene
Achievement Company policy
Recognition Supervision- technical
Work itself Salary
Responsibility Interpersonal relations-
Advancement Working conditions
-described „new patterns of management‟ based on the
behaviors of managers.
Four Main Patterns:
Exploitative- power and direction come from the top
Benevolent- allows some upward opportunities for
Consultative- goals are set or orders issued after
discussion with subordinates
Participative- organization is in a cooperative way.
- studied that classical models of organization promoted
Characteristics of Employee
Dependence Relevance independence
Behave in a few ways Behave in many ways
Erratic, shallow interests Deeper interests
Short time perspective Long time perspective
Subordinate position Equal or superior position
Lack of awareness of self Awareness and self-
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