The leader's ability to lead is contingent upon
various situational factors, including the
leader's preferred style, the capabilities and
behaviors of followers and also various other
Contingency theories are a class of
behavioral theory that contend that there is
no one best way of leading and that a
leadership style that is effective in some
situations may not be successful in others.
An effect of this is that leaders who are very
effective at one place and time may become
unsuccessful either when transplanted to
another situation or when the factors around
This helps to explain how some leaders who
seem for a while to have the 'Midas touch'
suddenly appear to go off the boil and make
very unsuccessful decisions.
Historically, contingency theory has sought to
formulate broad generalizations about the
formal structures that are typically associated
with or best fit the use of different
The perspective originated with the work
of Joan Woodward (1958), who argued that
technologies directly determine differences in
such organizational attributes as span of
control, centralization of authority, and the
formalization of rules and procedures.
Contingency theory is similar
to situational theory in that there is an
assumption of no simple one right way.
The main difference is that situational
theory tends to focus more on the
behaviors that the leader should adopt,
given situational factors (often about
follower behavior), whereas contingency
theory takes a broader view that includes
contingent factors about leader capability
and other variables within the situation.
They suggested that previous theories
as Weber's bureaucracy and Taylor's scien
tific management had failed because they
neglected that management style and
organizational structure were influenced
by various aspects of the environment: the
contingency factors. There could not be
"one best way" for leadership or
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