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# Science 4th

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### Science 4th

1. 1. Assignment 1Longitude and LatitudeThe latitude specifies a locations distance north or south of the equator. The longitude specifies thelocations distance east or west from an imaginary line connecting the North and South Poles, called thePrime Meridian.Latitude and longitude are used together to specify the geographical coordinates of a location on Earth.Latitudes, represented by the Greek letter phi (Φ), are called parallels and longitudes, denoted by theGreek letter lambda (λ), are called meridians. Latitude LongitudeDirection: East-west, parallel to the North-south; converging at the equator poles and widest at the equatorRange: 0 to 90° North and South 0 to 180° East and West Locations that share the same All locations on the sameTime zone: latitude do not necessarily fall longitude fall in the same time into the same time zone zoneParallel lines: Yes NoDenoted by: Greek letter phi (Φ) Greek letter lambda (λ) All locations along a common Locations along a commonHemisphere: latitude fall in the same longitude may be in different hemisphere of the earth hemispheres. (northern or southern)Denotes distance from: equator (north or south) Prime Meridian (east or west)Latitude and longitude values on earth
2. 2. Latitude and longitude are both measured in degrees, minutes and seconds. There are 60 minutes ineach degree and 60 seconds in each minute.Values for longitude range from 0 (for the Prime Meridian) to 180 degrees. They are denoted by theletters E or W to represent direction. Alternatively, positive values may be used east of the PrimeMeridian and negative in the west.They range from 0 (for the Equator) to 90 (for the north and south poles). Latitudes are not only parallelbut equidistant; degrees of latitudes are all roughly 69 miles apart. Values for latitude are positive in theNorthern hemisphere and negative for the Southern hemisphere. Alternatively, the letters N and S maybe used to denote the location.The reason longitudes range from 0 to 180 and latitudes from 0 to 90 will become clear if you watch thisvideo about how they are measured.The Prime Meridian passes through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, UK. Meridians are drawn insuch a way that at the equator, the angle between the lines connecting both meridians to the center ofthe earth is one degree.The latitude of a location is measured by observing the inclination of the sun or the position of knownstars in the sky and calculating the angular distance from the horizon to them.Arctic Circle: 66° 33′ 39″ NTropic of Cancer: 23° 26′ 21″ NTropic of Capricorn: 23° 26′ 21″ SAntarctic Circle: 66° 33′ 39" SThe region between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn is called the tropics. It is a regioncharacterized by hot and humid climate. The sun is directly overhead at noon only in the tropics. Theregion between the tropics and the Arctic or Antarctic circles is called the Temperate zone and ischaracterized by four distinct seasons.During the winter solstice (December), the sun is directly overhead the Tropic of Capricorn and theregion south of the Antarctic circle experiences 24 hours of daylight. At the same time, the region northof the Arctic circle experiences 24 hours of night time. The situation is reversed during the summersolstice when the sun is directly overhead the Tropic of Cancer.The most important longitudes are the Prime Meridian (0°) and the International Date Line (180°). Theyare at opposite sides of the Earth. The International Date Line marks the place where each day officiallybegins. So at the International Date Line, the west side of the line is always one day ahead of the east
3. 3. side. This is because the direction of rotation of the Earth is west to east. The Prime Meridian marks thelocation for the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) or Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). Other time zonesare denoted with offsets (positive or negative) from GMT/UTC.In everyday life, the longitude for a location can be approximated using the time difference betweenthat location and UTC. The sun moves across the sky at a rate of 15 degrees per hour (360°/day). So ifthe time zone is three hours ahead of UTC then that location is near 45° longitude (3 hours × 15° perhour = 45°). Longitudes converge at the Poles so calculations that are accurate for other positions maybe inaccurate at the Poles.Summary:1. Longitude refers to the long lines on the globe or a map between the poles while Latitude is used torefer to the lateral lines on the globe stretching between east and west.2. Longitudes stretch from 0 to 180 degrees while Latitude stretches from 0 to 90 degrees.3. The Latitudes are denoted technically by the symbol ‘phi’ (Î¦) while the Longitudes are denoted by thesymbol ‘lambda’ (Î»).4. The Longitude of a place would normally determine its time zone while the Latitude would actuallydetermine the climate and the weather of the region.  0 degree latitude is called Equator and 0 degree longitude is called Prime MeridianInternational DatelineThe International Date Line (IDL), also known as just the Date Line, is an imaginary line on the surface ofthe Earth. The International Date Line sits on the 180º line of longitude in the middle of the PacificOcean, and is the imaginary line that separates two consecutive calendar days.It is not a perfectly straight line and has been moved slightly over the years to accommodate needs ofvaried countries in the Pacific Ocean. Note how it bends to include all of Kiribati in the EasternHemisphere.While the world is divided into 24 time zones, there has to be a place where there is a difference in days,somewhere the day truly "starts" on the planet. Thus, the 180° line of longitude, exactly one-half wayaround the planet from Greenwich, England and 0° longitude is approximately where the InternationalDate Line is located. Cross the line from the east to the west and a day is added. Cross from west to theeast and a day is subtracted.
4. 4. Without the International Date Line, people who travel west around the planet would discover thatwhen they returned home, it would seem as though an extra day had passed. This situation actuallyhappened to Magellans crew when they returned home after their circumnavigation of the earth.The International Date Line (IDL) is an imaginary line of longitude on the Earth’s surface located at about180 degrees east (or west) of the Greenwich Meridian.The date line is shown as an uneven black vertical line in the Time Zone Map above and marks the dividewhere the date changes by one day. It makes some deviations from the 180-degree meridian to avoiddividing countries in two, especially in the Polynesia region.The time difference between either sides of the International Date Line is not always exactly 24 hoursbecause of local time zone variations.PhilippinesIn the southwest Pacific Ocean, off the coast of mainland Asia - south of Taiwan and north of Indonesia /Borneo Island, west of the Mariana Islands.Specifically, the Philippines is located between 116° 40, and 126° 34 E. longitude and 4° 40 and 21° 10N. latitude and borders the Philippine Sea on the east, the South China Sea on the west, and the CelebesSea on the south.